Principles of consumer behavior?
Consumer behavior is studied by businesses and service providers. They look at consumer behavior to see what the consumer buys, uses, and likes.
Consumer has an enormous impact on a company or industry's growth. What impacts consumer behavior can have many different factors involved for a company or certain goods and services. Such factors may include media hype (both good or bad), poor production methods, bad advertising campaign, acts of n…ature, war, etc. For instance, earlier this year when a few batches of fresh spinach were found to be contaminated with Ecoli even the news media warned about buying the usually good for you healthy produce actually advising consumers to not eat raw spinach period. This made a heavy impact on Central California's agricultural market. Another example would be the slowdown of consumerism in America after 9-11. Fear literally paralyzed every market and Industry in the nation. These are some more extreme and dismal portrayals of consumer behavior, but I think it shows exactly what the power of consumer behavior means in the marketplace. ( Full Answer )
A consumer's lifestyle mainly depends upon following factors:. Income. Marital status. Culture. Social group. &. Buying power.. Any change in one of them changes the behaviour of consumer.. From. Raja Khan
Answer . Consumer researchers have recently turned their attention toward exploring the imaginative, emotional, and evaluative components of the consumption experience. Nevertheless, considerable work remains to be done on the emotional aspects of consumer behavior. Toward that end, this paper as…sesses the comparative reliabilities and validities of two competing typologies of emotion when they are applied to the representation of experiences associated with consumption activities. Specifically, independent samples of judges rated real experiential descriptions on either Mehrabian and Russell's (1974) PAD dimensions or Plutchik's (1980) emotional categories. Further, separate samples of judges evaluated artificial descriptions on the same competing frameworks ( Full Answer )
Consumer behavior includes the perception and decision makingfactors of customers. It also includes information search,attitudes, and beliefs of consumers.
to know how to do effective business with him SO that there would be a continuous of the business
A consumer lives under social and cultural limitations. His acceptance and use of consumer products and services are often affected by cultural traditions. An extreme example would be the Amish. A more common example is the purchase of traditional foods by families in an ethnic group.
By determining the behavior of the consumer you are more able to determine when, what, and where a consumer is more likely to buy. There are four main applications of consumer behavior: . The most obvious is for marketing strategy -i.e., for making better marketing campaigns. For example, by und…erstanding that consumers are more receptive to food advertising when they are hungry, we learn to schedule snack advertisements late in the afternoon. By understanding that new products are usually initially adopted by a few consumers and only spread later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the population, we learn that (1) companies that introduce new products must be well financed so that they can stay afloat until their products become a commercial success and (2) it is important to please initial customers, since they will in turn influence many subsequent customers' brand choices. . A second application is public policy . In the 1980s, Accutane, a near miracle cure for acne, was introduced. Unfortunately, Accutane resulted in severe birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Although physicians were instructed to warn their female patients of this, a number still became pregnant while taking the drug. To get consumers' attention, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) took the step of requiring that very graphic pictures of deformed babies be shown on the medicine containers. . Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than selling something. Marty Fishbein, a marketing professor, went on sabbatical to work for the Centers for Disease Control trying to reduce the incidence of transmission of diseases through illegal drug use. The best solution, obviously, would be if we could get illegal drug users to stop. This, however, was deemed to be infeasible. It was also determined that the practice of sharing needles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be stopped. As a result, using knowledge of consumer attitudes, Dr. Fishbein created a campaign that encouraged the cleaning of needles in bleach before sharing them, a goal that was believed to be more realistic. . As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better consumers. Common sense suggests, for example, that if you buy a 64 liquid ounce bottle of laundry detergent, you should pay less per ounce than if you bought two 32 ounce bottles. In practice, however, you often pay a size premium by buying the larger quantity. In other words, in this case, knowing this fact will sensitize you to the need to check the unit cost labels to determine if you are really getting a bargain. ( Full Answer )
Consumer behavior is affected by the earning power of theconsumers. That means it is affected by the state of the economy.
Age influences consumer behavior in different ways. As consumersage, many of their needs raise and some of their mental andphysical capacities decrease. While many older people are healthy,many of them are not, so they have different needs than youngerconsumers.
