What age is still considered a minor?

A minor is someone under 18, this is a general rule, However, there is no "united states federal law" deciphering a US wide age of 18. as of 1995, minor is legally defined as a person under the age of 18, although, in the context of alcohol, people under the age of 21 may be referred to as "minors." However, not all minors are considered "juveniles" in terms of criminal responsibility. As is frequently the case in the United States, the laws vary widely by state. In eleven states, including Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, South Carolina, and Texas, a "juvenile" is legally defined as a person under seventeen. In three states, Connecticut, New York, and North Carolina, "juvenile" refers to a person under sixteen.[1] In other states a juvenile is legally defined as a person under eighteen. Under this distinction, those considered juveniles are usually tried in juvenile court, and they may be afforded other special protections. For example, in some states a parent or guardian must be present during police questioning, or their names may be kept confidential when they are accused of a crime. For many crimes (especially more violent crimes), the age at which a minor may be tried as an adult is variable below the age of 18 or (less often) below 16 [Gaines, Larry K and Roger Leroy Miller. "Criminal Justice in Action" 4th ed., Thompson Wadsworth Publishing, 2007. Pg 495]. For example, in Kentucky, the lowest age a juvenile may be tried as an adult, no matter how heinous the crime, is 14. The age for sexual activity is often lower than the age of majority, frequently using a graduated scale based on the difference in age between the participants. There is an absolute minimum age, however, varying from state to state, below which a minor may not consent. The lowest age for a legal marriage also varies by state. The twenty-sixth amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1971, granted all citizens 18 years of age or older the right to vote in every state, in every election.

United States of America is a federal republic where the age of consent laws are made at the state level. There exist several federal statutes related to protecting children from sexual predators, but none of them imposes an age limit on sexual acts. On 26 June 2003, both heterosexual and homosexual sodomy became legal in all US states and territories under a US Supreme Court decision called Lawrence v. Texas [3] (between non-commercial, consenting adults in a private bedroom). In Limon v. Kansas (2005), the Kansas Supreme Court used Lawrence as a precedent to overturn the state's "Romeo and Juliet" law, which proscribed lesser penalties for heterosexuals than homosexuals convicted of similar age of consent related offenses [4]. There is ongoing advocacy for a uniform age of consent. One proposal would make the national age of consent 18. If a state has an age of consent below the federal limit, 10% of federal education funds would be reduced. Thus far, Congress has not considered this or any other proposal to change the status quo. However there is a common misconception among many Americans that there is a federal limit at 18, but that is false, as the age limit in most states is in fact below 18. {Chapter 117, 18 U.S.C. 2422(b)} forbids the use of the United States Postal Service or other interstate or foreign means of communication, such as telephone calls or use of the internet, to persuade or entice a minor (defined as under 18 throughout chapter) to be involved in a criminal sexual act. The act has to be illegal under state or federal law to be charged with a crime under 2422(b), and can even be applied to situations where both parties reside within the same state but use an instant messenger program whose servers are located in another state.[4] {Chapter 117, 18 U.S.C. 2423(a)} forbids transporting a minor (defined as under 18) in interstate or foreign commerce with the intent of engaging in criminal sexual acts in which a person can be charged. This subsection is ambiguous on its face, and only seems to apply when the minor is transported across state or international lines to a place where the conduct is already illegal to begin with. The United States Department of Justice seems to agree with this interpretation. {Chapter 117, 18 U.S.C. 2423(b)} forbids travelling in interstate or foreign commerce to engage in "illicit sexual conduct" with a minor. 2423(f) refers to Chapter 109A as its bright line for defining "illicit sexual conduct", as far as non-commercial sexual activity is concerned. For the purposes of age of consent, the only provision applicable is {Chapter 109A, 18 U.S.C. 2243(a)}. 2243(a) refers to situations where such younger person is under the age of 16 years, has attained 12 years of age, and the older person is more than 4 years older than the 12-15 year old (persons under 12 are handled under 18 U.S.C. 2241(c) under aggravated sexual abuse). So, the age is 12 years if one is within 4 years of the 12-15 year old's age, 16 under all other circumstances. This most likely reflects Congressional intent to not unduly interfere with a state's age of consent law, which would have been the case if the age was set to 18 under all circumstances. This law is also extraterritorial in nature to U.S. Citizens and Residents who travel outside of the United States. Although legislation tends to reflect general societal attitudes regarding male versus female ages of consent, Richard Posner notes in his Guide to America's Sex Laws; : :: "The U.S. Supreme Court has held that stricter rules for males do not violate the equal protection clause of the Constitution, on the theory that men lack the disincentives associated with pregnancy that women have to engage in sexual activity, and the law may thus provide men with those disincentives in the form of criminal sanctions."[5] == The age of consent is 16, minimum age for civil majors (19 years old). Shown by articles of the Code of Alabama : * 13A-6-70 : (c) A person is deemed incapable of consent if he is: (1) Less than 16 years old; or ... * 13A-6-67 : (a) A person commits the crime of sexual abuse in the second degree if: ...

(2) He, being 19 years old or older, subjects another person to sexual contact who is less than 16 years old, but more than 12 years old. * 13A-6-61 " (a) A person commits the crime of rape in the first degree if: ...

(3) He or she, being 16 years or older, engages in sexual intercourse with a member of the opposite sex who is less than 12 years old. * 13A-6-62 " (a) A person commits the crime of rape in the second degree if: ...

(1) Being 16 years old or older, he or she engages in sexual intercourse with a member of the opposite sex less than 16 and more than 12 years old; provided, however, the actor is at least two years older than the member of the opposite sex.

(2) He or she engages in sexual intercourse with a member of the opposite sex who is incapable of consent by reason of being mentally defective. * 13A-6-64 : (a) A person commits the crime of sodomy in the second degree if: ...

