If you use the wrong household AC electrical power adapter to give power to something what part of its circuit will be damaged?
This question could be understood in two different ways and both ways would make good sense! So two separate answers are given below. ANSWER 1 If the question is asking which part of a circuit would be damaged, meaning a circuit that is inside the object being supplied with power by the ac adapter, then the answer is: In general it's not possible to say exactly which parts are most likely to be damaged in a particular piece of equipment which contains a circuit powered by an ac adaptor because the answer to that question would depend on what that given circuit has been designed to do. Parts in such a circuit which can easily be damaged by too high a voltage include: semiconductor devices such as diodes and transistors very small resistors anything which has a winding made of very thin insulated wire (Such as relays, tuning coils, transformers, etc.) ANSWER 2 If the question is asking which part of a circuit would be damaged, meaning a circuit that is inside the ac adapter, then the answer is: It depends on the design of the ac adapter and whether its output is alternating current (ac) or direct current (dc). Adapters which give a low voltage ac output may just have a transformer inside them so that is the part which would be damaged if the adapter was used wrongly to try to give power to something it was not designed to do. However it is possible that some of some of these ac output adapters may use a switching circuit similar to the kind of switching power supply that is often used nowadays to provide power to lighting circuits for sets of low-voltage (12 volt) reflector lamps. (Like the kind that are designed to be mounted in or on ceilings.) Any one or more of various parts, especially the semiconductors, inside such an adapter, are likely to be damaged if it was used wrongly to try to give power to something it was not designed to do. Adapters which give a low voltage dc output may or may not use a transformer. If there is a transformer there will also be a diode or more complicated rectifier circuit of some kind. If there is no transformer then a semiconductor-based switching circuit would be used to produce the low voltage dc from the ac mains input. Any one or more of the various parts, including the semiconductor(s) and transformer (if any) are likely to be damaged if the adapter was used wrongly to try to give power to something it was not designed to do.
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Whether you use 50 Hz and 60 Hz in the place where you live or work happens to be for historical reasons. If you want to see more detailed information please see the Relat…ed Questions shown below..
Why is power for a country's household AC electrical power mains grid usually generated as 3-phase electricity and not single phase?
Single phase power has a sine wave voltage that crosses zero before reversing its polarity. In the region near the zero-crossing there is not much power. At zero there is none… at all. So single phase loads often need some trickery to deliver output in this area. Often it is just the inertia of the motor or appliance. Three phase power is always delivering power on one of its phases, and is thus preferred for machines, motors and appliances that use lots of power. If the application is large power, or small power with weight restrictions (like automobiles!) Three Phase is preferred. DC (Direct Current) is the next step up for smooth high-power devices but requires rectification, regulation and smoothing to be useful. Another problem with DC is that, for efficient long distance transmission, it cannot be simply converted to much higher voltages than the voltage at which it was generated at the power station. Similarly DC cannot be transformed down to safer, much lower mains voltages for use by consumers. AC (Alternating Current) is used for high power generation and distribution because it can easily be transformed, using transformers, to achieve very efficient power transmission over very long distances and can then be transformed down to low voltages for distribution to consumers. Two phase, and higher multi-phases are also used but very rarely. Another Answer Because, for a given load, less volume of copper is required to supply that load, making a three-phase system roughly 75% the cost of a corresponding single-phase system.
In short: 240/120 V @ 60 Hz frequency. In the US, lighting and low-power appliances run at 120 volts plus or minus 10%; meaning 108 volts to 132 volts at 60 cycles per …second called hertz (Hz). To get the actual figures for your locality it is best to ask a local licensed electrician or your local electricity supply company. However, US houses get 240 volts at 60 Hz at the panel. If all the wall outlets were fed with that 240 volts you'd have the lower current and higher power advantage of the European 50 Hz system and it would be safer too, since each "hot" would still be only 120 volts from ground, which reduces the shock hazard compared to some European 230 volt receptacles or socket outlets. However the most important difference is how the Neutral wire is connected: 240 volt 50 Hz service Please note: there is no 50 Hz service in countries which use a 60 Hz, such as the US and Canada. The following information is given just for comparison purposes. A 240 volt 50 Hz appliance can have up to 3 wires altogether: . one single 240 volt "live" or "hot" wire; . a neutral wire; . a safety "earth" or "ground" wire but this is not required if the appliance is of the type known as "double insulated". The hot wire feeds alternating voltage from the power station to the load and, because the voltage is alternating, the load draws an alternating current. Then the neutral wire returns the current to the power station to complete the circuit. 