Consumer behavior is one of the topic that marketer uses to better understanding of consumer on how their behavior react when come to buying decisions. Perception is how one view under the influence of past experience, personal opinon
cultural differences that exist across countries, marketers are also increasingly recognizing the importance of cultural differences within a society. Subcultures are distinctive groups within a society that share common meanings. Subcultures can often be identified based on demographic characteri…stics, such as geographic location (e.g., the southern United States), ethnicity (e.g., Hispanic Americans), or age (e.g., baby-boomers). Polaroid's I-Zone camera is targeted in the United States to appeal to the teenage http://www.answers.com/topic/subculture .. Subcultures can also be identified based on common lifestyles. For example, a strong subculture exists around Harley-Davidson motorcycles and the Harley Owner's Group (HOG). Members of this group share a core cultural value of personal freedom, which is exemplified in both the experience of using the product (taking to the open road) and in the company's marketing strategy (e.g., the open-winged insignia [Schouten and Alexander, 1995]). Importantly, identification of lifestyle subcultures, and the corresponding development of an inventory of shared meanings, is typically more difficult than the development of such understanding of subcultures based on observable demographic characteristics. ( Full Answer )
define consumer behaviour as 'the process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires'.'
The primary motive of consumer behavior is to gain energy forlocomotion. The secondary motive is energy for building new cells.
This is the best experience that a customer has ever had. You wantit to be remembered so they are a loyal customer and tell otherpeople about the company as well.
Consumer is the most important person. The business revolves around the consumer... So, while operating as a firm, it is essential for the firm to gain the good understanding of it's target market. The more the Consumer Behaviour is learnt the more the needs and wants of the Customers are fulfilled.… The Study of consumer behaviour helps us; â¢ To design the optimal product or service for customers. â¢ To determine where the product or Service should be available that would easy for the customers to buy. â¢ To determine what price will the customers give up purchasing product or service? â¢ To determine which method of Promotion would be most effective for getting the customers to buy a product. â¢ It helps in changing the behavior of the consumers. â¢ To improve performance of the organization. â¢ To achieve the organizational objectives ( Full Answer )
The 4 types of consumer behaviour are: . complex,dissonance-reducing ,variety-seeking ,habitual buying behavior . I think these are valid, but I'd say necessity, impulse , indulgence. and special circumstance [like someone died and you don't have anything suitable to wear] . . I imagine the diss…onance-reducing is the "anything to shut these kids up "Well, here's the cure. Tell them if they are good and you have any money left you will offer them a couple of choices. If they even ask, they get nothing. Be prepared to back it up. If they act up, walk away, get in the car and go home. Take the kids, but NO purchases. After plain peanut butter sandwiches and a glass of water for supper a couple of times they'll get the picture. ( Full Answer )
There are many factors that affect consumer behavior. Some of thosefactors are age, lifestyle, attitudes, beliefs, values, andpersonality.
Principled behaviour is behaviour that is informed by some kind of background knowledge of the issue in question. It is behaviour that that is based on principles underlying the particular area of knowledge.
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND FACTOR AFFECTING Consumer behavior refers to the selection, purchase and consumption of goods and services for the satisfaction of their wants: . Initially the consumer tries to find what commodities he would like to consume. . Then he selects only those commodities that… promise greater utility. . Then consumer makes an estimate of the available money which he can spend. . Lastly, the consumer analyzes the prevailing prices of commodities and takes the decision about the commodities he should consume. Meanwhile, there are various other factors influencing the purchases of consumer such as: . Social. Cultural. Personal. Psychological. ( Full Answer )
what is difference between customer behaviour and consumer behaviour? The customer has to follow the terms of doing business with the Bank while the consumer can demand what he wants either from the existing pool of products or from an access to somebody's pool at a price that the bank chooses. Si…nce the later pays for his demand to be met, he would be exacting in nature. The customer can also demand better service but within the agreed boundaries and any new service he seeks, carries additional price. When such demand is made he would turn out to be another consumer. Many banks devised new products based on such demands either by a consumer or customer-turned-consumer. ( Full Answer )
Â¡ Consumer Behavior is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources(time,money,effort) on consumption related items. .
To define the scope of a subject it is important to set parameters or a framework. within which it shall be studied. it can be explained through a detailed study of framework . This framework is made up of three main sections-the decision. process as represented by the inner-most circle, the ind…ividual determinants on the. middle Circle and the external environment which is represented by the outer circle.. The study of all these three sections constitutes the scope of consumer behaviour. . ( Full Answer )
You can obtain this information by going to www.collegeboard.com/splash/ and using the sites College MatchMaker search engine, or you can also click on the related links section (College Board) indicated below this answer box, which will take you directly to the site. You can research colleges and …universities by name, or by programs of study, or by geographical location, size, or combinations of part or all of them etc. The site will provide you with a list of institutions based on your request. It will give you the schools background, accreditation, degree offerings, programs of study , entrance requirements, tuition and fees, room and board, athletic programs etc. and a link to each institutions official web page. Make sure the college or university has a regional accreditation (most important). Practice navigating this site. It will be well worth the time and effort. ( Full Answer )
Consumer buyer behavior is the process of understanding whyconsumers buy the products they purchase. Managers typically studyconsumer needs and pricing strategies for insight.