(1) He, being 16 years old or older, engages in deviate sexual intercourse with another person less than 16 and more than 12 years old. == The age of consent is 16, provided the older partner is not in a position of authority. Alaska Statutes - Title 11. Criminal Law - Chapter 41. Offenses Against the Person - Sexual Abuse of a Minor

Section 436 in the First Degree (Unclassified Felony) ; Section 436 in the Second Degree (Class B Felony) ;

Section 438 in the Third Degree (Class C Felony) ; Section 440 : in the Fourth Degree (Class A misdemeanor) Sexual Abuse of a Minor in the .... : * Younger minor under 13 + Elder minor under 16 ( more than 3 years between them ) : ** Sexual contact = 4th Degree & Sexual penetration = 3rd Degree * Younger minor under 13 + Elder minor above 16 : ** pornography = 2nd Degree ( younger under 16 vs. elder above 16 ) ** Sexual contact = 2nd Degree ( for elder minor oneself or if (s)he helps another person) ** Sexual penetration = 1st Degree ( for elder minor oneself or if (s)he helps another person) * Younger minor 13-15 + Elder minor above 16 ( more than 3 years between them ) : ** Sexual contact = 3rd Degree ** Sexual penetration = 2nd Degree ( for elder minor oneself or if (s)he helps another person) ** pornography = 2nd Degree ( younger under 16 vs. elder above 16 ) * Minor under 16 + partner above 18 (civil majority) if cohabitant with authority or position of authority : ** Sexual contact = 2nd Degree & Sexual penetration = 1st Degree. * Minor under 18 + parent or guardian above 18 : ** Sexual contact = 2nd Degree & Sexual penetration = 1st Degree Indecent Exposure : * ** with masturbation, in front of minor under 16 = Indecent Exposure in the 1st Degree (Class C Felony) ** simply, in front of minor under 16 = Indecent Exposure in the 2nd Degree (Class A misdemeanor) ** simply, in front of above 16 = Indecent Exposure in the 2nd Degree (Class B misdemeanor). == The age of consent in Arizona is 18. However there exist in the legislation defenses to prosecution if the defendant is close in age to the "victim" or a spouse of the "victim". Note: these are not close in age exceptions but defenses at court. Arizona Revised Statute 13-1405(A) 13-1407 (Defenses) * B. It is a defense to a prosecution pursuant to sections 13-1404 and 13-1405 in which the victim's lack of consent is based on incapacity to consent because the victim was fifteen, sixteen or seventeen years of age if at the time the defendant engaged in the conduct constituting the offence the defendant did not know and could not reasonably have known the age of the victim. * D. It is a defense to a prosecution pursuant to section 13-1404 or 13-1405 that the person was the spouse (legally married AND cohabiting) of the other person at the time of commission of the act... * F. It is a defense to a prosecution pursuant to section 13-1405 if the victim is fifteen, sixteen or seventeen years of age, the defendant is under nineteen years of age or attending high school and is no more than twenty-four months older than the victim and the conduct is consensual. == The age of consent is 16, with some close in age exemptions. Details : The age is minimum 16 for a minor (<18) with a major more than 20 years old. Under 18, the younger must not be less than 14, or if so, there is a defense if the minor is not more 4 years younger if above 12, not more 3 years younger if under 12. Sexual intercourse of a major and a minor under 14 is a rape. Arkansas Code - Title 5. Criminal Offenses - Chapter 14. Sexual Offenses. Sections 5-14- 103, 124, 125, 126, 127 5-14-127. (a) A person commits sexual assault in the fourth degree if the person: * (1) Being twenty (20) years of age or older, engages in sexual intercourse or deviate sexual activity with another person who is: ** (A) Less than sixteen (16) years of age; and (B) Not the person's spouse; or * (2) Engages in sexual contact with another person who is: ** (A) Less than sixteen (16) years of age; and (B) Not the person's spouse. (b) * (1) Sexual assault in the fourth degree under subdivision (a)(1) of this section is a Class D felony. * (2) Sexual assault in the fourth degree under subdivision (a)(2) of this section is a Class A misdemeanor if the person engages only in sexual contact with another person as described in subdivision (a)(2) of this section. == The age of consent is 18, with a misdemeanor if the minor has 3 or fewer years of difference with the major. Penalties increase if the minor is under 14 and the major is above 21. Texts :

* California Penal Code - Part 1. of crimes and punishments - ** Title 9. of crimes against the person involving sexual assault, and crimes against public decency and good morals *** Chapter 1. Rape, abduction, carnal abuse of children, and seduction. - Section 261.5. **** (a) Unlawful sexual intercourse is an act of sexual intercourse accomplished with a person who is not the spouse of the perpetrator, if the person is a minor. For the purposes of this section, a "minor" is a person under the age of 18 years and an "adult" is a person who is at least 18 years of age and older. **** (b) Any person who engages in an act of unlawful sexual intercourse with a minor who is not more than three years older or three years younger than the perpetrator, is guilty of a misdemeanor. **** (c) Any person who engages in an act of unlawful sexual intercourse with a minor who is more than three years younger than the perpetrator is guilty of either a misdemeanor or a felony, and shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison. **** (d) Any person 21 years of age or older who engages in an act of unlawful sexual intercourse with a minor who is under 16 years of age is guilty of either a misdemeanor or a felony, and shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years. == The age of consent in Colorado is 17, however there exists in the legislation close in age exceptions which allow those aged 15 and 16 to engage in acts with those less than ten years older and those less than 15 to engage in acts with those less than four years older. However a 17 year old can not legally consent to person that is in position of trust. 18-3-402(1) Any actor who knowingly inflicts sexual intrusion or sexual penetration on a victim commits sexual assault if: (d) At the time of the commission of the act, the victim is less than fifteen years of age and the actor is at least four years older than the victim and is not the spouse of the victim; or (e) At the time of the commission of the act, the victim is at least fifteen years of age but less than seventeen years of age and the actor is at least ten years older than the victim and is not the spouse of the victim; Colorado Revised Statutes website == The age of consent is 16. Between 13 and 16, it is a positive defense against the sexual encounter, if the age difference is less than 2 years.

But if the actor of abuse has authority or influence (and is above 20), the consent age is 18.

