The cell walls of plants are made of what substance?
Plants, algae, fungi and bacteria all have cell walls. Animal cells do not have cell walls. Plants have cell walls made of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. In true fungi they are usually made of chitin, in algae they are made of a polysaccharide (like cellulose) or a glycoprotein, and bacteria have a peptidoglycan wall.
What kingdom comprises of organisms with cell walls that has the same substance as that of the outer bodies of insects?
The substance that of eubacterial cell walls is a polymeric substance formed from a polysaccharide backbone tied together by short polypeptides; this primary structuraal molecule of the bacterial cell walls is known as peptidoglycan. Peoptidoglycan varies in chemical structure among different bacterial species.
Fungi have cell walls made of chitin and are unable to photosynthesize. As well, sexual reporduction is drastically different in fungi from plants. Plants have cell walls made of cellulose. The most importnatn difference is that plants have chloroplasts containing chlorophyll, which enables to photosynthesize.
Although fundamentally different, plant and fungi do share certain characteristics, which made it confusing at first to distinguish between the two. Plants and fungi both have cell walls. However, they are of different substances. Plant cell walls are made from cellulose, whereas fungi cell walls are made from chitin. Plants and fungi are both sessile. This means that both plants and fungi are stuck to the ground and cannot freely move.
All prokaryotic cells (prokaryotes) have a cell wall. However, cell walls are not exclusive to prokaryotes. Some eukaryotes also have cell walls. Plants and fungi are eukaryotes which have cell walls made of cellulose and chitin, respectively. Not all eukaryotes have cell walls though (animals do not).
Fungi are more closely related to animals than plants. They do share some similarity to plants, though. For example, plants and fungi are both able to synthesize the amino acid lysine (animals are not); however, fungi use the AAA pathway, and plants use the DAP pathway. Plants and fungi have cells walls. Plant cell walls are made of cellulose, while fungal cell walls are made of chitin.
Plant cell walls are composed of cellulose fibres that are connected by hemicellulose fibres and embedded in a matrix of pectin. Lignin is also part of the cell wall. Special kinds of polymers include callose, suberin, that are present in some cell walls, but not all. Plants also have many glycoproteins embedded in the cell wall. Fungal cell walls are composed of chitin, beta-glucan polymers and manno-proteins.