How stable is burning photos onto blu-ray is it more stable storage than DVD?
This is an interesting question you pose, and is one that has been widely studied over the last 50 years. The structural differences between RNA and DNA are well understood, though there is still some debate surrounding the dominant energetics underlying these nucleic acid interactions. This i…s a complicated issue, and in the interest of brevity Iæ¦ assuming you have some general knowledge that Iæ£l skip over. To address the differences in thermostability, we have to understand the chemical and structural differences of DNA versus RNA then the energetic consequences of these differences. First, let us address the problem of helix formation; both RNA and DNA have comparable folding mechanisms, that is the formation of base pairing interactions with a second strand (or same-strand in the case of hairpin formation), which (1) involves hydrogen-bond formation between opposing strands, (2) stacking of base pairs on top of one another, (3) reducing conformational freedom of the phosphodiester backbone. The first component, base-pairing through hydrogen-bonding interactions may not be an important factor in comparing DNA versus RNA. In terms of the individual purines and pyrimidines, the only difference is found in comparing uracil with thymine (which bears a 5ï¿½ methyl group lacking in uracil). This is known to contribute only a small fraction of the total energy of base-pairing, adding slightly MORE energy to a DNA dA:dT base pair compared to an RNA A:U base pair. We can ignore this as the primary source of the high relative thermostability of RNA. The second and third components are interlinked, since itæ¯ the conformation of the phosphodiester backbone that ultimately determines the relative orientation of one plane of paired nucleotide bases relative to the nearest neighbor base pairs. For a given nucleotide in either a DNA or RNA strand, there are no fewer than 6 degrees of freedom (rotatable bonds), counting two for each phosphate-oxygen, one to the C5ï¿½ carbon, one between C5ï¿½ and C4ï¿½, one between the C3ï¿½ and the oxygen on the phosphate of the next nucleotide (thatæ¯ five), and finally rotation of the purine/pyridine base relative to the C1ï¿½ of the ribose or deoxyribose sugar. In the case of non-base paired, single-stranded RNA or DNA, all six of these bonds are freely rotatable which makes these polymers extremely flexible. In order to become double-stranded, every nucleotide must adopt a single æreferredï¿½ conformation, which requires that all six of these rotatable bonds be fixed into a single orientation. This is a VERY unfavorable process in terms of the energetics of forming a double-stranded DNA or RNA, but is largely the same process for both molecules. The only other major difference between RNA and DNA is the detailed shape of the double-helix, A-form for RNA and predominantly B-form for DNA (please refer to your textbooks or to any of the references below for additional detail). RNA has never been observed to take on a B double-helix; the presence of that 2ï¿½-OH almost exclusively locks the ribose into a 3ï¿½-endo chair conformation, eliminating the possibility of a stable B-helix. However, the deoxyribose sugar may alternate between 2ï¿½-endo and 3ï¿½-endo conformations, allowing DNA to switch between B-form and A-form under the right circumstances. Note that hybrids of DNA:RNA (one strand of each in a double-helix) adopt an A-form conformation. (To better understand the differences in allowable sugar puckers, you might wish to return to your organic chemistry ball-and-stick models). The B-form of DNA (in the presence of physiological Na+ or K+) is found at high relative humidity; large numbers of water molecules are tightly bound (to the tune of almost 1:1 water/nucleotide). By comparison, it has been shown that A-form RNA and A-form DNA both are dehydrated somewhat; measurements of 75% the number of tightly bound water molecules compared to B-form DNA are commonly cited. There is a distinct difference between tightly bound water and bulk solvent that will have profound energetic consequences. In fact, by putting DNA into a dehydrating medium (such as low salt and high concentrations of ethanol), one can drive the interconversion of B-form DNA into A-form. Curiously, high salt (>2.5 M NaCl) and high concentrations of ethanol will drive B-form to Z-form (a left-handed helix) for DNA, and at elevated temperatures for RNA as well. The source of these effects are largely Coulombic (charge-charge interactions) in nature, having to do with the unfavorable interactions between adjacent phosphates on the backbone and the ability of solvent composition to diminish (high salt/high