For most offenses, there is a worse felony or misdemeanor classification if the minor is under 16. General statutes of Connecticut - Title 53a. Penal code - Chapter 952. Offenses. - Sections 53a-70 to 53a-73a. Sec. 53a-71. Sexual assault in the second degree: Class C or B felony.

[5] (a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the second degree when such person engages in sexual intercourse with another person and: (1) Such other person is thirteen years of age or older but under sixteen years of age and the actor is more than two years older than such person;' Section 53a-73a. Sexual assault in the fourth degree: Class A misdemeanor or class D felony.

(a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the fourth degree when: ...(6) such person is a school employee and subjects another person to sexual contact who is a student enrolled in a school in which the actor works or a school under the jurisdiction of the local or regional board of education which employs the actor;

or (7) such person is a coach in an athletic activity or a person who provides intensive, ongoing instruction and subjects another person to sexual contact who is a recipient of coaching or instruction from the actor and (A) is a secondary school student and receives such coaching or instruction in a secondary school setting,or (B) is under eighteen years of age;

or (8) such person subjects another person to sexual contact and (A) the actor is twenty years of age or older and stands in a position of power, authority or supervision over such other person by virtue of the actor's professional, legal, occupational or volunteer status and such other person's participation in a program or activity, and (B) such other person is under eighteen years of age. == The age of consent in Delaware is 18, but it is legal for teenagers aged 16 and 17 to engage in sexual intercourse as long as the older partner is younger than 30. Title 11 § 761. Definitions generally applicable to sexual offences. (j) A child who has not yet reached his or her sixteenth birthday is deemed unable to consent to a sexual act with a person more than 4 years older than said child. Children who have not yet reached their twelfth birthday are deemed unable to consent to a sexual act under any circumstances. Crimes and Criminal Procedure, Delaware Criminal Code == The age of consent in the District of Columbia is 16 with a close in age exemption for those within four years of age.[6] == The age of consent in Florida is 18, but close in age exemptions exist. By law, the exception permits an adult under the age of 24 to engage in legal sexual activity with a minor no younger than the age of 16. 794.05 Unlawful sexual activity with certain minors.-- (1) A person 24 years of age or older who engages in sexual activity with a person 16 or 17 years of age commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. As used in this section, "sexual activity" means oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by, or union with, the sexual organ of another; however, sexual activity does not include an act done for a bona fide medical purpose Florida code, Title XLVI, Chapter 794 == The age of consent in Georgia is 16 as specified by Section 16.6.3 of the Criminal Code of Georgia. Also stated in the Criminal Code of Georgia 16.6.3 subsection (c), if a person is "at least 14 but less than 16 years of age and the person convicted of statutory rape is 18 years of age or younger and is no more than four years older than the victim, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." == * For age of consent in Hawaii and the territories in the Pacific Ocean, see: Ages of consent in Oceania#United States == The age of consent in Idaho is 18 in ordinary circumstances with no close in age exception as specified in the Idaho statutes 18-1601. == The age of consent to sexual activity is 17. It is also illegal for a person to commit sexual acts on a person under the age of 18 if he/she has a position of authority or trust over the victim. == The age of consent in Indiana is 16. IC 35-42-4-9 Sexual misconduct with a minor Sec. 9. (a) A person at least eighteen (18) years of age who, with a child at least fourteen (14) years of age but less than sixteen (16) years of age, performs or submits to sexual intercourse or deviate sexual conduct commits sexual misconduct with a minor, a Class C felony. However, the offense is: (1) a Class B felony if it is committed by a person at least twenty-one (21) years of age... == The age of consent in Iowa is 16, with a close in age exemption for those aged 14 and 15, who may engage in sexual acts with partners less than 4 years older. Section 709.4 states: A person commits sexual abuse in the third degree when the person performs a sex act under any of the following circumstances... 2(c) The other person is fourteen or fifteen years of age and any of the following are true...(4) The person is four or more years older than the other person. Section 709.15 forbids, amongst other things, sexual contact between a school employee and a "...person who is currently enrolled in or attending a public or nonpublic elementary or secondary school, or who was a student enrolled in or who attended a public or nonpublic elementary or secondary school within thirty days of any violation..." There exist similar laws for those who provide or purport to provide mental health services {§709.15}, officers in charge of offenders and juveniles {§709.16}. [edit] Iowa's "banishment law" Iowa Code lookup Iowa: further reading: * ACLU article "Iowa Files First Ever Class-Action Lawsuit Challenging Sex Offender `Banishment`" (2003-6-25) * Quadcity Times article "Iowa lawmakers mulling changing sex-offender law" (2003-2-15) * More recent Quadtimes article "Prosecutors: `Dump offender rule`" (2006-1-24) == The age of consent in Kansas as specified by K.S.A. 21-3503 is 16. == The age of consent in Kentucky is 16. Section 510.020 of the Kentucky Revised Statutes deems a person unable to consent if he or she is less than 16 years old. It is a defense however if the "victim" is at least 14 and the actor is less than 5 years older {510.130(b)}. Additionally, under 510.120(d) it is "sexual abuse in the second degree," a Class A misdemeanor, for a person over 21 to have sex with anyone under 18 for whom he or she provides a foster home. == The age of consent in Louisiana is 17. §80. Felony carnal knowledge of a juvenile A. Felony carnal knowledge of a juvenile is committed when: (1) A person who is nineteen years of age or older has sexual intercourse, with consent, with a person who is twelve years of age or older but less than seventeen years of age, when the victim is not the spouse of the offender; or... §80.1. Misdemeanor carnal knowledge of a juvenile A. Misdemeanor