A seroma is a small fluid collection usually under an incision.
seroma is a tumor-like collection of serum, whereas ceroma is a tumor of degenerated tissue.
seroma: filled with clear serous fluid hematoma: filled with red blood cells
A seroma is a mass or swelling caused by the localized accumulation of serum within a tissue or organ. A hygroma is a swelling in soft tissue located over a joint. Hygromas are usually caused by repeated injury.
They are the same thing and ceratoma and seratoma are simply common misspellings for seroma. A seroma can result when plasma leaks out of a small ruptured blood vessel. The result is a small pocket of fluid and this is common following surgical procedures.
bleeding wound infection delayed wound healing skin or fat necrosis (death) hematoma (collection of blood in a tissue) seroma (collection of serum in a tissue) seroma (collection of serum in a tissue) blood clots pulmonary embolism
Seroma is a clear pocket of serous fluid that can develop in the body after surgery (especially after a mastectomy.) Some women will need repeated visits to their doctors to have seroma fluid drained (aspiration.) Small blood vessel are ruptured (blood plasma) can seep out and cause inflammation caused by dying cells. Seromas can be sometimes caused by injury from a blow that starts to swell.
It may be due to collection of fluid- seroma or pus if infected. It can also mean that the hernia has recurred again.
"It is a medical procedure where fat is removed from the body. There are several risks that may occur such as swelling,burns,embolism,infections,seroma,fluid imbalance,or even death."
There are a number of possible unfortunate side effects after liposuction, including infection, embolisms, visceral perforations, swelling, and seroma, to name a few.
Some of the common risks with cosmetic plastic surgery are: numbness or loss of feeling, seroma, necrosis - tissue death, excessive bleeding, hematoma, infections.
My vet told me the hard nodule around my dogs incision is from the immune response to the sutures and it will resolve on its own. If your dog has swelling near the incision, then that is a seroma. You can google that for a good explanation.
Listed below are the major risks associated with plastic/cosmetic surgery.1.Temporary-permanent paralysis2. Seroma3. Necrosis4. Hematoma or Haemorrhaging5. Infectionsee relevant link below
Yes, an older dog can still be neutered by a vet - however it may be a slightly more difficult procedure. The risk of some complications, like a seroma forming, are higher in an older dog. If the dog is quite old, there are increased risks for anaesthesia. So you should discuss this with your vet.
Some common dangers of augmentation surgery are Hematoma, where a pocket of blood forms in the surgical wound. Seroma, a form of "blister fluid" forming around the implants and Hypertrophic Scarring which is where thick red scarring forms after surgery. Other common risks are infection, as apparent with any surgery and in very rare cases, Mondor's Disease.
Hard lump? Any lump(s) found after a mastectomy could be troublesome. It may be a hematoma (collection of blood), a seroma (collection of fluid), an infection, a cyst, swelling, left over tissue..or a host of other things. It may be reabsorbed by the body, something to live with or cause a problems. Best let your doctor check it out; especially if it's tender!
You absolutely can get nerve damage from a tummy tuck and I know this to be fact first hand. I have no feeling from my belly button to my incision line due to the PS cutting a major nerve in that area. I knew that was a risk when I signed up but it is a very odd feeling that I have to now deal with for the rest of my life. Also developed a seroma immediately after surgery. Just consider all scenarios before going under the knife.
The positive effects of cosmetic surgery include increased self confidence and , in many cases, clear physical improvement. On the downside all cosmetic surgery carries risks and complications. These risks and complications are a part of all surgucal procedures. Such examples would be infection, haematoma, seroma. Also, many people who have cosmetic surgery have unrealistic expectations and end up not being happy afterwards. Today Plastic Surgeons are very careful not to accept Patients who make unrealistic demands from cosmetic surgery
This is likely a seroma or hematoma; less likely would be a cartilage or bony callus. If your dog is otherwise find (walking straight, eating normally, playing, etc), you can keep an eye on it over the next few weeks and see if it goes away. If not, your dog may have a new bump, but it shouldn't cause any problems. However, if your dog is having trouble walking, can't see well, isn't eating well or otherwise is acting 'wrong' - take him to a veterinarian immediately as he could have pressure on his brain.