humidity) or maximize (low salt/low humidity) these unfavorable interactions, the details of which are unapproachably complicated for our discussion. There are important structural differences between A-form and B-form helices that we must consider, notably in the diameter of the duplex, the number of base pairs per turn, the tilt of paired bases relative to the helical axis, and the solvent accessibility of major and minor grooves. Of these factors, it is the relative orientation and overlap of nearest-neighbor base pairing interactions that, though only subtly different, have contribute to the observed differences in thermostability of RNA and DNA. Iæ³e touched on a few important driving forces governing the transition between duplex and single-stranded nucleic acids, and some of the potential STRUCTURAL differences in these interactions between RNA and DNA. In terms of the relevant energetic contributions, the stacking of base pairs, one above the other, plus the hydrogen bonds between bases provide the stabilizing enthalpy of the helix, adding substantial energy stabilizing the duplex when summed over the length of the DNA/RNA. Both cross-strand and same-strand van der Waals interactions among bases are important; the magnitude of these favorable interactions are slightly different for RNA (more stable) than for DNA; these small differences become large when summed over many base pairs. The charged phosphate groups repel one another by Coulombæ¯ law of repulsion between like charges, an enthalpically unfavorable interaction. As mentioned above, the formation of a double-helix results in a significant reduction in the conformational degrees of freedom, which is entropically unfavorable in an equally big way, and are also subtly different in A-form versus B-form. In total, the single-strand to double-strand transition for both DNA and RNA is enthalpically favors the helix and entropically favors single-stranded conformation. For RNA, deltaH ~ 40 kJ mol-1/base pair and deltaS ~ 105 J K-1 mol-1/base pair (note the entropy is a function of temperature). For DNA, deltaH ~ 35 kJ mol-1/base pair and deltaS ~ 90 J K-1 mol-1/base pair. These are VERY large and OPPOSITE driving forces. In terms of the free energy, the balance of these interactions, we observed a higher melting temperature of RNA relative to the same sequence in DNA under normal conditions. The dominant source of this slightly higher energy for RNA is generally attributed to modestly better base-stacking energy in the A-form conformation. The precise nature of the molecular driving forces remain an active area of research. Experimentally, one observes very little difference in thermostability between RNA:DNA double-helix compared to an all RNA double-helix, consistent with the theory that the source of thermostability is due largely the result of A-form versus B-form conformational differences, not strictly differences in ribose versus deoxyribose chemistry. ( Full Answer )
Liberia is not save at all. The current government is creating more fear in its citizens and human rights abuses are ever increasing. The administration focuse on self proclaim success which is never seen. Only the ruling party enjoy freedom while other who are uposition to the government are intimi…dated. Liberia is more and more like what it was during Taylor government. Another thing is that, The current president was the one that engineered the war so she still have the method of ruling by force and intimidation. This kind of lawless way of ruling creates more problems in societies than solving them. ( Full Answer )
Because when many elements become ions, by losing or gaining electrons, they are left with 8 electrons, like the noble gases, so this makes them much more stable. This is true for many elements, but not all.
If you are referring to a phenoxide ion when you say "phenol ion." I can help you. It all has to do with the delocalisation of the negative charge. To be clear, in the phenoxide ion, oxygen is the center of highest electron density. Because oxygen has a lone pair of electrons that can transfer to th…e nearest carbon, phenoxide ion can must be described by resonance. Subsequently, the delocalisation of the electrons makes the phenoxide ion than stable. ( Full Answer )
A saturated solution is more stable than a super saturated one. The reason for this is because the super saturated solution has an extra amount of solute. If you tap, poke, shake or put anything else in the supersaturated solution, the extra solute (that was used to reach super saturation) will cr…ystallize. Hope this helped! ( Full Answer )
becoz in benzene positive charge keeps on rotating in the ring that is resonance occurs ,hence its more stable than simple cyclohexane.
