Atoms and Atomic Structure

Questions about the structure of atoms/molecules and the resulting properties such as shape, polarity, and number of subatomic particles.

75,517 Questions
Chemistry
Periodic Table
Atoms and Atomic Structure

What type of element is a protactinium?

A highly radioactive metal and weakly basic actinide.

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Atoms and Atomic Structure

What are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons called?

Hehnbe

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

How do you determine if a molecule is polar or non-polar?

Polar Bonds and Molecular Shape

A polar molecule is a molecule that has a net dipole moment due to its having unsymmetrical polar bonds. There are two factors that go into determining if a molecule is polar or not. To determine if a molecule (or ion) is polar or non-polar, you must determine both factors.

  • The polarity of the individual bonds in the molecule.
  • The shape or geometry of the molecule.

First, to determine if a given individual bond is polar, you need to know the electronegativity of the two atoms involved in that bond. To find the electronegativities of all the elements, look at the periodic table (follow the link below this answer under Web Links).

If the electronegativity of the two atoms has a difference of 0.3 or less, then the bond is non-polar. If the electronegativity difference is greater that 0.3 but less than 1.7, then the bond is polar. If the two values have a difference greater than 1.7, then the bond is ionic, which is just very very polar.

Once you know which bonds in the molecule are polar and which are non-polar, you must use the shape of the molecule. You need the shape because two polar bonds, if oriented correctly can cancel each other out (like two equally strong people pulling in opposite directions on a rope -- nobody moves).

The three possible outcomes:

  • If all bonds are non-polar, then the whole molecule is non-polar regardless of its shape.
  • If there is symmetry in the molecule so that the polarity of the bonds cancels out, then the molecule is non-polar. A common example of this is carbon dioxide, or CO2. The molecule is linear, and its Lewis dot structure is like this: O=C=O (this doesn't include two sets of lone pairs on each oxygen). The carbon-oxygen bond is a polar bond, but because they are exactly opposed to each other, the molecule is overall non-polar. Another example of this is CCl4, where each carbon-chlorine bond is polar, but the molecule is non-polar. Here, how they cancel out isn't as obvious, but they do. CCl4 is a tetrahedral molecule, and the 4 C-Cl polar bonds cancel each other out.
  • If there are polar bonds but there is no symmetry such that they cancel each other out, the overall molecule is polar. Water is a typical example of this. The two O-H bonds are oriented in a V-shape, and so the don't cancel out. Similarly, CH3Cl is also polar. It is the same shape as CCl4 (see above), but now it doesn't have the same symmetry because there is only one C-Cl bond and the bonds don't cancel out anymore.
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Physics
Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure

What is the temperature of a lighter flame?

The temperature of a Bic lighter flame is 1977 C or 3590.6 F.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

What is orbital mixing?

In chemistry, orbital hybridization (the preferred term) comes from a sort of "mixing" of the individual pure solutions of the wavefunction (the orbitals) to form a hybrid orbital with characteristics that are somewhere in between the two.

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Physics
Nuclear Physics
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

Are quarks nucleons?

No, quarks are not nucleons. A nucleon is a term (in physics) that is given to either of the two component particles of an atomic nucleus: the proton and the neutron. Both protons and neutrons are composite particles from the family of hadrons, and hadrons are made up of quarks.

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Science
Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

Is NO a polar molecule?

If the difference in electronegativity for the atoms in a bond is greater than 0.4, we consider the bond polar. If the difference in electronegativity is less than 0.4, the bond is essentially nonpolar.) If there are no polar bonds, the molecule is nonpolar.

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Computer Programming
Elements and Compounds
Atoms and Atomic Structure

What is the charge of Cs?

Cs also known as cesium has an atomic number of 55 which means it has 55 electrons. as well as having a atomic mass of 132, which means that there are 132 particles in the nucleus made up of protons and neutron, protons having a positive charge and neutrons having a neutral charge (no charge), electrons have a negitive charge that orbit the nucleus creating the atomic structure for Cs. hope this helped :D

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

Which bonding holds atoms together in a biological molecule?

