There are several hundred different companies using the phrase "yellow pages" or "yellow page" as part of their trademarks, but (at least in the USA) they cannot prevent each other from using the words "yellow pages" in other combinations (e.g., "Bumpkinville Yellow Pages" could be a new trademark). To even be considered for a federal registration of a trademark including "yellow pages", you would be required to "disclaim" any proprietary right to those words, apart from your specific combination (i.e., with other words, with a distinctive logo, etc). A descriptive and non-distinctive brand is not a very valuable marketing tool, and it only takes a bit of imagination to come up with something much more catchy.
All registered trademarks are legally protected. A name that is not a registered as a trademark, may not be protected under law.
Yes; even if it weren't registered (which it is), it would be protected by common law.
Legally, nothing. There is no requirement to have a copyright or trademark notice in order to establish intellectual property rights and hasn't been since 1989 when copyright law was amended to bring it into alignment with the Berne Copyright Convention.
A lot of trademarks and names are legally protected, but not all. For a trademark to be protected it has to be registered as a trademark, for which you will have to pay a fee. After that it is protected against other peoples use of it, but normally only in the country you register it for. A world wide trademark protection is costly and is very difficoult to uphold by law. As for names as in surnames, most are not "legally" protected as such, but when it comes to rare family names, one can not automatically take one without asking for the approval of the families first. Laws regarding this however vary from country to country.
You apply through the copyright office of the country in which you intend to do business. Most countries have online forms.
You can't download this movie legally. It is protected under copyright law.
licensing is the practice of leasing a legally protected property such as trademark to another party in conjunction with a product,service or promotion.
Legally, nowhere. It's protected by copyright law.
Ideas can't be protected by copyright, only the expressions of them; the novel will automatically be protected once it's written down, but not until then.
Not legally, Call of Duty World at War is a copyright protected game that is sold and not freeware.
Nowhere. Modern pop music is protected by copyright law and is not legally available for free.