The system of checks and balances is designed to prevent the dominance of?
That system is designed in a way where one branch can limit or check the other two branches, thus preventing the dominance of any of them.
Which system as defined by political historian James MacGregor Burns is designed for deadlock and inaction?
It depends on the government; not all governments have a system of checks and balances. In the case of the USA, the philosophy behind checks and balances is that each poliical branch will apply pressure to the other branches and prevent any one person or political party from completely controlling the United States.