carnal knowledge of a juvenile is committed when a person who is seventeen years of age or older but less than nineteen years of age has sexual intercourse, with consent, with a person who is fifteen years of age or older but less than seventeen years of age, when the victim is not the spouse of the offender, and when the difference between the age of the victim and age of the offender is greater than two years. == The age of consent in Maine is 16. Teenagers aged 14 and 15 may engage in sexual intercourse with partners who are less than 5 years older. §254. Sexual abuse of minors 1. A person is guilty of sexual abuse of a minor if: A. The person engages in a sexual act with another person, not the actor's spouse, who is either 14 or 15 years of age and the actor is at least 5 years older than the other person. == The age of consent in Maryland is 16. An exception is made when the actor is not at least four years older than the victim. However, if someone in a "position of authority" engages in a sexual act with a minor, he or she may be guilty of sexual offense in the fourth degree as specified by Maryland Code § 3-308. == The age of consent in Massachusetts is 16, as specified by Chapter 265, Section 23 of the General Laws of Massachusetts, which states: : "Whoever unlawfully has sexual intercourse or unnatural sexual intercourse, and abuses a child under sixteen years of age shall... be punished..." MGL 265-23 However, Chapter 272, Section 4 sets another age of consent at 18 when the "victim" is "of chaste life" and the perpetrator induces them. : "Whoever induces any person under 18 years of age of chaste life to have unlawful sexual intercourse shall be punished." MGL 272-4 == The age of consent in Michigan is 16, unless one is an authority figure in which case the age of consent is 18. == The age of consent in Minnesota is 16. If the actor is in a position of authority, the age of consent is 18. If the victim is under the age of 13 the actor must be no more than 36 months older. If the victim is 13, 14 or 15 the actor must be no more than 48 months older. The specifics of these laws are covered under Sections 609.34x of the Minnesota Criminal Code. Specifically sections 609.341 Definitions, 609.342 Criminal Sexual Conduct in the First Degree, 609.343 Criminal Sexual Conduct in the Second Degree, 609.344 Criminal Sexual Conduct in the Third Degree, 609.345 Criminal Sexual Conduct in the Fourth Degree, 609.3451 Criminal Sexual Conduct in the Fifth Degree, and 609.349 Voluntary Relationships. These laws have been translated into layman's terms at the child sexual abuse prevention website youcanstopitnow.org. == The age of consent in Mississippi is 16. The crime of statutory rape is committed when:[7] # Any person seventeen (17) years of age or older has sexual intercourse with a child who: ## Is at least fourteen (14) but under sixteen (16) years of age; ## Is thirty-six (36) or more months younger than the person; and ## Is not the person's spouse; or # A person of any age has sexual intercourse with a child who: ## Is under the age of fourteen (14) years; ## Is twenty-four (24) or more months younger than the person; and ## Is not the person's spouse. == Since July 2006, the age of consent in Missouri is 17, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender [6] Mistake as to the age of the victim may be a defense in some circumstances as defined in RSMo 566.020. Statutory rape and sodomy, RSMo §§ 566.032 and 566.062 involve a child less than 14 years of age. Statutory rape and sodomy in the second degree, RSMo §§ 566.034 and 566.064 involve a child less than 17 years of age and an accused who is 21 years of age or older. The crime of Child molestation in the second degree, RSMo § 566.068 , occurs when a child less than 17 years of age is subject to "sexual contact". The distinction among those crimes has led some to the false conclusion that Missouri has a close in age exception. Missouri has no such exception beyond the degree of crime committed. While the statutory titles are cast in terms of Rape and Sodomy, the statutes prohibit conduct that is described as "sexual intercourse" and "deviant sexual intercourse". Those terms are defined in RSMo § 566.010. Missouri's definition of consent is also a bit odd. The courts may accept as sufficient proof of "forcibly compelled" sexual relations, evidence of the victims perceived susceptibility, youth and lack of experience, to person in positions of authority, which include souvenir vendors, and proof deviant sexual intercourse as sufficient evidence for a rape or sodomy conviction. See State v. Vandevere, 175 S.W.3d 107, SC 86802 (Mo October 15 2005) (declaring a souvenir vendor held a position of authority but including some evidence of force, albeit guiding the victim through the hotel lobby by her elbow) and State v. Niederstadt, 66 S.W.3d 12, SC 83914 (Mo January 22 2002) (holding that, even though the victim was asleep, the defendant inserted his finger, which must have involved physical force applied to the body, therefore the evidence was sufficient to prove forcible sodomy). Niederstadt was accused of forcible sodomy and in the middle three paragraphs of the opinion you will notice that the court reasoned: forcible sodomy requires evidence of forcible compulsion; forcible compulsion includes physical force; physical force is force applied to the body; the act of deviant sex, digital penetration, required applying force to the body; therefore, the State presented sufficient evidence of forcible deviant sexual intercourse. A full list of the offenses listed in Chapter 566 of Missouri's revised statutes is available here . There are some tangential crimes in chapter 567 concerning prostitution and closely related crimes, particularly those involving endangering the welfare of child in Chapter 568, which can explored further by selecting the respective chapters here. == The age of consent in Montana is 16. [7] == The age of consent in Nebraska is 17. Section 28-319 Sexual assault; first degree; penalty. (1) Any person who subjects another person to sexual penetration...(c) when the actor is nineteen years of age or older and the victim is at least twelve but less than sixteen years of age is guilty of sexual assault in the first degree. Debauching a minor; penalty. (1) Any person not a minor commits the offense of debauching a minor if he or she shall debauch or deprave the morals of any boy or girl under the age of seventeen years by: (a) Lewdly inducing such boy or girl carnally to know any other person... == The age of consent for all sexual contact (regardless of gender and/or sexual orientation) in Nevada is 16 [8]. == The age of consent in New Hampshire is 16. However a close in age exception exists where a person may "engage in sexual penetration" with a person 13 years old or older and younger than 16 if their age difference is less than 3 years. However if the partner is acting "in loco parentis", e.g. as a teacher or a guardian, the minimum age is 18. NH Criminal code Section 632-A:3 and Section 632-A:2 == The age of consent in New Jersey is 16. However, minors aged 13, 14 and 15 may legally engage in sexual activities with persons up to 4 years older than them. For example, it is lawful for a 14 year old male or female to engage in sex with a person up to 18 years of age. This also applies for 13 year olds (up to 17), and etc. [9] == The age of consent in New Mexico is 16. 