Covalent bonds are very common linking carbon to other elements. However hydrogen bonds between the base pairs hold the strands of DNA together and their presence in proteins contributes to their shape.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

Does O3 obey the octet rule?

Yes.

One of the "canonical" forms is

O=O+-O-

Just found a picture that will help see wikipedia article for ozone

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

How do you draw a Lewis structure for BeH2?

H-Be-H. This is an exception to the octet rule as there are only four electrons around the beryllium atom.

On first principles you would expect BeH2 to be an exception as shown above, and recently gas phase molecular BeH2 has been confirmed to be a linear molecule. However solid BeH2 is normally encountered is amorphous white solid and has a polymeric structure with 3 centre 2 electron bonds, so called banana bonds. These break all the rules we use in drawing Lewis structures. Boron hydrides are similarly electron deficient and also can form these 3 centre banana bonds. This demonstrates that the electron deficient Be and B atoms in the hydrides are able to make use of the electrons that are around in order to get closer to the octet even though they can never achieve it.

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Chemistry
Elements and Compounds
Atoms and Atomic Structure

Is carbon an atom or molecule?

Atom, or at least element. It can also be a "molecule" in the sense of having many internal bonds in a single crystal, such as a perfect diamond.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure

How you can draw electron dot structure of carbon dioxide?

The Carbon contributes 4 valance electrons and each oxygen contributes 6 valance electrons for a total of 16. Start by putting the Carbon in the middle of the two Oxygens. Each oxygen will have a double bond connecting it to the C in the middle. The left over valance electrons will be put on the oxygens. For drawing purposes you could put two dots on the top and two dots on the bottom of each oxygen. Since I can't draw it out for you here it will look roughly like this:

::O=C=O::

The only difference is that instead of having the four dots together on the Oxygens, like I said above, you would put two dots on the top and two dots on the bottom of each Oxygen. If you count the dots and bonds, each element has the 8 valance electrons that it wants and you have used all 16 that you needed to.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure

What is the complete set of quantum numbers for the fifth electron added to a hydrogen ion?

A hydrogen ion is a proton, and that cannot bind more than 1 electron. For Boron, which has charge 5 on the nucleus the electrons are 1s2 2s2 2p1

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Chemistry
Elements and Compounds
Atoms and Atomic Structure

What is the mass for C12 atom?

12 (exact by definition) grams/Avogadro's Number = about 12/6.022 X 1023 = 1.993 X 10-23 grams.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

Why are large anions polarised more easily then small anion?

This is because the outermost or valence electrons experience very less attraction from the nucleus. Thus those electrons are easily attracted and hence making the ion polarised.

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Science
Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure

If an atom has 17 protons 16 neutrons and 19 electrons what is the atoms electrical charge?

-2, protons minus electrons equals charge. Neutrons are neutral, they have no charge.

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Atoms and Atomic Structure

How many neutrons are there in isotope Rn 220?

The atomic number is 86 which gives the number of protons. 220Rn has 220 protons and neutrons so the neutron count iscalcualted as follows:

220 -86 = 134 neutrons

220Rn is an unstable isotope of Radon.

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Chemistry
Elements and Compounds
Atoms and Atomic Structure

How many atoms are in the molecule CH3OH?

6 1C 4H 1O 4+1+1 = 6

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Atoms and Atomic Structure
Quantum Mechanics

Why doesn't the electrical attraction between protons and electrons make the electron fall into the nucleus?

Quantum mechanics.

If the laws of physics consisted of only classical electromagnetic theory and Newton's laws of mechanics, then electrons going around a nucleus would gradually lose electromagnetic energy and spiral into the center and collide with the nucleus.

That doesn't happen and the theory of describes the law of nature that predicts a stable orbit is quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is correct and classical electromagnetic theory and Newtons laws have limited validity.

