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What are different types of fabric?

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March 28, 2014 5:31PM

Fabric and Cloth

There is an enormous variety in fabrics, with many different national, historical and regional varieties. It is interesting to note, however, that almost all of the types of fabric listed below are variants or blends of just five basic fabric types (silk, cotton, linen, wool and worsted). Many of the terms are foreign in origin; English orthography has been adopted where it exists.

Fabric

Description

aba

garment of camel or goat hair; camel or goat-hair fabric

aerophane

thin crinkled semi-transparent fabric

alepine

mixed wool and silk or mohair and cotton fabric

alpaca

fine wool made from alpaca hair

angora

silk-like fabric made from wool of angora goats

ardass

fine silk

armure

twilled woollen or silk fabric

arrasene

embroidery fabric of wool and silk

atlas

rich satin fabric

baft

cheap coarse cotton fabric

bagging

coarse fabric for making bags or sacks

baize

coarse napped cotton or wool fabric

balbriggan

knitted cotton fabric

baldachin

rich embroidered silk and gold fabric

balzarine

light cotton dress material

barathea

pebbly silk or worsted fabric with broken rib weave

barege

gauzy fabric of silk, cotton, wool, or worsted

barracan

fine silk cloth

barras

coarse linen fabric

barrateen

some kind of fabric

batiste

fine soft sheer fabric of plain weave

bayadere

fabric with horizontal stripes in strongly contrasting colours

beaupers

linen fabric used for flags

bengaline

crosswise ribbed fabric

bombazine

twilled silk and worsted fabric

borato

thin fabric

bouclé

fabric of uneven looped yarn

brilliantine

light lustrous cotton and worsted fabric

broadcloth

dense twilled wool or worsted fabric

brocade

rich silk fabric with raised patterns

buckram

stiff-finished cotton or linen used for linings of garments

bump

coarse cotton fabric

bunting

light loosely woven fabric used for flags

burdet

cotton fabric

burlap

coarse plain-woven jute or hemp fabric

burnet

dark brown; dark woollen cloth

burrel

coarse russet cloth

calamanco

satin twilled woollen fabric

calico

plain white cotton

camaca

fine silk fabric

cambresine

fine linen fabric

cambric

fine thin white cotton or linen fabric

camlet

strong waterproof silk or wool fabric

caneva

fancy woollen fabric made to resemble canvas

canque

Chinese cotton fabric

cashmere

soft twilled fabric made of fine goat's wool

cashmerette

soft imitation of cashmere

cassimere

closely woven twilled cloth of fine wool

cendal

silk fabric resembling taffeta

challis

soft lightweight silk, wool or cotton fabric

chambray

lightweight fabric with coloured warp and white filling

chamois

cotton fabric made in imitation of chamois leather

charmante

silk fabric with a crepe back

charmeuse

soft and satiny silk fabric

chenille

velvety silk, wool or cotton fabric with protruding pile

cheviot

coarse heavy plain or twilled wool or worsted

chiffon

sheer silk fabric

chino

strong twilled cotton cloth

chintz

glazed printed cotton fabric

cire

fabric with a glazed finish

cloque

fabric with an embossed design

coburg

thin single-twilled worsted fabric with cotton or silk

cordovan

soft goatskin leather

corduroy

durable cotton piled fabric with vertical ribs

crash

coarse drapery and towelling fabric

crepe

light crinkled fabric

crepon

heavy crepe fabric with lengthwise crinkles

cretonne

heavy cotton or linen cloth

crin