30-9-11. Criminal sexual penetration... F.Criminal sexual penetration in the fourth degree consists of all criminal sexual penetration: (1)not defined in Subsections C through E of this section perpetrated on a child thirteen to sixteen years of age when the perpetrator is at least eighteen years of age and is at least four years older than the child and not the spouse of that child; == The age of consent in New York is 17. The offense will be more serious depending on relative ages, thus: * Sex with a person under 17 is a misdemeanor if the perpetrator is at least 16 (see infra). ("Sexual misconduct," NY Penal Law § 130.20.) * Sex with a person under 17 is a Class "E" felony if the perpetrator is at least 21. ("Rape in the third degree," NY Penal Law § 130.25; "Criminal sexual act in the third degree," NY Penal Law § 130.40.) * Sex with a person under 15 is a Class "D" felony if the perpetrator is at least 18. However, it is a defense to this charge if an 18 year-old perpetrator proves by a preponderance that he or she was less than four years older than the victim. This is not a defense to any other charge that might apply, i.e., Sexual misconduct, supra. ("Rape in the second degree," NY Penal Law § 130.30; "Criminal sexual act in the second degree," NY Penal Law § 130.45.) * Sex with a person under 13 is a Class "B" violent felony if the perpetrator is at least 18. ("Rape in the first degree," NY Penal Law § 130.35[4]; "Criminal sexual act in the first degree," NY Penal Law § 130.50[4].) * Sex with a person under 11 is a Class "B" violent felony if the perpetrator is at least 16. ("Rape in the first degree," NY Penal Law § 130.35[3]; "Criminal sexual act in the first degree," NY Penal Law § 130.50[3].) "Sex," as used above, refers to the four conspicuous types of sexual acts, including "sexual intercourse", and the three forms of acts known as "deviant sexual intercourse" under the former (pre-2003) law, now called "oral sexual conduct" (both types), and "anal sexual conduct." Non-intercourse sexual activity is also regulated based on age. Non-intercourse sexual activity, called "sexual contact" is defined as "any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of a person not married to the actor for the purpose of gratifying sexual desire of either party. It includes the touching of the actor by the victim, as well as the touching of the victim by the actor, whether directly or through clothing." (NY Penal Law § 130.00[3].) If the person is underage such "sexual contact" can constitute the crime of "sexual abuse." * "Sexual contact" with a person less than 17 but at least 14, by a perpetrator who is at least five years older than the victim is "Sexual abuse in the third degree," a class B misdemeanor. (NY Penal Law § 130.55.) * "Sexual contact" with a person less than 14 is "Sexual abuse in the second degree," a Class A misdemeanor, if the perpetrator is at least 16. (NY Penal Law § 130.60[2].) * "Sexual contact" with a person less than 11 is "Sexual abuse in the first degree," a class "D" violent felony, if the perpetrator is at least 16. (NY Penal Law § 130.65[3].) ====== It is not a defense that the perpetrator believed the victim was older than is later proven. (NY Penal Law § 15.20[3]). Legally recognized marriage is a defense. (NY Penal Law § 130.10[4].) The ONLY minimum age for a perpetrator of first degree rape/criminal sexual act with a victim under 11 (NY Penal Law §§ 130.35[3] & 130.35[3]), sexual abuse in the first and second degrees (NY Penal Law §§ 130.65[3] & 130.60[2]), and misdemeanor Sexual misconduct (NY Penal Law § 130.20) is provided by the defense of infancy found at NY Penal Law § 30.00(1). That age is 16 years old. Someone under that age may be adjudicated a juvenile delinquent, but may not commit these crimes. On the other hand, someone who is 16 years old commits a crime by voluntarily having sex with anyone who cannot themselves legally consent to sex, including another 16-year-old, even if this "victim" is actually older. (People v. Bowman, 88 Misc. 2d 50; 387 N.Y.S.2d 982 [City Crim. Ct. 1976]; Matter of Jessie C., 164 A.D.2d 731; 565 N.Y.S.2d 941 [4 Dept., 1991].) In effect, mutual crimes are committed when two unmarried 16-year-old individuals voluntarily have sex with each other in New York State, each being the "victim" of the other. ====== Depending on how the statute is construed, "Predatory sexual assault against a child," a class A-II felony, may subsume all instances of "statutory" first degree rape/criminal sexual act where the victim is under 13 (NY Penal Law §§ 130.35[4], 130.35[4]) and the perpetrator over 18. (NY Penal Law § 130.96.) There are other special offenses, namely "Course of sexual conduct against a child in the first degree" and "Course of sexual conduct against a child in the second degree" that punish sex with an underage person combined with an additional illegal sexual act during wide time period. These do not subject a person to more punishment than the crimes listed above, but only provide a gimmick for prosecutors to avoid the requirement that a individual sex act be specified in a rape indictment. (See, People v. Beauchamp, 74 N.Y.2d 639; 539 N.E.2d 1105 [1989].) (Note that "violent felonies" are specified by NY Penal Law § 70.02. Actual "violence" is irrelevant.) New York Penal Law Article 130 == The age of consent in North Carolina in general is 16, though no school faculty member can have any sexual activity with any student except when married to the person {§14‑27.7}. Any sexual intercourse with a person under 16 years of age is prohibited unless the defendant is less than 4 years older than the victim except when married to the person {§14‑27.2, 14‑27.4 & 14‑27.7A}. There is no defense against a charge of rape that the victim is the spouse of person committing the act {§14‑27.8}. North Carolina General Statutes Chapter 14 == The age of consent in North Dakota is 18. 12.1-20-03. Gross sexual imposition - Penalty. 1.A person who engages in a sexual act with another, or who causes another to engage in a sexual act, is guilty of an offense if...d.The victim is less than fifteen years old