Since all storage devices are hardware and are therefore vulnerableto the unpredictability of mechanical or electronic devicefailures. The closest approximation to stable storage are databasesystems that write data to multiple storage devices at the sametime. If one device crashes, the data is still… available fromanother device. ( Full Answer )
Elements which are "metals" - meaning that they have excess electrons that can flow from atom to atom, and elements that are halogens, meaning that they lack only one electron to have a full electron shell, are both more stable as ions than as neutral elements. Sodium, for example, has one "extra" …electron which is weakly bound; chlorine is a halogen which has space for one extra electron. Sodium Chloride will bind very well as "common table salt". Chemistry joke: Two Lithium atoms are walking down the sidewalk, and one trips and falls. The other atom asks, "Are you OK?" The atom that had fallen said "No, I've lost an electron!" The other atom asked "Are you sure?" "Yes!" said that fallen atom. "I'm Positive!". ( Full Answer )
bcoz its reagent is more stable n it doest give any false n negative result
It is carbon dioxide that is more stable than sugar. Sugar, which is a general term for several different larger molecules composed of carbon chains, will decompose when heated. This is just one example of the relative instability of sugar when compared to carbon dioxide.
Yes, Ions are more stable than atoms due to the gain of electrons which gives them a full shell.
In Ferric ion there are 5 electrons in 'd' orbitals so 'd' is half filled which is stable electronic configuration in Ferrous ion 'd' orbitals have 6 electrons.
Collector current and emitter current are related by I c = Î± I e with Î± â 1, so increase in emitter current with temperature is opposed, and operating point is kept stable. Similarly, if the transistor is replaced by another, there may be a change in I C (corresponding to change in …Î²-value, for example). By similar process as above, the change is negated and operating point kept stable ( Full Answer )
have you ever seen videos of a hydrogen bomb that's why lol. but you don't use pure oxygen cause that's poisonous and extremely flammable you use air which is (70% nitrogen, 29% oxygen 1% etc..
Aromatic compounds are resonance stabilized. Hence if a compound is aromatic it is more stable. The main thing to note here is that AROMATICITY GIVES STABILITY TO A COMPOUND. Therefore cyclopropene is an aromatic compound and hence is more stable than propene.
Lets first take the case of the d3 compound. The no.of orbitals inthe 3d shell is 5. If three electrons occupy three orbitals thenthere are two free orbitals.Therefore According to Valence bondtheory the six water ligands will use the two inner d orbitals theouter s and the p orbitals to form an inn…er orbital complex withhybrisation d2sp3. In the second case we have the d5 compund. Since there are fiveelectrons in the d subshell the five electrons singly occupy allthe five d orbitals. Here 's where the concept of the weak ligandcomes in. Since water is a weak ligand it cannot force pairing ofthe unpaired d electrons to make room for an inner orbital complex.Thus it has to use the outer d orbital to form an outer orbitalcomplex with hybridisation of sp3d2. Since the Inner orbital (low spin) complex is more stable than theouter orbital (high spin) complex. Thus d3 configuration is morestable than d5 configuration in aqueous medium. ( Full Answer )
It has the last electron to fill the p-subshell. Its valenceelectrons mimic a noble gas, so it is nonreactive.
