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The timeline of X-ray?


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* November 8 - Discovery of X Rays----- W.K. Roentgen * January 3 - X-Ray report made public * February - Discovery of Radioactivity -----H. Becquerel * March 3 - First reports of possible x-ray injury; damage to eyes -----T.A. Edison, W.J. Morton * March 14 - Concern expressed over possibility of x-ray injury -----F. Battelli * April 10 - Epilation noted from x-ray exposure -----J. Daniel * April 18 - Skin effects first noted -----L. G. Stevens * July - First x-ray protective device: a heavy glass plate to protect the eyes during dental radiography -----W.H. Rollins * Reports of accidental injury (burns) -----H.D. Hawks * November 18 - Deliberately induced experimental injury (burns) -----E. Thomson * Gold leaf electroscope used to make ionization measurements -----L. Benoist * Air thermometer used to measure energy transfer by x-rays -----E. Dorn * January - Aluminum filter used as protective device -----E. Thomson * May - Dark adaptation prior to fluoroscopy suggested -----F.H. Williams * July - Leaded x-ray tub housing; collimators -----W.H. Rollins * July - Word "radioactivity" coined -----P. & M. Curie * December - Radium discovered -----P. & M. Curie * Gamma rays discovered -----P. Villard * April - Radiographer licensure recommended to protect public -----J. Dennis * May - Malpractice award for x-ray burns * Ozone hazard of x-ray generators noted * Listing of protective devices (gloves, aprons, etc.) in x-ray catalog -----R. Friedlander Co. * Increased target to skin distance to reduce skin dose -----M.K. Kassabian * January 3 - X-ray lethality to person alleged * Skin burn caused by radium carried on person -----H. Becquerel * X-ray lethality to mammals demonstrated experimentally -----W.H. Rollins * X-ray lethality to mammalian fetus demonstrated -----W.H. Rollins * Fractionation of exposure in fluoroscopy -----W.H. Rollins * Protection committee within ARRS proposed -----S.H. Monell * First direct reading radiation instrument; spinthariscope -----W. Crookes * Ocotober - First death in x-ray pioneer attributed to cumulative overexposure -----C.M. Dally * Radiation unit based on ionization first proposed -----M. Franklin * Law of radiosensitivity of tissues put forth -----J. Bergonie & R. Tribondeau * Mutation by x-ray reported in toads -----C.R. Bardeen * Photographic plate carried in pocket for monitoring x-ray exposure -----R.V. Wagner * Use of gas-filled tubes for detection of radiation -----E. Rutherford * International radium standard and Curie unit -----M. Curie * Half value layer concept -----T. Christan * Hot cathode x-ray tubes and tungsten targets permitting higher voltages -----W.D. Coolidge * British Roentgen Society adopts radiation protection recommendations * First standing x-ray protection committee -----ARRS * British X-Ray and Radium Protection Committee issues first memorandum * American Roentgen Ray Society adopts radiation protection rules * Film badges for personnel monitoring -----G. Pfahler * First "tolerance dose" proposed -----A. Mutscheller * Genetic effects of x-rays shown -----H.J. Muller * First commercial U.S. ionization chamber -----J. Victoreen * Roentgen unit formally adopted * International X-Ray and Radium Protection Committee formed (forerunner of ICRP) * U.S. Advisory committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection formed (forerunner of NCRP) * First portable survey meter -----L.S. Taylor * USACXRP publishes first recommendations - 0.2 R/day * Concept of greater permissible dose for partial body irradiation (hands) introduced -----G. Failla * Discover of the neutron -----E. Chadwick * ICXRP recommends permissible dose of 0.2 R/day * 0.1 R/day (0.5 R/wk) * Statement of the Bragg-Gray principle of cavity ionization -----L.H. Gray * USACXRP recommends reduction in permissible dose to 0.1 R/day * USACXRP recommends adoption of maximum body burden of 0.1 microCi for radium * Suggested maximum permissible dose of 0.02 R/day -----L.S. Taylor * Manhattan District * 4 R/wk shown to cause injury -----H.M. Parker * Maximum permissible concentration for inhaled radioactivity introduced -----H.M. Parker * Rem and rep introduced -----H.M. Parker * 0.3 R/wk * 0.3 rem/wk