Section 12.1-20-05 of the code refers to sexual acts between adults and teenagers aged 15, 16 and 17: 12.1-20-05.Corruption or solicitation of minors. 1.An adult who engages in, solicits with the intent to engage in, or causes another to engage in a sexual act with a minor, is guilty of a class A misdemeanor if the victim is a minor fifteen years of age or older. 2. An adult who solicits with the intent to engage in a sexual act with a minor under age fifteen or engages in or causes another to engage in a sexual act when the adult is at least twenty-two years of age and the victim is a minor fifteen years of age or older, is guilty of a class C felony.

== The age of consent in Ohio is 16 as specified by Section 2907.04 of Ohio legislation. However there exists a close in age exception where an offender can be charged only if 18 years of age or older. However in that case, it is possible for both minors to be charged as "unruly" if brought to court {§ 2151.022}. : 2907.04 Unlawful sexual conduct with minor. :: (A) No person who is eighteen years of age or older shall engage in sexual conduct with another, who is not the spouse of the offender, when the offender knows the other person is thirteen years of age or older but less than sixteen years of age, or the offender is reckless in that regard. {§ 2907.04}. == The age of consent in Oklahoma is 16. §21-1111. Rape defined. A. Rape is an act of sexual intercourse involving vaginal or anal penetration accomplished with a male or female who is not the spouse of the perpetrator and who may be of the same or the opposite sex as the perpetrator under any of the following circumstances: 1. Where the victim is under sixteen (16) years of age... There exists, however, a close in age exemption: §21‑1112. Age limitation on conviction for rape. No person can be convicted of rape or rape by instrumentation on account of an act of sexual intercourse with anyone over the age of fourteen (14) years, with his or her consent, unless such person was over the age of eighteen (18) years at the time of such act. == The age of consent in Oregon is 18. Sexual offenses are defined under the Oregon Revised Statutes Chapter 163. With regards to age only, the following offenses are defined. 18 - Consent for all laws.

Under 18 - Defined as Sexual Abuse 3 (Class A Misdemeanor)

Under 16 - Defined as Rape 3 / Sodomy 3 (Class C Felony) (ORS 163.245)

Under 14 - Defined as Rape 2 / Sodomy 2 (Class B Felony)