Why Study Consumer Behaviour ? In the highly specialised study of "BUSINESS MANAGEMENT", "BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION" or just "MANAGEMENT" today, "MARKETING MANAGEMENT" function plays a very critical role. This is because this functional area of management (1) "EARNS" the revenue, & (2) "WORKS" in t…he close proximity with the public or persons outside the organisation. Controlling these two attributes to have the desired benefits are the most difficult part of the management, because none of these two are within the direct control of the marketers. This doesn't mean that the other functional areas are not useful, but they are not "DIRECTLY" involved in the activities mentioned above. Similarly, within the study of Marketing Management, the "Consumers" or the "Customers" play a very critical role as these are the people who finally BUY the goods & services of the organisation, and the firm is always on the move to make them buy so as to earn revenue. It's crucial from both the points of view as given below : . From the customers' point of view : Customers today are in a tough spot. Today, in the highly developed & technologically advanced society, the customers have a great deal of choices & options (and often very close & competing) to decide on. . They have the products of an extreme range of attributes (the 1 st P - Product), . they have a wide range of cost and payment choices (the 2 nd P - Price), . they can order them to be supplied to their door step or anywhere else (the 3 rd P - Place), . and finally they are bombarded with more communications from more channels than ever before (the 4 th P - Promotion). How can they possibly decide where to spend their time and money, and where they should give their loyalty ? . From the marketers' point of view : "The purpose of marketing is to sell more stuff to more people more often for more money in order to make more profit". This is the basic principle of requirement for the marketers in earlier days where aggressive selling was the aim. Now it can't be achieved by force, aggression or plain alluring. For the customers are today more informed, more knowledgeable, more demanding, more discerning. And above all there is no dearth of marketers to buy from. The marketers have to earn them or win them over. The global marketplace is a study in diversity, diversity among consumers, producers, marketers, retailers, advertising media, cultures, and customs and of course the individual or psychological behaviour. However, despite prevailing diversity, there also are many similarities. The object of the study of consumer behaviour is to provide conceptual and technical tools to enable the marketer to apply them to marketing practice, both profit & non-profit. The study of consumer behaviour (CB) is very important to the marketers because it enables them to understand and predict buying behaviour of consumers in the marketplace; it is concerned not only with what consumers buy, but also with why they buy it, when and where and how they buy it, and how often they buy it, and also how they consume it & dispose it. Consumer research is the methodology used to study consumer behaviour; it takes place at every phase of the consumption process: before the purchase, during the purchase, and after the purchase. Research shows that two different buyers buying the same product may have done it for different reasons, paid different prices, used in different ways, have different emotional attachments towards the things and so on. According to Professor Theodore Levitt of the Harvard Business School , the study of Consumer Behaviour is one of the most important in business education, because the purpose of a business is to create and keep customers. Customers are created and maintained through marketing strategies. And the quality of marketing strategies depends on knowing, serving, and influencing consumers. In other words, the success of a business is to achieve organisational objectives, which can be done by the above two methods. This suggests that the knowledge & information about consumers is critical for developing successful marketing strategies because it challenges the marketers to think about and analyse the relationship between the consumers & marketers, and the consumer behaviour & the marketing strategy. Consumer behaviour is interdisciplinary; that is, it is based on concepts and theories about people that have been developed by scientists, philosophers & researchers in such diverse disciplines as psychology, sociology, social psychology, cultural anthropology, and economics. The main objective of the study of consumer behaviour is to provide marketers with the knowledge and skills, that are necessary to carry out detailed consumer analyses which could be used for understanding markets and developing marketing strategies. Thus, consumer behaviour researchers with their skills for the naturalistic settings of the market are trying to make a major contribution to our understanding of human thinking in general. The study of consumer behaviour helps management understand consumers' needs so as to recognise the potential for the trend of development of change in consumer requirements and new technology. And also to articulate the new thing in terms of the consumers' needs so that it will be accepted in the market well. The following are a few examples of the benefits of the study of consumer behaviour derived by the different categories of people : . A marketing manager would like to know how consumer behaviour will help him to design better marketing plans to get those plans accepted within the company. . In a non-profit service organisation, such as a hospital, an individual in the marketing department would like to know the patients' needs and how best to serve those needs. . Universities & Colleges now recognise that they need to know about consumer behaviour to aid in recruiting students. "Marketing Admissions" has become an accepted term to mean marketing to potential students. Consumer behaviour has become an integral part of strategic market planning. It is also the basis of the approach to the concept of Holistic Marketing. (See the article on "HOLISTIC MARKETING " written by the author). The belief that ethics and social responsibility should also be