What country has been the most successful in the Olympics since the 1900's?
As of the 2008 Games, since the modern Olympics began in 1896, the United States has won the most gold medals (896) and total medals (2191) in the Summer Olympics. The Soviet Union/Russia is second in both gold (395) and total (1010) medals. Since the Winter Olympics began, Norway has won the most gold (98) and total (280) medals in the Winter Games. The United States and Soviet Union/Russia are tied for second most gold medals (78) and the US is second in total medals (216) and the Soviet Union/Russia is third (194).
The most successful Olympics was Los Angeles in 1984, where NZ won eight gold medals (and a total of 11) and finished 8th on the medal table. However, since these Olympics were boycotted by the USSR and the GDR among other nations this total was arguably inflated. The most successful other than this was Seoul in 1988 where 13 medals (including 3 gold) were won.
India has won 9 gold medals since the country first started participating in the Olympics in 1900. The country has won 8 gold medals in Field Hockey, and 1 gold medal in Shooting. India won its first gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics for Field Hockey. India's most recent gold medal was won at the 2008 China Olympics for Shooting.
When control of Hong Kong was transferred to China in 1997, they were designated as a Special Administrative Region which has autonomy and a separate political system than the mainland. Hong Kong has had a National Olympic Committee since 1950 and has been participating in the Summer Olympics since 1952. They will continue to participate separate of China in upcoming Olympics and will be known as Hong Kong, China.