Quantum mechanics predicts discrete and stable electronic states as the ground state (lowest energy state) of electrons around atoms.

Answer2:

The electrons centrifugal force balances the electrical attraction (centripetal) force and thus does not fall into the nucleus.

The electron energy is the sum of the electrical scalar/potential energy -vh/r AND the vector energy cmV=cP. The vector energy is not recognized and is the so-called "Dark Energy" in Cosmology. The electron has matter and motion thus momentum, mV=P, this also gives the electron vector energy, cP. Physics has yet to recognize that Energy is a Quaternion quantity.

The Energy of the electron is W = -vh/r + cP = [-vh/r, cP]

and the Force is the first derivative of energy. Quaternion Physics also needs a Quaternion Derivative X =d/dr + DEL = [d/dr, DEL].

Force F is the first derivative of the energy W

F = XW = [d/dr,DEL][-vh/r,cP] = [vh/r2 -cDEL.P, cdP/dr -DEL vh/r + cDELxP]

F = [vp/r - cp/r cos(PR), -cp/r 1P + vp/r 1R + cp/r sin(PR) 1RxP]

The electron does not fall into the nucleus because the scalar force is zero. This is the Continuity condition: 0= vp/r - cp/r cos(PR) and

this gives vp/r=cp/r cos(PR) and v/c= cos(PR).

This is the case of the centripetal force vp/r is balanced by the centrifugal force cDEL.P, Divergence of the Vector energy, cP. The Divergence is the outward force and balances the centripetal , inward force. The cos(PR) is the angle needed to balance the two forces. At different velocities or orbits, the angle is different. The cos(PR) =v/c is the redshift of the electron and is the same cause of the redshift in Cosmology.

The speed of the electron is v=Z Alpha c, where Z is the Atomic Number and Alpha is the Fine Structure Constant.

The redshift cos(PR)= v/c= ZAlpha c/c=Z alpha and the limit is Z Alpha =1 so the Atomic Number is limited to Z<1/Alpha = 138.

Newton's Laws are correct when extended to Quaternion quantities. Newton's 3 laws are correct and anticipated Quaternions, specifically Newton's vector force anticipated the vector energy cP.

F=dP/dt = cdP/cdt = cdP/dr = dcP/dr the derivative of the vector energy cP !

The Quaternion nature of Physics is the revolutionary insight as to why the electron does not fall into the nucleus and why the earth does not fall into the sun!

this is absolute stupid,,,,the electron theriy is just a theriy, its not true....GE's tunelling microcope can see electrons, they are very small balls..

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Physics
Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure

How does the ideal gas law relate to real gases?

Ideal gas law states that there are no inter molecular attractions between gas molecules and that ideal gas does not occupy space therefore having no volume.

However, a real gas does have intermolecular attractions and does have a volume.

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Food & Cooking
Atoms and Atomic Structure

What is the difference between macro and micro neutrons?

macro is bigger than micro

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Chemistry
Elements and Compounds
Atoms and Atomic Structure

How many elements are unnamed?

The number of unnamed elements are thirteen.Now it can be named by a latin numerals think so.Because the elements which are unnamed is found very very low in earth.As so we did not calculate the accure mass & some data.So we use it as the numeral system

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Physics
Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

Is light made up of quarks and leptons?

No, light is not made up of quarks and/or leptons. Light is electromagnetic energy, and the carrier of this energy is the photon.

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Chemistry
Elements and Compounds
Atoms and Atomic Structure

Calculate number of electrons in 18mL of water?

18/18 x Avagadros number = 6.023 x 1023 molecules of water making the assumption that 1ml of water has 1 g mass. There are 8 electrons in oxygen and 1 from each hydrogen so a water molecule has 10 electrons so 6.023 x 1023 x 10 = 6.023 x 1024 electrons

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because 18ml of H2O = 1 mole of H2O

so. 18ml contains 6.023X1023 atoms and water has 10 electrons

so, 10 e x 6.023 x 1023 = 6.023 x 1024

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