How much is excessive blow by in a 5.9L cummins?

You need a blowby tool.

The Cummins blowby orifice tool is simply a tee with one .221" (15/64-in) outlet. Connect one end of the tee to the end of the blowby tube. Put a manometer on last tee outlet. That is your blowby tool. They sell them at the Cummins, but I have made my own plenty of times, less than $10. A simple manometer can be made by looping into a 'U' 6 feet of clear tubing with water in it half way. Measure how high the water level rises with a tape measure, multiply it by 2, convert it to LPMs.

Rough conversion is 1"= 27 lpm, add 3 lpm for each one inch (1/2'' of rise in the tube) of water

The reason for multiplying by 2 is that inches of water equals the water rise in the open end of the tube plus the inches the water is pushed down on the engine side of the water tube. For simplicity my numbers below are the measurement of rise only.

Cummins new 5.9 engine numbers are:

63 liters per minute(2.5" water rise) @ 2200rpm,

76 L/Min (3.5" rise) @ 2500rpm

85 L/Min (4.5" rise) @ 2800rpm.

Worn engine that needs rebuilding are roughly double i.e.

126 L/Min(10.5"rise) @ 2200rpm

152 L/Min(14.5"rise) @ 2500rpm

170 L/Min(17"rise) @ 2800 rpm

Beside indicating a compression problem the valves could also be out of adjustment.

Another way (mine), same idea, is to block the blowby tube with a 1/2'' pipe nipple with a cap that has a 15/64 hole drilled in it. Use 3/8'' id looped clear tubing with water in it slipped over the oil dipstick tube. Other tubing end remains open. Use a sharp tipped felt marker to mark the water level with the engine off, have a helper start an already warmed up engine and run the rpms up to 2.2, 2.5 & 2.8k rpms. Mark each water level with the pen, measure the distance from engine off mark then multiply each by 2.

This is all very simple to do, just hard to explain with words.