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Chemical Bonding

Questions about the various chemical bonds elements make in compounds.

35,437 Questions
Mechanical Engineering
Periodic Table
Chemical Bonding
Acids and Bases

List of all nonferrous metals?

That would be all metals that aren't iron or iron alloys.

Yeah, like aluminium, zinc, copper, lead, beryllium, titanium, etc.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

How do you determine if a molecule is polar or non-polar?

Polar Bonds and Molecular Shape

A polar molecule is a molecule that has a net dipole moment due to its having unsymmetrical polar bonds. There are two factors that go into determining if a molecule is polar or not. To determine if a molecule (or ion) is polar or non-polar, you must determine both factors.

  • The polarity of the individual bonds in the molecule.
  • The shape or geometry of the molecule.

First, to determine if a given individual bond is polar, you need to know the electronegativity of the two atoms involved in that bond. To find the electronegativities of all the elements, look at the periodic table (follow the link below this answer under Web Links).

If the electronegativity of the two atoms has a difference of 0.3 or less, then the bond is non-polar. If the electronegativity difference is greater that 0.3 but less than 1.7, then the bond is polar. If the two values have a difference greater than 1.7, then the bond is ionic, which is just very very polar.

Once you know which bonds in the molecule are polar and which are non-polar, you must use the shape of the molecule. You need the shape because two polar bonds, if oriented correctly can cancel each other out (like two equally strong people pulling in opposite directions on a rope -- nobody moves).

The three possible outcomes:

  • If all bonds are non-polar, then the whole molecule is non-polar regardless of its shape.
  • If there is symmetry in the molecule so that the polarity of the bonds cancels out, then the molecule is non-polar. A common example of this is carbon dioxide, or CO2. The molecule is linear, and its Lewis dot structure is like this: O=C=O (this doesn't include two sets of lone pairs on each oxygen). The carbon-oxygen bond is a polar bond, but because they are exactly opposed to each other, the molecule is overall non-polar. Another example of this is CCl4, where each carbon-chlorine bond is polar, but the molecule is non-polar. Here, how they cancel out isn't as obvious, but they do. CCl4 is a tetrahedral molecule, and the 4 C-Cl polar bonds cancel each other out.
  • If there are polar bonds but there is no symmetry such that they cancel each other out, the overall molecule is polar. Water is a typical example of this. The two O-H bonds are oriented in a V-shape, and so the don't cancel out. Similarly, CH3Cl is also polar. It is the same shape as CCl4 (see above), but now it doesn't have the same symmetry because there is only one C-Cl bond and the bonds don't cancel out anymore.
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Science
Physics
Chemistry
Chemical Bonding

Why does water have a high and specific heat capacity?

In simple words, water has high heat capacity because it has a lower molar mass, and specific heat is inverse to a substance's mass. Another reason for high specific heat is its strong hydrogen bonding.

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Chemical Bonding

How do you determine if a bond is non-polar covalent or polar covalent or ionic?

Given below is the difference in electronegativity of any two elements:

  • 0.0-0.4 = nonpolar covalent bond
  • 0.4-1.7 = polar covalent bond
  • >1.7 = ionic bond
  • For ex. Sodium and Chlorine (Na and Cl)
  • Sodium's electronegativity = 0.93
  • Chlorine's electronegativity = 3.16
  • So, 3.16-0.93 = 2.23 which means NaCl bond is an ionic bond
Answer:When differentiating between covalent (molecular) or ionic, the type of elements in the compound decides which it is. Covalent bonds are between non-metals only. Ionic bonds are between a metal and a non-metal.

Covalent bonds can either be polar or non-polar. You could determine this with the known electronegativities of the elements. First you have to represent the molecule by any means necessary (Lewis Dot Structure, lines, etc). This isn't nesessary for a compound with two atoms. Once drawn, you will know which atoms are bonded to the other atoms in the molecule. Then you look at the electronegativities for each element in one bond. If one atom's element has a higher electronegativity value than the other, then the bond is polar. If they are the same, then the bond is non-polar.

The reason a bond would be polar is because one atom has a higher electronegativity value, which means that the element has more attraction to electrons than the other. If it is attracting electrons more than the other, then the electrons are spending more time one one side. The disparity of electron distribution causes one side to be slightly negative (δ-) and the other to be slightly positive (δ+).

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

What is orbital mixing?

In chemistry, orbital hybridization (the preferred term) comes from a sort of "mixing" of the individual pure solutions of the wavefunction (the orbitals) to form a hybrid orbital with characteristics that are somewhere in between the two.

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Science
Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

Is NO a polar molecule?

If the difference in electronegativity for the atoms in a bond is greater than 0.4, we consider the bond polar. If the difference in electronegativity is less than 0.4, the bond is essentially nonpolar.) If there are no polar bonds, the molecule is nonpolar.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

Which bonding holds atoms together in a biological molecule?

Covalent bonds are very common linking carbon to other elements. However hydrogen bonds between the base pairs hold the strands of DNA together and their presence in proteins contributes to their shape.

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Chemical Bonding

What is a covalent bond?

A covalent bond is a bond between two non-metallic elements. This means that they share electrons inside the molecules. OR A type of chemical bond in which there is mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms is called covalent bond. It is furthur classified into single, double, and triple covalent bond with respect to mutual sharing of one, two, and three bonds respectively. Their symbols are single, double, and triple lines between two atoms according to their type of covalent bond like one for single two for double and so on (e.g. Cl---Cl). The type of chemical bond in which one atom provides shared pair of electron for bond formation is called "Coordinate Covalent Bond". OR

Chemical bond formed between two atoms due to sharing of electron pair in which only one atom provides shared pair of electron for the formation of bond, is known as coordinate covalent bond or dative bond. In the formation of coordinate bond other atom does not provide electron for sharing. It is one sided sharing.