Under 12 - Defined as Rape 1 / Sodomy 1 (Class A Felony) Additionally, Oregon has a 3 year rule defined under ORS 163.345. However, this does not apply to Rape 1, or Sodomy 1, effectively limiting the age to 12. However, a person can still be charged with Sexual Misconduct (Class C Misdemeanor) under ORS 163.445, if the victim was under 15 years old. == The age of consent in Pennsylvania is 16 years of age. Teenagers aged 13, 14 and 15 may legally engage in sexual activity with partners who are less than 4 years older. It is very clear that there are no laws that directly criminalize any consensual non-coerced sexual conduct with any person the age of 16 or older unless certain mental issues are present (mental retardation). [8] A person who is four or more years older than a consenting partner who is less than 16 years of age or any person that is older than 13 and has engaged in sexual activity with someone under the age of 13 may be charged with the following felony sex offenses: § 3122.1. Statutory sexual assault. Except as provided in section 3121 (relating to rape), a person commits a felony of the second degree when that person engages in sexual intercourse with a complainant under the age of 16 years and that person is four or more years older than the complainant and the complainant and the person are not married to each other. § 3125 Aggravated indecent assault (7) the complainant is less than 13 years of age; or (8) the complainant is less than 16 years of age and the person is four or more years older than the complainant and the complainant and the person are not married to each other. (b) Aggravated indecent assault of a child.--A person commits aggravated indecent assault of a child when the person violates subsection (a)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5) or (6) and the complainant is less than 13 years of age. § 3123 Involuntary deviate sexual intercourse (7) who is less than 16 years of age and the person is four or more years older than the complainant and the complainant and person are not married to each other. It is very clear that there are no laws that directly criminalize any consensual non-coerced sexual conduct with any person the age of 16 or older unless certain mental issues are present (mental retardation). [9] However... When the alleged victim is 16 or older and less than 18 years of age, a charge of corruption of a minor may be made. Corruption of minors. (a) Offense defined.-- (1) Whoever, being of the age of 18 years and upwards, by any act corrupts or tends to corrupt the morals of any minor less than 18 years of age, or who aids, abets, entices or encourages any such minor in the commission of any crime, or who knowingly assists or encourages such minor in violating his or her parole or any order of court, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree. This charge typically is used only in plead agreements, but not in cases that actually led to a conviction. In the case cited, "coercion by authority" was in play, this was offered to avoid a rape charge. This insinuates that the commonwealth believes that premarital sex is a corruption of morals. * The Official PA Criminal Code == The age of consent in Rhode Island is 16. § 11-37-6 Third degree sexual assault. - A person is guilty of third degree sexual assault if he or she is over the age of eighteen (18) years and engaged in sexual penetration with another person over the age of fourteen (14) years and under the age of consent, sixteen (16) years of age. == The age of consent in South Carolina is 16. SECTION 16-3-651. Criminal sexual conduct: definitions...(h) "Sexual battery" means sexual intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, anal intercourse, or any intrusion, however slight, of any part of a person's body or of any object into the genital or anal openings of another person's body, except when such intrusion is accomplished for medically recognized treatment or diagnostic purposes. SECTION 16-3-655. Criminal sexual conduct with a minor; aggravating and mitigating circumstances; penalties; repeat offenders. (B) A person is guilty of criminal sexual conduct with a minor in the second degree if:...(2) the actor engages in sexual battery with a victim who is at least fourteen years of age but who is less than sixteen years of age and the actor is in a position of familial, custodial, or official authority to coerce the victim to submit or is older than the victim. However, a person may not be convicted of a violation of the provisions of this item if he is eighteen years of age or less when he engages in illicit but consensual sexual conduct with another person who is at least fourteen years of age. In addition, mistake of age may be used as a defense. SECTION 16-15-140. Committing or attempting lewd act upon child under sixteen. It is unlawful for a person over the age of fourteen years to willfully and lewdly commit or attempt a lewd or lascivious act upon or with the body, or its parts, of a child under the age of sixteen years, with the intent of arousing, appealing to, or gratifying the lust or passions or sexual desires of the person or of the child. == The age of consent in South Dakota is 16. 22-22-1. Rape defined--Degrees--Felony. Rape is an act of sexual penetration accomplished with any person under any of the following circumstances:...(5)If the victim is thirteen years of age, but less than sixteen years of age, and the perpetrator is at least three years older than the victim. 22-22-7. Sexual contact with child under sixteen--Felony or misdemeanor. Any person, sixteen years of age or older, who knowingly engages in sexual contact with another person, other than that person's spouse if the other person is under the age of sixteen years is guilty of a Class 3 felony. If the actor is less than three years older than the other person, the actor is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. If an adult has a previous conviction for a felony violation of this section, any subsequent felony conviction for a violation under this section, is a Class 2 felony. Notwithstanding § 23A-42-2, a charge brought pursuant to this section may be commenced at any time before the victim becomes age twenty-five or within seven years of the commission of the crime, whichever is longer. 22-22-7.3. Sexual contact with child under sixteen years of age--Violation as misdemeanor. Any person, younger than sixteen years of age, who knowingly engages in sexual contact with another person, other than his or her spouse, if such other person is younger than sixteen years of age, is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. == In a statutory rape case in Tennessee, the age of consent is 18. The stance of the state of Tennessee on the age of consent is "Statutory rape is sexual penetration of a victim by the defendant or of the defendant by the victim when the victim is at least thirteen (13) but less than eighteen (18) years of age and the defendant is at least four (4) years older than the victim." {Full text of TN statutory rape laws [10]} Tennessee law does not give clear directions for cases in which both parties are below age of consent. == The age of consent in Texas is 17 (Texas Penal Code Section 21.11). However , "...It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this section that the actor...was not more than three years older than the victim and of the opposite sex...(and) did not use duress, force, or a threat against the victim at the time of the offence" and is not a registered sex offender {Section 21.11(b)}. Section 21.12 further prohibits all sexual contact between an employee of a school (including educators) and a student enrolled at the primary or secondary school where said employee works. No age is specified by the statute (thus, even if the student has reached consent age of 17, it is still a violation), and violations are a second degree felony. == The age of consent in Utah is 18. It is however legal for minors aged 16 and 17 to engage in sexual activity with partners less than 10 years older. 76-5-401.2. Unlawful sexual conduct with a 16 or 17 year old. (1) For purposes of this section "minor" means a person who is 16 years of age or older, but younger than 18 years of age, at the time the sexual conduct described in this section occurred. (2) A person commits unlawful sexual conduct with a minor if, under circumstances not amounting to rape, in violation of Section 76-5-402, object rape, in violation of Section 76-5-402.2, forcible sodomy, in violation of Section 76-5-403, or aggravated sexual assault, in violation of Section 76-5-405, the actor who is ten or more years older than the minor at the time of the sexual conduct: (a) has sexual intercourse with the minor; (b) engages in any sexual act with the minor involving the genitals of one person and the mouth or anus of another person, regardless of the sex of either participant... 