Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
How often does autism result in mental retardation?
What is the difference between autism and mental retardation?
Mental Retardation is basically having an IQ below 70, Autism is a mental disorder that causes social difficulties etc, but many people with autism have an IQ well above 100. Mental retardation is a catch-all term that refers to people who fall outside the norm in skills that we all take for granted, and who usually need some sort of supervision or assistance in coping with daily life. People with autism have a neurological disorder that is not yet completely understood. It affects the way they relate to the world, but not necessarily their ability to learn to function in it. In fact, the insights that come from their unique viewpoints have proven in some cases to be extremely valuable Mental Retardation is still a co-morbid of autism, so they often come together, but they're also many autistics are the oppesit of Mentally Retarded.
What is usually the cause of profound mental retardation?
Mental retardation caused by what disorders is often apparent from infancy?
How does mild mental retardation compare to profound mental retardation?
Is mental retardation the same as mental disorders?
When are cases of mild retardation often discovered?
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Autism, Down Syndrome
What is the difference between autism and Down syndrome?
Autism - A pervasive developmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in social interaction and communication, by an extremely limited range of activities and interests, and often by the presence of repetitive, stereotyped behaviors. Down Syndrome - A congenital disorder, caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome, in which the affected person has mild to moderate mental retardation, short stature, and a flattened facial profile. There is a physical difference between Autism and Down Syndrome as well.
Does Mental retardation require psychiatric treatment?
Mental Retardation is actually considered a developmental disorder and has recently been changed to the term "IDD" (Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities). The answer to your questions is "yes." Of course, mental retardation can be mild, moderate, or severe. I often have a visual for parents and caregivers to understand mental retardation or IDD better. Think of Down Syndrome as being at the very top of a scale, Severe MR or IDD following, Moderate IDD or MR, and then Mild IDD or MR. In cases of severe MR or Down Syndrome, psychiatric treatment may be required, especially if the individual sufferer struggles with impulse control, delusions or hallucinations, poor mood regulation, improper boundaries, or oppositional behaviors.
What are the IQ levels for mental retardation?
According to the original definitions, from Lewis Terman (1916): Over 140 - Genius or near genius 120 - 140 - Very superior intelligence 110 - 119 - Superior intelligence 90 - 109 - Normal or average intelligence 80 - 89 - Dullness 70 - 79 - Borderline deficiency Under 70 - Definite feeble-mindedness (bullet points quoted from http://wilderdom.com/intelligence/IQWhatScoresMean.html, accessed on Feb 9, 2010) Wikipedia provides a more recent breakdown of the "Under 70" category, as follows, under their article on Mental retardation (accessed on Feb 9, 2010): 70-79 - Borderline Intellectual Functioning 50-69 - Mild mental retardation 35-49 - Moderate mental retardation 20-34 - Severe mental retardation Under 20 - Profound mental retardation Note that there are many reasons for low IQ ratings and it is often more useful to have a professional determine what those reasons are and try to help counteract them. Low IQ simply means there is a mental deficiency; the standard tests don't do anything for pointing out what that deficiency is or how it can be addressed.
Asked in Health
What is coarse facies?
Facies are your facial expressions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facies), which can indicate conditions such as Williams syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Williams_syndrome) and other forms of mental retardation. Coarse facies, in particular, are often associated with mental retardation. Coarse facies simply means that the facial expressions are coarse, which could represent congenital hypothyroidism (http://bdoza.blogspot.com/2008/12/casecongenital-hypothyroidism.html) or spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v13/n5/fig_tab/5201339f1.html). Coarse facies, while often associated with mental retardation, is not the sole indicator, however, and other tests should be run as well.
What is the characteristics of borderline mental retardation?
An average IQ score is 100. A score under 70 is considered mental retardation. Borderline mental retardation is generally around 70-85 - high enough not to be considered mentally retarded, but just barely. In general, the characteristics are similar to mild mental retardation (50-70 IQ) but milder. The person may have difficulty learning in school. In adulthood, most can hold down a job that isn't highly intellectual, and they'll probably be able to live independently. Borderline mental retardation is more significant when combined with other disabilities such as ADHD or learning disabilities. Since their overall skills are somewhat lower, any additional condition will send specific areas into the impaired range. So for example if a person with an IQ of 78 had a 20 point discrepancy in verbal versus performance IQ (which is often seen in specific learning disabilities such as dyslexia or nonverbal learning disability), the lower score will be in the mild mental retardation range. In addition, they have a harder time learning compensatory strategies, such as memorizing words if you struggle with decoding, that other people with similar disabilities can use.
Asked in Pregnancy, Pregnancy Symptoms, Biology
What would happen to a child if his or her mother heavily drank while she was pregnant with him or her for the first three weeks?
What are the four forms of autism in the autism spectrum?
Pervasive developmental disorders, often known as autism spectrum disorders, include the following conditions. autism Asperger's Syndrome (AS) pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) Rett Syndrome childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) Sometimes, the term autism spectrum disorder refers only to autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and PDD-NOS. It has been mentioned that in future editions, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) will remove Asperger's Syndrome as a separate condition, including it under autism. Some of these conditions can be known by alternate terms: Autism can also be referred to as Kanner syndrome, early infantile autism, or childhood autism. Asperger's Syndrome might be the same as high-functioning autism. Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified can also be called atypical autism.
Asked in Conditions and Diseases, Autism
What are the main features of autism?
Autism is a neurological condition, which means one feature of autism is a brain that is a little different than the brain of a person who does not have autism. Other features of autism are: impairment in social interactions, including inability to make friends impairment in or atypical use of language restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (some of which are referred to as stimming) preoccupation with special interests which can involve memorizing every fact they can find about a topic (and can be parts of things such as tires instead of vehicles) difficulty understanding and using nonverbal language insistence on specific routines or rituals, becoming stressed when they are disrupted often sensory integration disorder often retardation, but greater occurrence of savantism than in those without autism lack of imagination, at least in early years There are more features of autism, but these are common ones.
Are autism and Asperger's Syndrome often misdiagnosed?
Asked in Autism
Why can't you cure autism?
You can't cure autism because autism is not a disease or an illness. Autism is a neurological difference, a variation in human kind, we are born autistic just like people are born neurotypical. As Autism is neurological the only way to get rid of it would be to change a persons brain, literally changing an entire person. This is not only impossible but would be unethical, when people talk about a 'cure' what they often mean is genetic testing to remove autism from the gene pool - this is known as eugenics, it's highly unethical and hopefully never happens.