How many volts does a light bulb take?

Light bulbs are made according to where they will be used and what voltage is generally available for that location. In a house, 120 volts is the standard, so household bulbs are designed to work with 120 volts.
A car however is almost always designed to use 12 volts. Therefore, that needs 12 volts.
There are other more odd applications that require 24 v. ,36 v. , 5 v. etc.
Bottom line, use a bulb that matches what ever it is in and it will light.