240 volts 60 Hz service An appliance that is designed to be connected to strictly 240 volts 60 Hz is connected with only a two-wire cable plus a safety ground wire. (For example 240 volt 60 Hz base board heaters use that.) The only time a cable with three wires plus safety ground is used is if 120/240 volts is needed in the equipment. (For example kitchen ranges or washing machines which have time clocks or programmers that require only a 120 volt feed.) Thus an appliance designed to run on a 240/120 volt 60 Hz supply can have up to 4 wires altogether: . two 120 volt 60 Hz live "hot legs" which run in opposing phase to one another: when one hot leg goes "+" (120 volts positive) the other leg goes "-" (120 volts negative); . a neutral wired as a "central" common current return conductor: . a safety "ground" wire but this is not required if the appliance is of the type known as "double insulated". One of the two hot wires feeds a 120 volt alternating voltage from the power station to the 120 volt load - the clock or programmer - and, because the voltage is alternating, that load draws an alternating current. Then the neutral wire returns the current to the power station to complete the circuit. Important conclusion There is a 240 volt voltage difference between the neutral and the hot conductor in the 50 Hz system and only a 120 volt voltage difference between the neutral and each of the hot conductors in the 60 Hz system. That is why an appliance designed to be connected onto the 50 Hz system cannot be used safely on the 60 Hz system without first having a proper technical inspection done, followed by any necessary modification work done to ensure that the appliance can be operated safely because, in the main breaker box, at the point where the 60 Hz "neutral" gets connected to the ground, this difference will cause serious problems! A licensed electrician or electrical engineer would be able to consider whether or not a particular large appliance, that was manufactured to work on 50 Hz-only, could be modified to run safely at the higher 60 Hz frequency. However it won't usually be worth the expense of doing the work because it would be more cost-effective to buy (new or secondhand) an equivalent large appliance designed to work on 60 Hz. In the U.S. it's 120 volts AC running at a frequency of 60 Hz. It was increased from 110 volts in the 1950s. The historic reason for 110 volts is the Direct Current (DC) power systems created by Thomas Edison. It is believed he chose 110 volts because that is what his light bulb worked on. Later, these systems were converted to Alternating Current (AC), so you didn't need a power plant on every street corner, but the voltage level wasn't changed, so existing lighting didn't need to be replaced. (At that time they didn't care if they got AC or DC.) An interesting question is why the rest of the world did not wind up using 110 volts. How did 220/230/240V get started over there? The US system theoretically could be made as good as the European system (slightly better than, actually) with no infrastructure change except to houses themselves. US houses get 240 volts at the panel through the Black and the Red hots. If wall outlets were all fed with 240V you'd have the lower current and higher power advantage of the European system and it would be safer too, since each "hot" would still be only 120V from ground (not 240V) which keeps the reduced shock hazard advantage. If the wiring has been done correctly it should be impossible for someone to touch both Black hot and Red hot at the the same time by accident. It was Thomas Edison who promoted the use of (then) 100 volts as some tragic experiences in the early days of power distribution showed that 100 volts was not usually lethal for a shock. Remember that in the early days, single un-insulated wires were strung though ceramic insulators, both exterior and interior, and so there were many more shock hazards present. Each splice was made by wrapping one wire around the other one and soldered. The use of junction boxes was non existent. As technology advanced good, long life, insulation was wrapped around the conductors. Scroll down to related links and look at "Household AC electrical power in different countries around the world - voltages, frequencies and plug types - Worldmap for AC Voltage and Frequency - Wikipedia".
Answer for countries in Europe and other world areas running a 50 Hz supply service. Originally the UK mains supply voltage was specified at 240 volts AC or, more precisely,… 240 volts RMS +/-6%. The alternating current runs at a frequency of 50 Hz. Some time ago, to allow harmonisation across Europe, the specifications were changed to 230 volts RMS +10%/-6%, also running at a frequency of 50 Hz. Thus the mains supply voltage will remain within European Union norms (standards) even if it varies between an upper limit of 253 volts and a lower limit of 216.2 volts. A 240 volt 50 Hz appliance can have up to 3 wires altogether: . one single 240 volt "live" or "hot" wire which colored brown ; . a neutral wire which is colored blue ; . a safety "earth" or "ground" wire which is colored green/yellow but this is not required if the appliance is of the type known as "double insulated". The hot wire feeds alternating voltage from the power station to the load and, because the voltage is alternating, the load draws an alternating current. Then the neutral wire returns the current to the power station to complete the circuit. Note The United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland (and some other countries elsewhere, most of which were formerly British colonies) use a power outlet plug and socket system which is totally different to the rest of Europe: . All power socket outlets are rated at 13 amps to take a standard 13 amp plug. . Each power socket has a protective insulated shutter that safely uncovers the live (or hot) and neutral holes when the plug of an appliance is inserted. The shutter immediately covers the holes over again when the plug is removed. The shutter is operated by the insertion of the earth (or ground) pin which is longer than the live and neutral pins. . Each 13 amp plug has 3 rectangular (not round) pins for a brown live wire, a blue neutral wire and a green/yellow earth wire . There is also a fuse that should be selected to be of the right size to protect the appliance it is attached-to. . The actual plug type is known internationally as Type 'G'. . It was designed for use on any normal house mains voltage or frequency and is used in the UK and other countries which have adopted the UK mains power plug and socket system for appliances. It is a very good plug and socket system but not many other countries have adopted it - probably because they didn't invent it! Outside the UK and The Republic of Ireland (Eire), European countries use plugs where all the pins are round. Sometimes (but not always - it depends on the country) the plug's earth connection is not a pin but is a ground-socket within the plug which connects to a ground-pin which permanently protrudes from within the wall receptacle. That arrangement of pins and pin-sockets makes it impossible to insert a non-grounded plug into the receptacle! Another common European plug - the "Schuko" - does not use any earth pin but instead uses two clips which are positioned diametrically opposite one another on the outside edge of the plug.
