What is a compiled program?

A compiled program is source code that is translated to either machine code (native code) or byte code. Native machine code requires no further translation and can be executed as-is, but byte code must be interpreted in order to produce the required machine code. Java is an example of a language that compiles to byte code that is suitable for interpretation by the Java virtual machine. C++, on the other hand, compiles to native machine code. Interpretation is much slower than executing native machine code program, however it is more efficient to interpret compiled byte code than it is to interpret high-level source code. Moreover, byte code is generally portable whereas native machine code is always machine-dependent.
A compiler takes the source code and generates an executable (the compiled program) that your device can run.