integral components of every marketing decision is embodied in a revised marketing concept - the societal marketing concept - which calls on marketers to fulfil the needs of their target markets in ways that improve society as a whole. Introduction to Consumer Behaviour The study of Consumer Behaviour is quite complex, because of many variables involved and their tendency to interact with & influence each other. These variables are divided into three major sections that have been identified as the most important general influences on Consumer Behaviour. Imagine three concentric circles, one at the outer most, one in the middle & one at the inner most, and they represent the following : . External Environmental Variables Influencing Behaviour : These are the factors controlled by external environments like the following form the basis of external influences over the mind of a customer (outer circle) : . Culture, and Sub-culture, . Social Class, and Social Group, . Family, and Inter-Personal Influences, . Other Influences (which are not categorised by any of the above six, like geographical, political, economical, religious environment, etc.). . Individual Determinants of Behaviour : Major individual determinants of Consumer Behaviour are portrayed in the middle ring. These are the human mind and its attributes. These variables are personal in nature and they are influenced by the above set of external factors and in turn influence the way consumers proceed thro' a decision making process regarding products & services. They are : . Personality & Self-concept, . Motivation & Involvement, . Perception & Information Processing, . Learning & Memory, . Attitudes. . Problem Recognition, . Information Search, . Evaluation of Application, . Purchase Decision, . Post-Purchase Behaviour. . The Consumer Decision Making Process : The buying decision comes as a product of the complex interaction of the external factors and the personal attributes. The inner most circle denotes the consumer decision making process regarding products & services, whose major steps are : Marketers are frequently uncertain about the variables that are at play influencing & affecting consumers. Sometimes this occurs because they don't clearly understand the extent of variables that might be having an influence. The details of all external, internal, environmental, economical etc. are discussed above. Sometimes some variables are not directly observable. Other times variables are known to the marketers but their exact nature & relative strength of influence is not apparent. In these circumstances, it is useful to understand the above mentioned concepts and how the consumers behave, so that their decision making process can be predicted to a reasonable extent. The human mind being as complex as it is, the understanding of the buying behaviour of the consumers becomes a continuous activity of application of various theories & concepts by the marketers. The Consumer Behaviour Theory An understanding of how the theory of consumer behaviour and its application tools evolved over the years will enable us to appreciate the validity of the theory and give us a guidance in its practical application. Consumer behaviour, like all human behaviour is very complex. But the consumer behaviour theory, like all theories is a simplified & abstract representation of reality. The more simplified picture of consumers provided by the theory helps us enormously to understand the consumers. It not only helps us to think about consumers, but also provides us with a language to talk about them. This language is very useful, because to be effective in an organisation - for profit or non-profit - one has to persuade others to accept his ideas. And in fact, lack of this language has been one of the greatest drawback of the modern marketers. Market Research or Marketing Research (MR) has been developing since "MARKETING" which brings together all customer elements, grew out of the concept of "SALES" in the early fifties. The theory of consumer behaviour draws heavily upon the famous psychologist Sigmund Freud, particularly with respect to the emotional, psychological, mental, subjective or non-utilitarian aspects of buying decision or behaviour of a consumer. The theory represents the hidden order in this very complex activity, which we call consumer behaviour. On the surface, this highly complex & varied display of behaviour by consumers seems essentially unexplained. But slowly as the theory develops, the hidden pattern emerges, describing the order we suddenly see, and explaining why the behaviour pattern takes place. Now, what is the magic stuff called consumer behaviour theory that does all these wonderful things. It's not just a theory, as explained earlier, but more than that. It helps us to make better marketing decisions for profit & non-profit organisations. Thus we can examine the characteristics of a theory that enables us to do so. Researchers G Zaltman and M Wallendorf have came out with the most important attributes of a good & sound theory, after very close and careful thought. These are the following : . A theory which does both : explains how consumers buy & predicts what consumers will buy. . It unifies previously unrelated areas of knowledge, for example, it relates to information that consumers get from advertising so as to decide what brands they buy. . The theory is simple. If not, it can be so complex that we can't understand well enough to apply it to our practical problems. . It is testable so that we can verify whether the theory is valid and therefore dependable. . Implied in the previous characteristic, it is supported by the facts. This means, to lay the theory up against data describing how consumers buy in the market and thereby determine if the facts confirm the theory. If they don't, then either the theory should be modified till the facts do verify it or abandon the theory. . The theory is general, which means that it can be applied to a wide range of products & services. If it is not, then it won't be very useful. . It has heuristic value, meaning that it poses new questions for us that had not been previously asked. While trying to answer these questions, new knowledge is created and that becomes the part of the theory. . It is internally consistent. This