76-5-401.Unlawful sexual activity with a minor -- Elements -- Penalties -- Evidence of age raised by defendant. (1) For purposes of this section "minor" is a person who is 14 years of age or older, but younger than 16 years of age, at the time the sexual activity described in this section occurred. (2) A person commits unlawful sexual activity with a minor if, under circumstances not amounting to rape, in violation of Section 76-5-402, object rape, in violation of Section 76-5-402.2, forcible sodomy, in violation of Section 76-5-403, or aggravated sexual assault, in violation of Section 76-5-405, the actor: (a) has sexual intercourse with the minor; (b) engages in any sexual act with the minor involving the genitals of one person and the mouth or anus of another person, regardless of the sex of either participant; or (c) causes the penetration, however slight, of the genital or anal opening of the minor by any foreign object, substance, instrument, or device, including a part of the human body, with the intent to cause substantial emotional or bodily pain to any person or with the intent to arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person, regardless of the sex of any participant. (3) A violation of Subsection (2) is a third degree felony unless the defendant establishes by a preponderance of the evidence the mitigating factor that the defendant is less than four years older than the minor at the time the sexual activity occurred, in which case it is a class B misdemeanor. == The age of consent in Vermont is 16. § 3252. Sexual assault (c) No person shall engage in a sexual act with a child who is under the age of 16, except: (1) where the persons are married to each other and the sexual act is consensual; or (2) where the person is less than 19 years old, the child is at least 15 years old, and the sexual act is consensual. == The age of consent in Virginia is 18, with an ostensible close in age exception of 15 for those under 18. However the legislation is not clear cut, the details are discussed below: Any penetrative sexual act other than penile-vaginal intercourse is defined in Virginia law as 'sodomy.' Section 18.2-361 of the Code of Virginia entitled "Crimes against nature" states in part; : "If any person carnally knows in any manner any brute animal, or carnally knows any male or female person by the anus or by or with the mouth, or voluntarily submits to such carnal knowledge, he or she shall be guilty of ... felony..." In addition, any sexual intercourse is defined in Virginia law as 'fornication.' Section 18.2-344 of the Code of Virginia entitled "Crimes against nature" states; : "Any person, not being married, who voluntarily shall have sexual intercourse with any other person, shall be guilty of fornication, punishable as a Class 4 misdemeanor." The courts of Virginia have ruled that these statutes are not invalid under the US Supreme Court's decision in Lawrence v. Texas since that case only applied to adults, and the age of majority in Virginia is 18. This means that those 18 and above involved in consensual activity in private may have a defense in court, but those under 18 do not. Section 18.2-63 of the Code refers to minors younger than 15 and states in part; : "If any person carnally knows, without the use of force, a child thirteen years of age or older but under fifteen years of age, such person shall be guilty of ... felony ... For the purposes of this section, (i) a child under the age of thirteen years shall not be considered a consenting child and (ii) "carnal knowledge" includes the acts of sexual intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, analingus, anal intercourse, and animate and inanimate object sexual penetration." Consensual sex where one partner is 15, 16 or 17 and the other is over 18 is a class 1 misdemeanor. § 18.2-371. Causing or encouraging acts rendering children delinquent, abused, etc.; penalty; abandoned infant. Any person 18 years of age or older, including the parent of any child, who (i) willfully contributes to, encourages, or causes any act, omission, or condition which renders a child delinquent, in need of services, in need of supervision, or abused or neglected as defined in § 16.1-228, or (ii) engages in consensual sexual intercourse with a child 15 or older not his spouse, child, or grandchild, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor == The age of consent in Washington is 16. It is also illegal to engage in sexual acts with someone younger than 18 under three different sets of circumstances, enumerated in RCW 9A.44.096. Foster parents with their foster children; school teachers and school administration employees over their students; The third set of circumstances require all of the following situations occur in tandem: The older person is 60 months or more older than the 16 or 17 year old, the person is in a significant relationship as defined, and such older person abuses the relationship to have sexual contact. * Several have reported that the immoral communication with a minor statute exists and places the age of consent at 18 due to the inability to "communicate" to 16- and 17-year-olds about sexual activity. These reports have been alarming in nature, however they are completely anecdotal, and perhaps even urban legend. The Washington Court of Appeals, Division 1 decided in the case of State v. Danforth, 56 Wn. App. 133, 782 P.2d 1091 (1989) that such communication has to be for the purposes of committing an illegal act under RCW Chapter 9.68A. Danforth's conviction was overturned by that ruling. However, the Washington Supreme Court in the case of State v. McNallie, 120 Wn.2d 925, 846 P.2d 1358 (1993) overturned the scope of the Danforth ruling (though not the result; Danforth would have still had his conviction overturned under the McNallie standard), applying the communication statute to encompass all sexual misconduct with a minor, not just those under RCW Chapter 9.68A, which deal mostly with illegal child pornography and prostitution. Due to these cases, it is clear that communications with 16- and 17-year-olds just for general sexual activity is legal, as long as such conduct discussed is not about illegal conduct or would be illegal in real life (such as the teacher/student circumstance, the foster parent/foster child circumstance, the significant relationship abuse circumstance, or asking for illegal pictures or attempting to bring such younger persons into prostitution). == The age of consent in West Virginia is 16. §61-8B-5. Sexual assault in the third degree. (a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the third degree when: (2) The person, being sixteen years old or more, engages in sexual intercourse or sexual intrusion with another person who is less than sixteen years old and who is at least four years younger than the defendant and is not married to the defendant. == The age of consent in Wisconsin is 18. 948.02 Sexual assault of a child... 2) SECOND DEGREE SEXUAL ASSAULT. Whoever has sexual contact or sexual intercourse with a person who has not attained the age of 16 years is guilty of a Class C felony... 948.09 Sexual intercourse with a child age 16 or older. Whoever has sexual intercourse with a child who is not the defendant's spouse and who has attained the age of 16 years is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor. == * 18 - Per Wyoming statute 14-3-105 et sq as interpreted by the Wyoming Supreme Court in State v. Pierson and State v. Moore. Since consent of a 16 or 17 year old (which was thought to be the age of consent for a different set of offences) to non-commercial or non-threatening sexual activity is not an absolute defense to be charged under 14-3-105, and subject to "societal standards" and parental objection, this effectively makes Wyoming's age of consent to be 18. == Paraphrasing Virgin Islands Code: V.I.C. § 1700-1709 Virgin Islands Code and appeals records Francis vs. VI NOTE: "mistake of fact as to the victim's age is not a defense". The law is complex and situational with 13, 16 and 18 listed under different situations. Generally, the age for unlimited consent is 18. With 16 allowed to consent with someone no more than five years older than themselves. 13 to 15 year olds may consent with one another, but not with anyone older. For example, a 15 year old may not consent with a sixteen year old. The code reads as follows: * § 1700. Aggravated rape in the first degree (a) Whoever perpetrates an act of sexual intercourse or sodomy with a person not the perpetrator's spouse * ** (1) Who is under the age of thirteen, or… * ** (2) who is under sixteen years of age residing in the same household as the perpetrator, and force, intimidation, or the perpetrator's position of authority over the victim is used to accomplish the sexual act; ... * § 1700a. Aggravated rape in the second degree (a) Whoever perpetrates an act of sexual intercourse or sodomy with a person who is under eighteen years but thirteen years or older and not the perpetrator's spouse, or by force, intimidation, or the perpetrator's position of authority over the victim is used to accomplish the sexual act, is guilty of aggravated rape in the second degree and shall be imprisoned for life or for any term in years, but not less than 10 years. "Position of authority" shall include, but not be exclusive to the following: an employer, youth leader, scout leader, coach, teacher, counselor, school administrator, religious leader, doctor, nurse, psychologist, guardian ad litem, baby sitter, or substantially similar position, and a police officer or probation officer other than when the officer is exercising custodial control over a minor. ... * § 1702. Rape in the second degree (a) Any person over 18 years of age who perpetrates under circumstances not amounting to rape in the first degree, an act of sexual intercourse or sodomy with a person not the perpetrator's spouse who is at least 16 years but less than 18 years of age, and the perpetrator is 5 years or older than the victim, is guilty of rape in the second degree and shall be imprisoned not more than 10 years. * § 1703. Rape in the third degree Any person under 18 years of age but over 16 years of age who perpetrates an act of sexual intercourse or sodomy with a person not the perpetrator's spouse who is under 16 years of age but over 13 years of age, under circumstances not amounting to rape in the first degree, is guilty of rape in the third degree and shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Family Division of the Superior Court * § 1708. Unlawful sexual contact in the first degree A person who engages in sexual contact with a person not the perpetrator's spouse- (1) when force or coercion is used to accomplish the sexual contact; (2) when the other person is under thirteen years of age; (3) when the other person is under sixteen years of age residing in the same household as the perpetrator, and force, intimidation or the perpetrator's position of authority over the victim is used to accomplish the sexual contact; * § 1709. Unlawful sexual contact in the second degree A person over eighteen years of age who engages in sexual contact with a person not the perpetrator's spouse who is over thirteen but under sixteen years of age is guilty of unlawful sexual contact in the second degree and shall be imprisoned not more than 1 year.