For low-power appliances you can buy an electronic powerinverter which produces 3-phase outputs from a 1-phase (singlephase) service. Such inverters are not cheap to buy so y…ou must decide if it isbest to buy an equivalent appliance that runs on 1-phase instead oftrying to use a 3-phase appliance on a 1-phase supply using a powerinverter. Note: For mains power any 1-phase service is usually obtained byusing just one phase of a 3-phase service that comes in overhead orunderground cables from the generating station. The power company typically supplies a given neighborhood with a3-phase service and distributes it as separate 1-phase services,one phase per property or group of properties, so that eachproperty gets a supply of single-phase power. If the owner requires it, it is usually possible to pay the powercompany to provide a 3-phase service into a house or any other typeof property - such as an engineering workshop, vehicle repairgarage, etc. - which may need a 3-phase service for machinery orother equipment. . +++ An advantage of using an inverter is that many are available withreversing and speed-control, so ideal for driving lathes andsimilar. Moreover, the machine runs more smoothly: in my own casethe noisy resonance of a lathe's welded cabinet stand when runningwith a single-phase motor stopped entirely when I fitted a 3phmotor and inverter to the same mountings.
THIS COULD BE VERY DANGEROUS: DON'T EVEN THINK ABOUT TRYING IT! . As mains adapters were not designed to be used that way the safest answer is to say NO.. It all depends on …the type of adapter, the voltage and type of current that the adapter produces.. Some of them produce alternating current (AC) at a low voltage which is then converted again within the appliance being supplied with the power. (MP3 player, mobile phone, TV, whatever.) AC is useless for charging a battery - if you tried using one of those adapters to do it the AC current might cause the battery to explode.... Similarly, although some adapters produce direct current (DC), the voltage may be too high or too low to charge a particular battery, which might cause the battery to explode.... SO, AS THIS COULD BE VERY DANGEROUS: DON'T EVEN THINK ABOUT TRYING IT! .
First, always read the label on the power adaptor to find out what voltage it has been designed to supply. You can use a volt meter or a 12v light bulb to check if the powe…r adaptor is working but don't do this unless you are certain that the output voltage really is a low as that! If you don't check the label first you could damage the volt meter or the bulb and/or give yourself a dangerous shock. Another more technical answer Firstly, using a voltmeter to check that the output voltage is as specified on the label. An unregulated power adapter will usually have an output voltage somewhat higher than the voltage specified when measured using the meter alone, but will drop to nearer the required voltage when measured under a significant load. A regulated power adapter should give a fairly constant voltage reading when tested with or without a load applied. Second, using an oscilloscope to see if there is any significant "ripple" in the output voltage, the presence of which would indicate a faulty smoothing capacitor inside the adapter.
North America is all connected to the same electrical grid. Much of the power that is generated in Canada is exported to the US. The standard voltage is 120V for lights… and plugs, and 240V for stove, heaters and drier loads. The distribution system is 3 wire and the street transformer is center tapped 240V with neutral at centre which means that from red to neutral the voltage is 120V and same for black to neutral, with the voltage between black and red being 240V which is distributed through 2 linked breakers. Canada uses plug types A, and B, exactly the same as in the US.
230 / 240 volts
Power in AC circuit is given as follows, P = VI*cos(theta) V = RMS voltage I = RMS current cos(theta) = Power factor
in Australia most homes are single phase 240 volts but when measured with a multi meter sometimes you get readings of between 230 and 250 volts
230 volts ac at 50 hertz.
The UK voltage is now 230 V +10% /- 6%, AC, 50 Hz. However, it's worth noting that this 'new' nominal voltage has been nothing more than a 'paper exercise' to comply with Eu…ropean harmonisation standards. In practice, nothing has been done to change it from the original UK standard, which was 240 V +/- 6%. (If you compare the allowable percentage variation for each standard, you will note that the range of allowable voltages is roughly the same!)
Most if not all home electronics, of any type, use DC (Direct Current). Very few things actually require AC (alternating current) in a home. Things that normally use AC are si…mple motors such as: Washing Machine, Can Opener, Blow Dryer, Heat & Air Conditioning systems, Ceiling Fan, Fans generally.
230 volts ac at 50 hertz.
Sweden uses the standard European voltage of 230 volts (+10% -6%)