If you use the wrong household AC electrical power adapter to give power to something what part of its circuit will be damaged?

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This question could be understood in two different ways and both ways would make good sense! So two separate answers are given below. ANSWER 1 If the question is asking which part of a circuit would be damaged, meaning a circuit that is inside the object being supplied with power by the ac adapter, then the answer is: In general it's not possible to say exactly which parts are most likely to be damaged in a particular piece of equipment which contains a circuit powered by an ac adaptor because the answer to that question would depend on what that given circuit has been designed to do. Parts in such a circuit which can easily be damaged by too high a voltage include: semiconductor devices such as diodes and transistors very small resistors anything which has a winding made of very thin insulated wire (Such as relays, tuning coils, transformers, etc.) ANSWER 2 If the question is asking which part of a circuit would be damaged, meaning a circuit that is inside the ac adapter, then the answer is: It depends on the design of the ac adapter and whether its output is alternating current (ac) or direct current (dc). Adapters which give a low voltage ac output may just have a transformer inside them so that is the part which would be damaged if the adapter was used wrongly to try to give power to something it was not designed to do. However it is possible that some of some of these ac output adapters may use a switching circuit similar to the kind of switching power supply that is often used nowadays to provide power to lighting circuits for sets of low-voltage (12 volt) reflector lamps. (Like the kind that are designed to be mounted in or on ceilings.) Any one or more of various parts, especially the semiconductors, inside such an adapter, are likely to be damaged if it was used wrongly to try to give power to something it was not designed to do. Adapters which give a low voltage dc output may or may not use a transformer. If there is a transformer there will also be a diode or more complicated rectifier circuit of some kind. If there is no transformer then a semiconductor-based switching circuit would be used to produce the low voltage dc from the ac mains input. Any one or more of the various parts, including the semiconductor(s) and transformer (if any) are likely to be damaged if the adapter was used wrongly to try to give power to something it was not designed to do.
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