means that the theory is internally free from logical incongruencies or else the prediction will be doubtful & flawed. Lack of this quality will make the theory a dangerous tool. . It is original. If not, it adds little to the existing knowledge. . It is plausible. If not, it can't be seen by others as making any sense, and hence, they will not likely to accept the theory and so it won't be useful. . And if all the above ten points are in order, then it can be applied to designing marketing strategy and marketing plans. Definitions : Consumer Behaviour (or Buyer Behaviour) is broadly defined by various scholars & researchers as : . It's the behaviour displayed by the consumers during the acquisition, consumption and disposition of products, services, time and ideas by decision making units. . It is the body of knowledge which studies various aspects of purchase and consumption of products and services by individuals with various social and psychological variables at play. . The behaviour that the consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. . The process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires. . The activities directly involved in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services, including the decision processes that precede and follow these actions. . The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines consumer behaviour as "The dynamic interaction of cognition, behaviour & environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspect of their lives. The study of consumer behaviour involves search, evaluation, purchase, consumption and post purchase behaviour of the consumers and includes the disposal of purchased products keeping environment and personal characteristics in mind. Key Words : Users Customers Internal FactorsConsumer ResearchBuyers Consumers External Factors Problem RecognitionCulture Social Class Holistic MarketingSocial ResponsibilityMemory Involvement Purchase Decision Marketing AdmissionAttitude Sub-Culture Societal MarketingConsumer Behaviour LearningSocial GroupInformation Search Environmental InfluenceMotivation Self-ConceptMarketing Strategy Evaluation of ApplicationPerception Marketing PlanPersonal Attributes Post-purchase Behaviour . References : . Consumer Behaviour & Marketing Action, Thomson India Edition, 6 th Edition, 2006. . Consumer Behaviour & Marketing Research, Suja R Nair, Himalay Publishing House, 1st. Edition, 2004. . Consumer Behaviour & Marketing Strategy, J Paul Peter, Jerry C Olson, 2 nd . Edition, IRWIN, 1990. . Consumer Behaviour : Basic Findings and Management Implications, G Zaltman and M Wallendorf, John Wiley & Sons, 1983. . Consumer Behaviour in Marketing Strategy, John A Howard, Prentice Hall, 1989. . Consumer Behaviour, David L Loudon & Albert J Della Bitta, TMGH, 4th. Edition, 2006. . Consumer Behaviour, ICFAI University, May - 2005. . Consumer Behaviour, James F Engel, Roger D Blackwell, Paul W Miniard, 8 th . Edition, The Dryden Press, 1995. . Consumer Behaviour, Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk, PHI - EEE, 9th. Edition, 2006. . Consumer Behaviour, Roger D Blackwell, Paul W Miniard, & James F Engel, Thomson India Edition, 10 th Edition, 2007. . Marketing Management - Planning, Implementation & Control, Global Perspective, Indian Context, V S Ramaswamy & S Namakumari, MacMillan India Ltd., 3rd. Edition, 2003. . Marketing Management, 12 th . Edition, by Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller. . Marketing Management, Philip Kotler, PHI - EEE, 11th. Edition, 2003. . Marketing Research, G C Beri, TMGH, 3rd. Edition, 2000. ( Full Answer )
Your values. Of the 7-8 areas of life, we have a "hierarchy" of values of what is most important to us to what is least important to us. Our childhood "voids" (what we thought was missing in our lives) drive those systems that are created from those early events. I would go as far to say that for… all of us that have an "imprint" put on us. This item can go from our thinking, to how we view and handle money, our sex lives, and mostly how we feel about ourselves. While we are not a complete slave to our values, the top one or two typically do not change. Even if something important as money is at the bottom of our value list and maybe family is at the top-you can learn to "anchor" making money to your family and have the best of all worlds. Even our P.E.A.R. (Perception causes us to have an Emotion, which stimulates and Action, which yields a Result) determines most items for us, it is that initial perception that drives the ultimate action from our "charges" or what we think is both missing and one-sided. All events are two-sided equally. All perceptions are emotionally based one-sided events that simply are not true. Our pasts are usually all a lie, until the work is done to balance those events into two-sided activities that had equal positives and negatives simultaneously. Hope this helps! Dr. Mike ( Full Answer )
Advertising is basically a type of communication. It attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or consume a product or service. It is designed in such a way that it creates and reinforces brand image and brand loyalty. Thus, advertising plays a very important role in forming consumer be…havior. Advertising is usually important for triggering the first time purchase of the product. Then, if the consumer likes it, he will purchase the product again. However, if the advertising and promotion portrays a good image of the product, the repurchase of the product is guaranteed. Buyers of convenience goods are especially affected by advertising. This is because the products are more or less the same. Advertising plays a vital role in reminding consumers of the brand name. Thus, a strong brand image portrayed through advertising would ensure the repurchase of convenience goods. ( Full Answer )
