Science

What are the ingreediants in oil?

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December 17, 2009 12:38AM

Assuming you are asking for what makes up crude oil or

petroleum:



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Petroleum is a mixture of a very large number of different

hydrocarbons; the most commonly found molecules are alkanes (linear

or branched), cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, or more

complicated chemicals like asphaltenes. Each petroleum variety has

a unique mix of molecules, which define its physical and chemical

properties, like color and viscosity.

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The

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alkanes, also known as

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paraffins, are saturated hydrocarbons with straight or branched

chains which contain only carbon and hydrogen and have the general

formula

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CnH2n+2 They generally have from 5 to 40 carbon atoms per

molecule, although trace amounts of shorter or longer molecules may

be present in the mixture.

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The alkanes from pentane (C5H12) to octane (C8H18) are refined into

gasoline (petrol), the ones from nonane (C9H20) to hexadecane

(C16H34) into diesel fuel and kerosene (primary component of many

types of jet fuel), and the ones from hexadecane upwards into fuel

oil and lubricating oil. At the heavier end of the range, paraffin

wax is an alkane with approximately 25 carbon atoms, while asphalt

has 35 and up, although these are usually cracked by modern

refineries into more valuable products. Any shorter hydrocarbons

are considered natural gas or natural gas liquids.

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The

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cycloalkanes, also known as

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napthenes, are saturated hydrocarbons which have one or more

carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the

formula

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CnH2n. Cycloalkanes have similar properties to alkanes but have

higher boiling points.

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The

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aromatic hydrocarbons are unsaturated hydrocarbons which have

one or more planar six-carbon rings called benzene rings, to which

hydrogen atoms are attached with the formula

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CnHn. They tend to burn with a sooty flame, and many have a

sweet aroma. Some are carcinogenic.

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- This information has been taken from wikipedia.


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