Because in trans the large substituents (methyl groups, etc.) are farther apart and therefore have less steric strain
If talking about the gaseous or liquid form of a particular substance, then the solution is more stable. This is due to the fact that liquids have lower temperatures than gases of the same substance, and low temperatures in turn result in a more stable substance. If talking generally about any so…lution and any gas, then I can't answer your question as it really depends on what substance you are comparing. PS this is wrong ( Full Answer )
If you're asking why Sodium ions are more stable than Sodium atoms, it is because most all atoms, besides Hydrogen and Helium, are more stable when they have 8 electrons in their valence shell. They all "want" to be like those atoms which have 8 electrons in their valence shell (the noble gasses). A… Sodium atom has 11 electrons, and it is very easy for it to "give up" one electron to something else so that it will be like Neon, the closest noble gas. ( Full Answer )
In organic chemistry, CO2 happens to be the most oxidized molecule available (thus being the most stable in our environment). Double bonded carbonyl molecules like CO2 have no more energy left to be utilized. For example, burning compounds like CH4 (methane) will reduce it all into CO2. Another exam…ple is that our body carries out metabolism from sugar into CO2. ( Full Answer )
This is how I do it. First, you open your files which should be easy to access, but if you don't know how to, you may be able to find it here on Answers.com as an answered question. Then, right below the back button, there is a bar that says Organize. A few words next to it, there is a button that s…ays burn. Click it. Next you should enter a CLEAR disc into your laptop or computer tower. (If the disc isn't completely clear, you should take a disc that you don't want and you should delete the content OR you can go to a nearby Walmart and buy some.) (Skip this step if you have a clear disc.) Once you enter your disc, you click, View Files. Once again, under the back button will be some words, and a few spaces over it will say something like, Erase content. Click it and it will erase the content on the disc. Finally, you should go back to where it says burn, and enter (if you haven't already) your disc. Then you should choose what you want to burn and Bada- Bing, Bada-Boom, BINGO :D. Hope this helped! ( Full Answer )
I beg to differ :) .Its the opposite, Staggered conformations are more stable than eclipsed conformations. This is due to the presence of less Steric effect in the staggered conformation than the eclipsed forms.
Because the three feet of the tripod are on the same plane, even if one leg is shorter it will not waver or stumble. However, with four legs, if one leg is shorter it will end up in two planes, or two tripods, and will always waver from one plane to the other, thus making the chair/table unstable. C…hairs and tables are probably four legged because they are rectangular. If you want a three legged table you would need to have an extra sphere/block that has three legs branching out, and it would be more expensive. ( Full Answer )
Tertiary amines have alkyl groups around the central atom (nitrogen) while ethanol has hydrogen atoms and one hydroxyl group around the carbon atoms. As a result, ethanol is more prone to attack by other groups while in tertiary amines, stearic hindrance doesn't allow attack of incoming groups. So, …tertiary amines are more stable than ethanol. ( Full Answer )
It is, so diamond will become graphite over time. The structure ofdiamond hinders the necessary kinetics, so the process is veryslow, unnoticeable most of the time. It's because the standard enthalpy of formation of graphite is 0;but diamonds is not equal to 0.
Stable storage is a classification of computer data storage technology that guarantees atomicity for any given write operation and allows software to be written that is robust against some hardware and power failures. To be considered atomic, upon reading back a just written-to portion of the disk,… the storage subsystem must return either the write data or the data that was on that portion of the disk before the write operation. Most computer disk drives are not considered stable storage because they do not guarantee atomic write; an error could be returned upon subsequent read of the disk where it was just written to in lieu of either the new or prior data. ( Full Answer )
I think boys (and males in general) are MORE emotionally unstable than girls (and females in general). Girls seem more emotionally unstable due to the fact that they are taught that it is okay to let their emotions out more often, whereas boys are taught to keep their emotions built up inside. Bui…lding up your emotions inside just makes a nuclear reactor approach meltdown. No, a boy is only more outwardly reserved than a girl. Boys have their own unexpressed anxieties , which can ultimately be more toxic than throwing an occasional hissy fit. ( Full Answer )
Due to the advent of globalization, and the internet. The UN nations have become more informatized, on this epoch, and such fact contributes for the stabilization.
No, neon is a noble gas and is very stable while lithium is extremely reactive.
Neon has completely filled valence orbitals, obeys octet rule and is hence stable. Chlorine needs one more electron to complete octet and is hence reactive.
as because in case of tropylium cation extra stability arises from the attainment of aromaticity as well as extensive conjugation.It contains 6Ï electrons which is according to Huckel's rule indicate towards the aromatic compound as well as the system is also a resonance stabilized because of del…ocalisation ( Full Answer )
Metal alkyls undergo beta-hydride elimination (the most facile decomposition pathway) which is not usually possible in metal aryls.
