Needs a Topic
What is a calcineurin?
Which drugs causes renal toxicity?
5-fluorouracil, gentamicin, cisplatin, acetaminophen, para-aminophenol, potassium dichromate, ibuprofen, doxorubicin, cyclosporine, citrinin, puromycin Acyclovir Aminoglycosides Cisplatin Mercury Chloride Potassium Bromate Cadmium chloride Amphotericin B Lithium Calcineurin Inhibitors amongst others
Asked in Organ Transplants
Why were transplants not successful before 1954?
No effective immunosuppression, which is required to prevent organ rejection. Corticosteroids were available (which reduce inflammation), but no calcineurin inhibitors (such as ciclosporin or tacrolimus), which alter the function of T-cell lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell, produced by the patient's bone marrow, not the transplanted organ) to prevent organ rejection. Hence most transplants failed due to organ rejection pre-1954. The first effective immunosuppression (ciclosporin) was found in the 1970's, but 1954 happened to be the year when the process of organ rejection was first understood.
Asked in Lymphatic System, Immune System
What chemicals can suppress the immune system after an organ transplant?
Calcineurin inhibitors: Ciclosporin & Tacrolimus Anti-proliferatives: Azathioprine & Mycophenolic acid mTOR inhibitors: Sirolimus & Everolimus Antibodies: Monoclonal anti-IL-2Rα receptor antibodies: Basiliximab & Daclizumab Polyclonal anti-T-cell antibodies: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) & Anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) Monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies: Rituximab Corticosteroids: Prednisolone & Hydrocortisone However, it takes someone specializing in this field and a battery of blood tests to determine which drug is best for any particular transplant patient.
Choosing the Best Over-the-Counter Eczema Cream?
Eczema is a chronic skin condition categorized by recurrent rashes that leave the skin dry, inflamed, itchy, swollen, flakey and sometimes blistered. People who suffer from eczema need to make an extra effort to take care of their skin. Eczema should be kept moisturized, soothed and protected from allergens. Failing to take care of eczema can cause the condition to worsen or trigger an irritating flare up. Why Medicated Eczema Creams May Not Be the Safest Choice Currently, there are two medicated eczema creams that have been approved by the FDA: pimecrolimus and tacrolimus. Both of these creams contain powerful immunosuppressant drugs called calcineurin inhibitors. Because these drugs have been found to cause cancer in rare cases, the FDA warned patients against their long term use in 2006. To lessen the risk of side effects, calcineurin inhibitors are usually only used to control severe flare ups in patients over two years old. How to Choose the Most Effective Over-the-Counter Eczema Cream While a prescription eczema cream can be used to treat severe flare ups, most patients will need a gentler cream for everyday use. When dealing with eczema, one of the most important things is to keep the skin moisturized. To find a moisturizing lotion, look for those that contain rich oils, humectants and natural extracts. Avoid lotions that are primarily composed of water as these lotions can be overly drying. It is also important to choose lotions that are free of certain irritants like fragrances and harsh preservatives. Instead of these irritating ingredients, look for an eczema cream that contains soothing ingredients like aloe, chamomile, vitamins and antioxidants. Some popular choices for eczema include Nutraderm, Eucerin, Lubriderm and Nivea. However, there are hundreds of creams that can be used by eczema patients. To control bouts of severe rash, over-the-counter corticosteroid creams can also be used to control inflammation, itching and irritation. More serious cases of eczema can also be treated with prescription corticosteroid creams. Still, while steroid creams can be beneficial, regularly hydrating the skin with a gentle moisturizer is the best way to control eczema on a day-to-day basis.
Asked in Health, Skin Disorders
What is a treatment that ACTUALLY works for atopic dermatitis?
There are many different treatments available for atopic dermatitis. Unfortunately you have to go through a lot of trial and error to figure out exactly what will work for you. The most important thing is to establish a daily regimen to care for your skin. Keeping your skin moisturized is extremely important, and I personally recommend Vanicream since it's free of many of the irritants that many of the other moisturizers have. Here is a list of other treatments to try, some over the counter and some that require a visit to the dermatologist: Corticosteroids: These are usually the first line of defense for eczema sufferers. You can get Hydrocortisone OTC, but anything stronger will need a prescription for. If there is a large surface area that is affected you can also take Predisone, an oral corticosteroid, but it should be taken with some caution. UV Light: You can get PUVA or Narrowband UVB treatments as ordered by a dermatologist. These can be time consuming as they require several trips to the clinic every week. Antihistamines: Antihistamines can sometimes help. The best ones are unfortunately the ones that make you drowsy. OTC you can get Benadryl. You can also get Hydroxyzine with a prescription. Antibiotics: Since atopic dermatitis is frequently accompanied by staph infections, antibiotics are sometimes needed to clear it up. Some dermatologists recommend taking bleach baths (just put 1 cup of bleach in a full bath tub) or you can take oral antibiotics such as Dicloxacillin or Flucloxacillin. Calcineurin Inhibitors: Protopic and Elidel are prescription only creams that are not often prescribed by dermatologists, but if you have very stubborn atopic dermatitis that is not responding to any other treatment then this might be something to try. Other: There are many other drugs that can be prescribed for eczema that is particularly stubborn. Cyclosporin and Methotrexate are sort of the "kitchen sink" of treatments and are used only if other options have been exhausted as they can be high risk and suppress your immune system. Doxepin is a drug that is particularly helpful if you're having trouble sleeping and is a good antipruritic. For treatments that don't require a doctor, putting 10 drops of lavender oil in a bath can help soothe the skin. Putting something cold on a particularly itchy spot can at least temporarily stop the itching sensation. And aloe can also relieve some itchiness (although make sure to get it in a cream or ointment not a gel). If none of this helps, you may want to look into other causes such as contact dermatitis or food allergies.