Consumer involvement Theory - CIT - is one way to understand the psychology and behavior of your target audience. > There are others. But none quite so quick, simple and insightful. Involvement refers to how much time, thought, energy and other resources people devote to the purchase process. The E…motional / Rational scale is a measure of reason vs. impulse, desire vs. logic, passion vs. prudence. That sort of psycho stuff. There are four general categories. And we have some examples plotted on a grid, courtesy of our friend Brian. > High involvement / emotional > High involvement / rational > Low involvement / emotional > Low involvement / rational > Look inside Brian's brain. High involvement / rational In this category you find expensive business purchases: anything relating to the technological infrastructure, the office location and lease, as well as the company health insurance plan. On the consumer side, high involvement / rational purchases tend to be linked to high cost. This category can include financial services and products, the purchase of a home or car, as well as major appliances and electronics. That said, high involvement consumer purchases can vary significantly on the rational / emotional scale from individual to individual. For Ms. Smith, a car is strictly a way to get to work, and her selection is based on fuel economy and reliability. For Mr. Wilson, a car is an important expression of his status and ego. Your task is to determine how the majority of your target market relates to the purchase of the particular product or service. For both B2C and BtoB markets, advertising for Hi/R purchases tend to be copy driven, with clear explanations of features and benefits. High involvement / emotional Business purchases that fall into this category might include such things as office design, advertising, and perhaps the hiring of certain employees. For individuals, high involvement / emotional purchases can include jewelry, weddings, and holiday travel plans. In some societies the selection of a husband or wife will fall into group. As can the purchase of a home or car. Again, depends on the culture, person, and how much purchasing power she has. Advertising in this category tends to focus on visual and emotional appeals. Give people visual details, with music. Low involvement / rational These are the things we buy out of habit, without much thought. This category includes most of the things you put into your basket at the drug store or market. The places you eat lunch, say the local McDonald's. And office supplies. Here the typical role for advertising is to get people to sample or switch. To break the automatic habit of spending their money with the competitor. So consider consider coupons and other incentives. As well as ways to differentiate or re-position the product. Over the counter medicines tend to fall into this category. But pain relievers, cough medicines and the like, especially those for children, can be more emotionally driven. In that case, see the LI/E below. Low involvement / emotional The gratification we get from these products is emotional or sensual. But fleeting; it doesn't last a long time. So we don't spend a lot of time thinking about the purchase. Movies, candy, an entertaining magazine, or a birthday card. Perhaps selecting a restaurant for a special occasion. The advertising challenge here tends to be the flash promise of pleasure, of gratification, the promise of a benefit. Strong positioning can help, especially in a crowded product category. ( Full Answer )
The consumer seeks to gain the best or the most goods and services for the least amount of money possible.
Want cheapest but best products. Want fastest but safest deliveries. Want lowest maintenance for highest effectiveness.
According to Suzanne Brue, an expert in personality type and fitness, I'm a "Quicksilver: Master of Exercise Disguise". That's the type of person who prefers to exercise as a part of some other enjoyable activity, who wants exercise to be convenient, require minimal process and advance planning. We'…re also easily bored, and tend to cycle through new activities on a regular basis. For me that's pretty accurate. You, on the other hand, might have a very different approach to exercise, closely related to your personality type preferences. I read about Brue's research recently, and while it is interesting from a personal growth perspective, I found it even more interesting from a marketing perspective. "Some personalities are attracted to exercise connecting them to another person or to many people. Others are motivated by the privacy of exercising alone. Efficiency motivates some, while others are attracted to exercise offering a mind/body or spiritual dimension. Being surrounded by nature and using their observational and navigational skills are requirements for some personalities, while others crave the familiarity of consistent places and routines, allowing for mental drift. Detailed instructions and exercising "correctly" inspires some while others resist an imposed structure in favor of physical activity through "play." For one and all, there lies a satisfying, successful path toward healthy physical activity and exercise." . Our Calvinistic exercise culture currently says you have to orient yourself to follow a routine, and find pleasure in the following of this routine, because you know it is good for you. This is an approach that would work for just over half the population (54% of adults have a J preference). Ms. Brue's research found that many J types can maintain exercise regimens that they do not enjoy at all -- they do them because it is good for them. For the rest of us, there needs to be a play element, or we can't do it, (46% of adults have a P preference). One of her conclusions was very surprising to me: "Whether you eventually commit to an exercise routine as you would another job, or you look for a way to enjoy exercise to help you get past your resistance, the thought of exercise in and of itself is rarely much of a draw ." [emphasis is mine] . Marketing implications What really surprised me about this research is that most advertising for fitness-related activities doesn't appear to be speaking to anyone's motivations. It doesn't emphasize the ease of maintaining a routine, and it doesn't emphasize the play element. Personality type is pervasive -- it influences many of our choices in life, our values, and our communications and decision-making style. ( Full Answer )
Consumer behavior has a large scope in that it can affect everything about business. What consumers are currently buying and what they will buy in the future, how much they are willing to pay, etc. can determine what companies produce and even if a company survives.