Yes, it is. If we look at the electronic configuration of Mn 2+ , it is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 0 3d 5 . The 3d orbital is half-filled, which is relatively stable. in Mn 3+ , there are only 4 electrons in the 3d orbital, which is less stable.
I find that it is. I've had windows 7 since January 2010 and have 0 errors, crashes. I am very pleased with it.
A hydrogen molecule has a full valence shell, which is more stable than a hydrogen atom, which has only has 1 electron. The atom either wants to gain or lose an electron, and is significantly less stable.
O2 is more stable than O1 because oxygen is very reactive and willing to react with everything and anything including itself until it can find something else to react with.
Stabilization of a carbocation can also be accomplished by reasonance. If the cationic carbon is adjacent to an unsaturated system, the positive charge can be delocalized over adjacent atoms resulting in greater stability of the carbocation. Thus, the carbocations showing resonance are far more stab…le than those in which the resonance is not flesible. ( Full Answer )
Following Goldich Dissolution Series (Or going backwards by Bowen's Reaction Series), olivine weathers before Quartz. Quartz has a framework silicate structure and olivine has a isolated silicate structure.
I would assume it is because its wt is ditributed over four supports (legs) rather than two. In addition there is more mass around its central gravity.
because they are all together in a block and not fully spaced out all over the place bled x
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein. The protein they are bound to are often enzymes. Cofactors are considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations. An enzyme are large biochemical molecules that is responsible for many chemical interconv…ersions that sustain life. A cofactor is more stable because it tightly binds to the enzymes to make them stronger. ( Full Answer )
Because , Cis isomer are same group on same side of the c=c bond . & those are bulky group on the same side , they are formed steric repulsion to each other then Cis isomer are less stable than trans isomer is same group of opposite side of c=c bond no formation of steric repulsion to each other. an…d trans isomer is more stable than Cis isomer..... ( Full Answer )
Neon is stable because it is a noble gas, and is alreadyat the highest configuration already.Where as carbon is not in its highest configuration (2,4) so it can gain 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons thats why it is not more stable.... conclusion ---- neon is more stable ..
Methane and ethane are almost equally stable molecules, and they are inert to almost all reagents at room temperature.
\n \n Normal \n 0 \n \n \n \n \n false \n false \n false \n \n EN-US \n X-NONE \n X-NONE \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n\n. The presence of the âOH group on the\nsecond carbon chain of the ribose sugar makes a ribopolynucleotide less sta…ble\nthan a deoxyribose molecule. The presence of 2â-OH group on the ribose sugar\nmakes it susceptible to nucleophilic attack in the presence of OH (ions) on the\n5â-phosphorous atom, thus causing breakage of the phosphodiester link and\nforming a 2,â3â cyclic phosphate. \n\n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n ( Full Answer )
Adensosine Di-Phosphate is at a lower energy configuration than Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. When we have the hydrolysis reaction of ATP such that ATP+H20âADP+Inorganic Phosphate+Energy, the Inorganic Phosphate has more stability as the split off phosphorus has more resonance configurations to achi…ve stability. Also, the phosphate groups of ATP are repelled by the negative charges on the consecutive oxygen's bonded to phosphorus, thus ATP is much more stable than ADP. As a result, ATPâADP is an important process as it is spontaneous as the splitting reaction into smaller molecules wants to occur, and would thus release stored energy which was originally needed to convert ADPâATP. ( Full Answer )
It does not have water in it like fog does. Hope it helps- Roxas riku
Because in chair structure of beta-glucose all the 'OH' groups are equatorial which is the stable form while in alpha-glucose one 'OH' group is axial.
due to inert pair effect Pb show it's valency as +2 so PbCl2 is more stable.