Formation of coordinate covalent bond is the property of atoms that have lone pair of electrons. The atom that provides electron pair is called "Donor". The other which takes it is called "Acceptor". Symbol:

Dative bond is represented by an arrow, pointing from donor atom to the acceptor.

AnswerA covalent bond is where 2 atomic orbitals overlap to form a molecular bonding and anti-bonding orbital, which allows electrons from each atom to lower their energy with respect to their original atomic orbitals.

For example 2 hydrogen atom 1s orbitals, each with 1 electron in, overlap to give a σ bonding orbital and a σ* antibonding orbital. The σ molecular orbital is as much lower in energy than the constituent atomic orbitals as the σ* orbital is higher in energy than them. however, both the electrons in the bond are in the σ bonding orbital, making them lower in energy, so bonding is favorable.

Non polar covalent bond is formed between 2 atoms of similar electronegativities and Polar covalent bond is formed between atoms of different electronegativities (electronegativity difference equal or less than 1.7). If a bond is too polarised (electronegativity difference more than 1.7) it is more favourable for electrons to fully transfer and ions are formed which attract electrostatically, with orbitals of the right shape and size to interact & ionic bond is formed.
is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or between atoms and other ...

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

Does O3 obey the octet rule?

Yes.

One of the "canonical" forms is

O=O+-O-

Just found a picture that will help see wikipedia article for ozone

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Chemistry
Elements and Compounds
Chemical Bonding

Is P2S5 an ionic or molecular compound?

P2S5 is molecular. The molecular formula is P4S10. It structure is the same as the molecular form of P2O5, which is P4O10.

The compound is normally called simply phosphorus pentasulfide, however a more correct name diphosphorus pentasulfide.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

How do you draw a Lewis structure for BeH2?

H-Be-H. This is an exception to the octet rule as there are only four electrons around the beryllium atom.

On first principles you would expect BeH2 to be an exception as shown above, and recently gas phase molecular BeH2 has been confirmed to be a linear molecule. However solid BeH2 is normally encountered is amorphous white solid and has a polymeric structure with 3 centre 2 electron bonds, so called banana bonds. These break all the rules we use in drawing Lewis structures. Boron hydrides are similarly electron deficient and also can form these 3 centre banana bonds. This demonstrates that the electron deficient Be and B atoms in the hydrides are able to make use of the electrons that are around in order to get closer to the octet even though they can never achieve it.

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Chemical Bonding
Hydrocarbons

What type of chemical bonds in propane?

Propane is a hydrocarbon in which carbon and hydrogen atoms are linked together through covalent bonds.

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Math and Arithmetic
Chemistry
Chemical Bonding

Could you balance c2h6o plus o2 --- c2h4o2 plus h2o?

C2H6O + O2 = C2H4O2 + H2O is balanced but not sure if this is what would happen

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Chemical Bonding

Is ZnF2 an ionic compound?

Yes, zinc fluoride, ZnF2, is an ionic compound. Metals and nonmetals tend to form ionic bonds with one another.

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Chemical Bonding

How are ionic and covalent bonds used in the real world?

Ionic: If absent, no batteries, no electrolysis, no acids no bases....

Covalent: If absent, no plastics, no breath (C-H goes to C-O)...

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding

Why are large anions polarised more easily then small anion?

This is because the outermost or valence electrons experience very less attraction from the nucleus. Thus those electrons are easily attracted and hence making the ion polarised.

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Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Chemical Bonding

Can water form hydrogen bonds with hexane?

No, hexane is a non polar molecule and can not form hydrogen bonding with itself, water , ethanol or any other molecule.

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Chemical Bonding

Is C12H22O11 ionic or covalent?

Colvalent because they are all non-metals

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Chemical Bonding

Does CH2Cl2 have a dipole moment?

Yup. One side of CH2Cl2 has C and H atoms, which are very similar in electronegativity. The other side has Cl, the 2nd most electronegative atom. So, obviously electrons would want to be near Cl --> electron cloud is more dense on the Cl side.

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Chemical Bonding

Is C2H2 ionic or covalent?

covalent, generally only metals non metal form ionic substances, therefore carbon and hydrogen are covalent.

C2H2 is acetylene, ethyne and has a carbon carbon triple bond.

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Elements and Compounds
Chemical Bonding

What ionic compound would you expect to form between aluminum and sulfur?

The compound with formula Al2S3.

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Chemistry
Elements and Compounds
Chemical Bonding

What it the balanced equation for Mg and CO2?

2Mg + CO2 --> 2MgO + C

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Elements and Compounds
Chemical Bonding

How many atoms total are in aluminum nitrate?

The formula unit for aluminum nitrate has the formula Al(NO3)3. Subscripts within parentheses are multiplied by the subscript after the parentheses. Therefore, this formula unit contains nine oxygen atoms, three nitrogen atoms, and one aluminum atom for a total of 13 atoms.

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Chemical Bonding

What is the name of the ionic compound Lil?

Lithium Iodide

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Chemical Bonding
Molecular Biology

Is CH3OH ionic or molecular?

CH3OH is molecular.

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