What are the effects of expansion and contraction in the design of bridges pavements and MRT lines?
- MRT and Railway tracks
if a continuous track of metal is used, it will expand in hot weather and bent. trains running on bent tracks may be derailed. to prevent this, railway tracks are laid in sections with expansion gaps between them. A sliding joint between adjoining rails allows them to expand without bending.
both concrete and steel bridges are built with allowance for expansion and contraction due to changes in the surrounding temperatures. Rollers and sliding joints allow for the movements of the bridges as it expands and contracts
The property of solids in which they enlarge when warmed is thermal expansion. The opposite, shrinking when cooled, is thermal contraction. This property greatly effects how bridges, sidewalks, and concrete roads are made. They all have "expansion gaps," gaps between sections that allow the sections to expand in the heat of summer. Without those, the concrete would break and the bridges would warp and bend.
Expansion and contraction can cause things to crack, as in the weathering of rock. They can cause a bi-metal strip to bend and straighten, which phenomenon is used in some thermostats. Expansion can cause the roadway of a bridge to buckle, so gaps have to be left. Obviously they cause the thread in a liquid-in-glass thermometer to get longer and shorter.
Analog thermometers are based on the fact that matter expands and contracts in response to changing temperature. This is able to show smooth variation because the expansion and contraction is distributed among trillions of molecules per cubic millimeter. Since the expansion or contraction of each molecule is ultimately miniscule, the accumulated effects are excessively smooth.
During the warm day, things expand from the increased heat. During the cold night, things contract as heat is lost. This process of expansion and contraction creates cracks and other stress points that cause weathering.Hence the temperatures cause weathering. Note: There are few substances that this expansion and contraction can be seen with the naked eye, but even the minute changes cause weathering, and when substances like water get into the microscopic cracks then freeze…
Some positive effects of the westward expansion is that the Pony Express Continental came about. Westward Expansion also allowed more jobs to be invented from the Gold Rush. Plus, the size of the United States doubled,meaning there are more resources available. The negative effects are the Native Americans being forced in to reservations after having their land stolen, being forced to assimilate into the white culture, having their main source of life, the buffalo to…
Almost all the substance respond to heat. Heat is a type of energy which is more or less absorbed by almost all matters. The vital effect that heat causes is Expansion. Due to heat 3 types of expansion takes place within substances. They are: 1) Linear expansion of heat, 2) Surface expansion of heat & 3) Volumetric expansion of heat. Volumetric expansion of heat takes place with substances which are three dimensional.
One of the greatest advances in timekeeping was obtained by cancelling out the effect of temperature on the pendulum length of a clock. When a clock is warmed the expansion of the metal pendulum makes the clock run slow. Cooler temperatures contract the pendulum and the clock runs fast .John Harrison, a famous 18th century watchmaker, designed a 'Grid Iron' pendulum to counteract the effects of expansion by maintaining the same length regardless of temperature…
Westward expansion had many effects on America. Many things developed such as the Pony Express, and other new forms of transportation such as the Continental Railroad. Although those were positive, some negative effects were how the Americans moving west drived native Americans out of their tribal lands and onto reservations. the wars with native Americans killed many of them.
The immediate effects of any earthquake are called primary effects. Primary effects include include immediate damage such as the collapse of buildings, bridges and other structures, and roads as a result of the seismic waves shaking the Earth's crust. Because of the stress on the Earth's crust, another immediate effect can be ground deformation, either temporary (Transient) or lasting (Permanent).