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Answered 2011-12-07 02:10:50

it increases the amount of valence electrons.

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Why do transition elements have different oxidation states?

The transition elements have d orbitals underneath their valence shells. These electrons can be moved from the d shell to the valence shell and can then be donated in oxidation. For a few of the transition elements valence electrons can also be moved into the d suborbital where they generally cannot be donated.

Why do 'd' block elements exhibit variable valencies?

The "d" block elements have electrons in a "d" in a lower shell than the valence electrons in the "s" orbital. These "d" electrons can be moved to the outer shell to give a metal a higher valence then the value of 2 that might otherwise be expected. Osmium can have a valence as high as 8. Additionally, the outer shell electrons can be moved from the "s" orbital down to the "d" orbital to give a metal a lower valence, perhaps the most notable case of this is silver which almost always forms a 1+ ion rather than 2+.

Are valence electron of metal are held loosely?

Yes. This is why metals are such good conductors of electricity, the outer electrons are easily moved from their atom.

What is the valence electron configuration of copper?

The valence electron configuration of copper is 4s1 3d10 because copper doesn't have a valence electron total of 11 (a D orbital cannot hold more than 10 electrons). Therefore, everything is moved up 1, so there is only 1 valence electron in the s orbital.

What are conductors?

Conductors are materials whose atoms have valence electrons operating in energy levels that permit them (the electrons) to be moved easily. Remember that current flow is like musical chairs. Put an electron in one end of a wire and electrons within the wire shift "over" a spot and an electron leaves the other end. If a wire is made of, say, copper (which is selected primarily for its ability to conduct electricity), valence electrons about the copper atoms in the wire occupy energy bands that permit them to be easily moved and the wire will support current flow.

Is an atom only electrons that can be moved from place to place?

No. An atom consists of protons, neutrons and electrons.Electrons can, in certain circumstances, be moved or shared with other atoms. This is the basis of chemistry and electricity.

What is on the Bottom of Periodic Table of Elements?

The Lanthanides and the Actinides have been moved in the periodic table simply to save space.

What are at the bottom of the periodic table?

The Lanthanides and the Actinides have been moved in the periodic table simply to save space. --PainRain

Why is the mobility of electrons greater than holes?

In an intrinsic semiconductor, a few electrons get thermally excited and break from their valence bond to become a free electron. This leaves behind a vacancy in its place called 'hole'. In a P-type semiconductor, B with 3 electrons replaces a Si atom with 4 electrons in the lattice. 3 covalent bonds are formed by B with 3 neighbouring Si. But there is a deficiency of one electron in B for bonding with the 4th Si. This deficiency/vacancy is called a hole. When an electric potential difference is present, the electrons from adjacent valence bond moves into the vacancy near it while moving along the potential. The following represents the movement of valence electron. Terminology: * represents valence electron _ represents hole A is -ve and B is +ve. ..I A * * * _ * * * B .II A * * _ * * * * B III A * _ * * * * * B .IV A _ * * * * * * B I- Hole is at the 4th position. II- At first, the 3rd electron from left shifts right to fill the vacancy and leaves behind a vacancy in its place. The vacancy is at the 3rd position. III- Next, the 2nd electron from left has shifted to the 3rd place and filled up that vacancy but leaves a vacancy at its place. The vacancy is at 2nd position. IV- Now, the 1st electron from left moves to occupy the vacancy at the 2nd position creating another vacancy in its own place. The vacancy is at 1st position. As the electrons moved right, the vacancy moved left. The vacancy is called a hole (just a shorter name for convenience). The movement of holes is really the movement of electron in the valence band. Therefore, the mobility of a hole is indirectly the mobility of valence electrons. Mobility is the velocity acquired per unit electric field. In the intrinsic and N type semiconductors, many free electrons are present i.e. electrons in conduction band which are free to move in the crystal as against valence electrons which can only move in the lattice points. When an electric field is applied, both the valence electrons and the free electrons move in the same direction. The hole direction is opposite to that of valence electron but the mobility is the same, as explained earlier. Even for the same electric field, valence electrons cannot move as freely as the free electrons because its movement is restricted. Therefore, the velocity of valence electrons is less compared to free electrons. In other words, the velocity of holes is less compared to free electrons. This means mobility is also less for a hole compared to free electron. Thus, mobility of a free-electron (often abbreviated as 'electron') is greater than that of a hole (indirectly referring to valence electron).

What are the elements in the bottom of the periodic table?

The Lanthanides and the Actinides have been moved in the periodic table simply to save space. --PainRain

What is the role of redox reaction in photosynthesis?

its is used when carbon is reduced when electrons are added to it. This is when the electrons are being moved from water to sugar.

Why will electrons moved from negatively charge body?

Electrons are negatively charged. Opposites attract, so they are attracted to positively charged bodies.

When a magnet is moved alongside a wire what happens?

the electrons in the wire begin to flow

Why is the cotton a good insulator?

I will keep this very basic Its in the bonds between atoms in cotton that do this. In metals the atoms are bonded by free moving electrons. This makes it easy for electrons to be moved. Electricity is the flow of electrons (negatively charged electrons to be more specific), and because metals have free moving electrons it is easy for them to be moved (therefore an electric current). In cotton and other insulators the electrons are not free moving in the bonds but joined to the nucleus of the atom. So it is not possible for these electrons to move. So therefore because they can not be moved electricity (the flow of negatively charged electrons) can not pass through cotton or other insulator. (The stronger the bonds the less likely it is for electricity to be able to pass.

Why does the oxidation of organic compound by molecules oxygen to produce CO2 water release free energy?

Electrons are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as ) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as ).

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