horsehair fabric

crinoline

stiff flax or cotton fabric

cubica

fine unglazed fabric resembling shalloon

cypress

silk or cotton gauze fabric, usually black

damask

fine lustrous fabric with flat patterns and a satin weave

delaine

light fabric of wool or mixed wool and cotton

denim

firm and durable twilled cotton

dimity

sheer and stout white cotton

domett

plain cotton-wool blend

dornick

stout linen

dowlas

coarse linen

drabbet

coarse linen

drap-de-Berry

old woollen cloth

dreadnought

heavy woollen cloth

drill

durable twilled cotton

droguet

ribbed woollen dress fabric

drugget

coarse durable wool fabric

ducape

plain-woven stout silk fabric

duck

durable closely woven cotton fabric

duffel

fabric of thick, low-quality woolen cloth

dungaree

heavy coarse durable twilled cotton, usually coloured

dupion

coarse silk

duroy

coarse woollen

duvetyn

smooth lustrous velvety fabric

ecarlate

fine woollen cloth, usually dyed scarlet

éolienne

fine silk and wool

etamine

light open-mesh cotton or worsted

eyelet

small hole in fabric to allow passage of a cord; cotton fabric with small holes

faille

shiny closely woven silk, cotton or rayon fabric

farandine

silk and wool cloth

filoselle

coarse floss silk

flannel

light woollen fabric

foulard

soft lightweight plain-woven or twilled silk fabric

foulé

light woollen fulled cloth

frieze

rough heavy woollen cloth

fuji

plain spun silk fabric

fustian

coarse twilled cotton

gabardine

closely woven cotton or wool twill

galatea

striped cotton

gambroon

twilled worsted and cloth

gazar

silk organza fabric

genappe

smooth worsted yarn

georgette

thin silk

gingham

striped cotton cloth

grenadine

thin silk

grogram

coarse loosely woven silk fabric

grosgrain

heavy close-woven corded silk

gulix

kind of fine linen

harn

coarse linen

herringbone

twilled fabric woven in rows of parallel sloping lines

hodden

coarse undyed woollen cloth

holland

coarse plain-woven cotton or linen

hopsack

rough-surfaced loose fabric

houndstooth

fabric with an irregular checked pattern

huckaback

absorbent cotton or linen used for towels

jaconet

stout cotton cloth

jacquard

intricately-woven variegated fabric; loom for making jacquard

jaspe

cotton or rayon cloth with shaded effect

jean

durable twilled cotton material

jersey

plain weft-knitted fabric of wool, cotton, nylon or silk

kalamkari

fabric coloured by repeated dyeing

kelt

coarse fabric made of black and white wool

kente

hand-woven African silk fabric

kersey

coarse woollen cloth

kerseymere

twilled fine wool

khaddar

homespun cotton cloth

kincob

embroidered silk with gold and silver threads

lamé

fabric in which metallic threads are interwoven

lasting

sturdy cotton or worsted cloth

lawn

fine sheer plain-woven cotton or linen

leno

open-woven fabric

linsey

coarse linen and wool blend

linsey-woolsey

thin coarse fabric of wool and linen

lockram

coarse linen

loden

heavy waterproof woollen fabric

lustring

glossy silk

lutestring

plain glossy silk

mackinaw

heavy napped and felted wool cloth

mackintosh

lightweight rubberized waterproof cotton

madapollam

fine cotton cloth

madras

fine plain-woven cotton or silk

marabout

thin downy silk

marcella

cotton or linen in twill weave

marocain

ribbed crepe fabric

marquisette

sheer meshed cloth

matelassé

having a quilted ornamentation; fabric with raised pattern as if quilted

melton

strong and smooth heavy woollen cloth

merino

soft wool of the merino sheep; any soft merino-like wool or wool and cotton cloth