Consumer behavior is dynamic because its uses are always changingwith the ways that consumers' tastes change with new productcreations. Those tastes also change with the ever-changing face ofconsumers and society in general.
Interpersonal determinants are determinants consumers place onproducts. A consumer may link emotions to some products. Emotionalbuying is an interpersonal determinant of consumer buying behavior.
Human behaviors are the behaviors that we use as humans. Ourbehavior can be influenced by factors such as family, genetics, andthe environment.
Behaviorism is all about control and depends on the type of person. This person could be shy or even have ADHD. The behavior of one revolves around the tthings and ways they were taught as a child and bay and is mostly based on who they are and what they may be able and what they cannot control.
Consumer behaviour audit means that to find the product according to need in a proper way
Consumer lives under social and cultural limitations. Any behavior against the cultural set up of the society he lives in, is not accepted socially and as such he behaves under the influence of culture
Interpersonal determinant of consumer behaviour are included culture ,social & family influence.Culture is the values ,beliefs ,preferences and taste transfer from one generation to the next generation.Besides that,the subculture is a group with their own distinct modes of behavior. Social influence… is divided into three parts which are reference group ,opinion leader and social classes. Reference group is a group whose value structures and standards influence a person's behavior.Opinion leader is trendsetter who purchase a new product before other and influence other people to buy it.Social classes divided into six part ,upper-upper class ,upper-lower class ,upper-middle class ,lower -middle class ,working class and lower class. Family influence included four roles of spouse,there are autonomic, husband dominant ,wife dominant and syncratic dominant. Autonomic role is independently in purchase of products such as personal care. Husband dominant role is certain purchase decisions are made by husband such as insurance. Wife dominant role is wife who make the purchase decisions such as buying children outfits. Syncratic role is both partners jointly make the purchase decisions such as buying house. ( Full Answer )
motivation can drive the consumer behavior in different way, but motivation is a drive which drive personal individual inside to decide which she/he want and for how much, for how long and for which advantages she/he is going to benefit from wants and needs
Individual Determinants There are five major groups of individual determinants: personality and self concept, motivation and involvement, information processing, learning and memory, and, attitudes. Personality and self concept provide the consumer with a central theme. That is, they provide str…ucture for the individual so that a consistent pattern of behavior can be developed. Several major personality theories are examined for their usefulness in understanding consumers. How the self concept develops, its role in influencing purchase decisions and the practical relevance of the subject to the marketer are reviewed. Motives are internal factors that energize behavior and provide guidance to direct the activated behavior. Involvement describes the per6sonal relevance or importance that the consumers perceives in a given purchase situation. High involvement will lead to a motivated state. Various types of involvement and motive situation factors that influence them, and their influence on the behavior of consumer The term Information Processing refers to the activities that consumers engage in when acquiring integrating and evaluating information. These activities involve actively seeking information or passively receiving it, attending to only certain parts of the information, integrating that which has been attended to with information from other sources, and evaluating the information for the purposes of making decisions. Such activities are varied and occur at all stages of the decision process. They also strongly involve some individual factors, including motivation, learning and attitudes. Information processing, introduces these issues and also discuss several marketing strategy areas in which an understanding of the progress can be of considerable benefit to the marketer. However, because of their importance, treatment of these issues is not within the scope of this article. Learning and Memory - What consumers learn, how they learn, and what factors govern the retention of learned material in memory are all issues of considerable importance for understanding consumers. Not only do consumers acquire and remember product names and characteristics, but they also learn standards for judging products, places to shop, problem solving abilities, behavior patterns, and tastes. Such learned material stored in memory significantly influences how consumers react to each situation that they confront. Attitudes guide our basic orientation toward objects, people, events, and our activities. As such, attitudes strongly influence how consumers will act and react to products and services, and how they will respond to communications that marketers develop to convince them to purchase their products. After a review of the nature and function of attitudes, attention is turned to how attitudes are formed and how they are related to purchase behavior. ( Full Answer )
The process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and services, in satisfaction of their needs and wants. See also consumer decision making.