messaline

soft lightweight silk with a satin weave

mockado

inferior quality woollen fabric

mogadore

ribbed silk used in making neckties

mohair

fabric made from silky hair of angora goats

moire

watered silk

moleskin

heavy durable cotton

moreen

stout corded wool or cotton

mousseline

fine sheer fabric

mull

soft fine sheer cotton or silk fabric

muslin

plain-woven fine cotton

musterdevillers

archaic mixed grey woollen cloth

nainsook

fine cotton fabric

nankeen

buff-coloured; durable buff-coloured cotton

needlecord

thinly ribbed cotton

ninon

silk voile or other thin fabric

organdie

fine translucent cotton

organza

transparent thin silk or nylon

orleans

interwoven cotton and worsted

osnaburg

coarse linen or cotton

ottoman

heavy clothing fabric with crosswise ribs

oxford

soft durable plain-woven cotton

paduasoy

corded silk

paisley

soft wool fabric with ornamental pattern

panne

heavy lustrous silk or rayon with waxy feel

paramatta

worsted and cotton blend

pashmina

fine goat's wool fabric used for making shawls

pekin

fine soft silk

pellicule

thin diaphanous fabric

percale

closely woven lightweight cloth

percaline

glossy lightweight cotton

perse

dark blue or bluish-grey; cloth of such a colour

piqué

stiff durable corded fabric of cotton, rayon or silk

platilla

fine white linen

plissé

fabric with puckered finish

pongee

thin soft fabric woven from raw silk

poodle

coarsely looped or nubby fabric

poplin

corded woven silk and worsted

prunella

strong and heavy silk or wool

rabanna

raffia fabric of Madagascar

ramie

strong lustrous fabric resembling linen or silk

raploch

coarse undyed woollen cloth

raschel

light loosely kitted cloth

ratiné

rough bulky plain-woven fabric

rep

plain-woven fabric with crosswise ribs

reticella

old Venetian lace-like fabric

romal

handkerchief or headcloth; silk or cotton fabric

rumchunder

fine silk

russel

ribbed cotton and wool

russet

coarse homespun cloth

sagathy

light blend of silk and cotton or wool

samite

rich and heavy silk, sometimes interwoven with gold or silver

sarsenet

fine and soft silk; soft or gentle

satara

ribbed lustred wool

sateen

glossy cotton or wool

satin

closely woven silk with lustrous face

satinet

thin silk satin or imitation thereof

saxony

fine soft woollen fabric

say

delicate woollen fabric

scarlet

fine cloth

scrim

durable plain-woven cotton fabric

seersucker

light puckered cotton or linen fabric

sempiternum

durable wool

sendal

thin silk or linen

serge

strong twilled worsted

shalloon

light twilled wool or worsted

shantung

plain rough silk or cotton

sharkskin

smooth durable wool or worsted fabric

shetland

lightweight loosely twisted wool fabric

shoddy

woollen fabric made from rags

sicilienne

ribbed silk

silesia

thin twilled cotton or linen

silkaline

soft light cotton fabric resembling silk

sindon

fine linen

stammel

coarse woollen fabric, usually dyed red; bright red colour

stockinette

soft elastic cotton fabric

surah

soft twilled silk or rayon

swansdown

heavy napped cotton flannel

swanskin

soft napped fabric resembling flannel

tabaret

striped watered silk and satin fabric

tabby

plain-woven silk taffeta fabric

tabinet

silk and wool watered fabric

taffeta

thin glossy silk

tamin

thin glazed worsted

tamis

thin wool

tarlatan

thin sheer stiff cotton

terry

piled fabric consisting of uncut loops

ticking

strong linen or cotton fabric used for mattress and pillow cases

tiffany

transparent silk-like gauzy fabric

tiretaine

wool cloth mixed with cotton or linen

toile

plain or simple twilled fabric

tricolette

silk or rayon knitted fabric

tricot

plain knitted silk or woollen fabric

tricotine

double-twilled worsted fabric

tulle

sheer and delicate thin silk

tussah

brownish silk fabric

tweed

rough twilled wool

twill

any diagonally woven fabric

velour

piled velvety cotton

veloutine

velvety corded wool

velvet

soft piled fabric of silk, cotton or synthetic material

velvetine

cotton with silk pile

vicuna

fabric made from wool of the vicuna, a small ruminant

voile

soft fine sheer fabric

wadmal

thick coarse wool

whipcord

fabric with bold twill used for making dresses

wigan

stiff plain-woven cotton

wincey

plain or twilled cotton

woolsey

cotton and wool blend

worcester

fine wool

worsted

fine closely-woven wool

zanella

mixed twilled umbrella fabric

zephyr

lightweight wool or worsted fabric; the west wind

zibeline

soft piled wool