The Catholic approach to ethical behaviour is based on claiming the objective truth of the following ten claims - that these claims are true, whether or not people choose to accept them. 1. God Exists : God is good. God is the Creator of all that exists. God loves all creation and God's pla…n for human beings is for happiness now and beyond death. 2. Human beings have been created in the image of God: Human beings are like God. They reflect the goodness of God.. They are persons, a unity of body and soul. 3. People naturally know what is right through the use of their intelligence: Being like God, human beings are able to think about their experience, and arrive at knowledge of good and evil, by discerning the 'law written on their hearts' (Gaudium et Spes, #16). 4. Human beings are capable of sin: Because human beings have free will, they can choose their actions. However, while they are naturally able to know what is good, they often choose what they know is wrong. The word sin, refers to those actions a person chooses that damage their relationship with themselves, with others and with God. 5. In Christ, God has restored the fullness of life to all people. (Redemption): Jesus Christ gained for us the forgiveness of God, reconciliation with God and eternal life with God. All people are called to a life of being like God, of striving for goodness. 6. Jesus Christ showed people what is is to be fully human. (Revelation): In the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, God showed people what it is like to be fully human. We are free to become most fully ourselves, fully alive, the person God calls us to be. 7. Christ gave an example of how to live: Christians believe that the life of Christ is the model for all human choices and decisions. 8. The Christian life is one of faith, hope and love: 'I have come that you may have life and have it to the full.' (John 10:10) In Christ, Catholics see a life in faith, hope and love - a model of how to conduct their own lives in ways that incorporate these three virtues. 9. Christ taught the law of love: 'I give you a new commandment that you love on another. Just as I have loved you, you also should love on another.' (John 13:34) On the basis of this law of love, Catholics claim that love, generosity, self-sacrifice and compassion are always objectively good; and that selfishness, hatred, abuse, discrimination, and oppression are always objectively evil. 10. The Church teaches about moral and ethical issues: Catholic teaching on many ethical issues has been developed through reflection on the life and teaching of Christ. Faithful to him, the Church teaches in his name and with his authority. (K. Engebreston ET.AL, Catholic Ethical Thinking for Senior Secondary Students , James Goold House Publications, Melbourne, 2004, pp.11-12) ( Full Answer )
bScope of Consume behaviour refer to the study of market potential available in particular Area of the country, based on the customer taste, habits and standard of living of the people living there. . Psychology . Sociology . Social Psychology . Cultural Anthropology . Economics
Consumer behavior is the study of people: how we buy, consume and dispose of products.
Consumerism is a social and economic order that is based on the systematic creation and fostering of a desire to purchase goods and services in ever greater amounts. Consumer behavior is the extend to which consumerism is being put into practice, Example: I may WANT another car, but for financ…ial reasons decide to NOT buy one. In this example consumerism is separated from consumer behavior. Both generally only go hand in hand when there's a clear control of finances (be it by either understanding of what one needs and limiting to these things, or if a large financial budget is available, and there are no problems achieving what one wants). ( Full Answer )
Because needs od the customers are changing according to new development of that product ..
Various traits of personality effect consumer behaviour. For example, someone with low self esteem may impulse buy to cheer themselves up and also spend more than they intended, where as someone with a happier disposition may be more restrained.
Consumer behavior varies from person to person. On an average, consumers are aggrieved when the products purchased are not up to their expectation and/or the after sales services are not up to the mark. Apart from monetary consideration, mental effect is also there to play a part in consumer behavio…r. There are a type of consumers who are always allured by a product packed in attractive package,some consumers tend for cheaper price, even compromising the quality of the product. The high clientele consumers do not bother to pay higher price,and ignore attractive offerings associated with the product.The reputed Cos. always stick to the quality aspect and try to satisfy the consumers by their after sales services. ( Full Answer )
celebrity Impact on Consumers . Advertisers have always found unique ways of getting theconsumers attention, and elevating the status of a particularproduct. The Nike empire has many famous athletes sponsoring theirproduct, such as Lebron James, Troy Polamalu, and Tiger woods.These athletes are jus…t some of hundreds that Nike has sponsoredover the years. From their endorsements, consumers are constantlyseeing the best sports players in the world using Nike equipment,shoes, or other Nike brand products. This in turn gives one thesense of Nike being the best, since the best professionals areusing it. In the problem recognition stage, this is promoting thefeeling that what you own now isn't good enough, and that Nike isthe best brand. Thus making the consumer want to buy Nikesproducts. Gillette's Mach Fusion advertisement featuring TigerWoods, Roger Federer, and Thierry Henry, combined all three of thebest golf, tennis, and soccer players in its razor commercial. Thisparticular television ad was called the "Gillette Champions" . ( Full Answer )