There are risks with all cosmetic surgery procedures. These should be fully explained to you by your Plastic Surgeon at the consultation. Each particular operation carries its own risks of course, but generally speaking there are risks associated with anaesthesia for which you will be screened prior to surgery. In terms of the surgery, then the usual risks of any surgery apply, these are, but not limited to, bleeding haematoma seroma infection swelling and bruising ( very likely in most cases ) skin necrosis poor healing of the scars Of course, there is always a risk that the results of the surgery may not turn out as intended. The above risks maybe a contributory factor. Sometimes cosmetic surgery has to be repeated to get the results originally anticipated
Post Operative FeverCauses of Fever (think of five W's: Wind, Water, Wound, Walking, Wonderdrug) Workup: CBC with differential, CXR, 2 blood cultures, UA, Urine Cx1) Atelectasis (POD 1-2)a. Most common cause of post-op feverb. Risk factors: prolonged immobilization, smoking hx, lung dzc. Sx: low grade fever, rales on auscultation, tachycardia, tachypnead. Tx: bronchoscopy2) Pneumonia (POD 1-2)a. Risk factors:i. Respirator use (Pseudomonas, Klebsiella)1. Tx: aminoglycosides + penicillinii. Aspiration1. Tx: NGT for decompression, oxygenationb. Sx: cough, sputum production; Vitals: fever, ↑ RRc. Findings: CXR infiltrate, Leukocytes on CBC3) UTI (POD3+)a. 5% chance per each day foley is inb. Sx: burning sensation upon urination; no pain if Foley still inc. Risk factors: prostate hypertrophy, diabetes, catheters, urinary retentiond. Microorganisms: Pseudomonas, Serratia, Enterococcus, E.Coli, Proteus, Klebsiellae. Findings: leukocyte esterase and nitrite changes on UA; growth on Urine Cx, leukocytes on CBCf. Tx: remove foley, increase fluids, Abx4) Wound (POD 5+)a. Sx: >2cm erythema, swelling, warmth, pain around incision siteb. Microorganisms: Staph most commonc. GI infections: E. coli, Bacteroides, Enterococcusd. GU infections: Pseudomonas, Proteuse. Tx: drain and wet-to-dry dressings twice dailyf. Other complications: hematoma, seroma, dehiscence (fascial opening)5) DVTs (POD7+)a. Sx: leg edema, tender superficial veins, chest pain, tachycardia, tachypnea, SOBb. Studies: Doppler, venogram, CT (look for occlusion in pulmonary arteries)c. Tx: ambulate, SCDs, systemic heparin, consult cardio6) Medications - drug rxn can occur anytime7) Line infectionsa. IV lines need to come out after 72hrsb. Sx: fever, leukocytosis on CBC, bacteremia on blood Cx, (+) culture from line tipc. Micro: S. aureus, S. epidermidisd. Tx: removal of line and +/- IV Abx8) Peritonitisa. Perforation of GI tract à abdominal pain, fever, sepsisb. Studies: KUB (check for free air)c. Tx: NPO with NGT, Abx, IVF, operate to irrigate abdomend. Complications: abscess formationi. Tx: localize with CT scan or Gallium study (xrays while injecting radioactive gallium into bloodstream), drain, AbxFever occurring during operation1) Transfusion rxna. Sx: fever, excess bleeding, urticaria, red urineb. Tx: stop transfusion, hydrate with NS, mannitol for osmotic diuresis2) Intraoperative Septicemiaa. Release of abscessb. Tx: copious irrigation3) Malignant hyperthermiaa. Sx: fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, acidosis with hyperkalemia, shockb. Causes: halothane, succinylcholine, MAOi + meperidinec. Tx:i. stop surgery/anesthesiaii. dantrolene (muscle relaxant)iii. cool patientiv. hyperventilate to ¯ acidosisv. bicarb + insulin to ¯ hyperkalemia and ¯ acidosisvi. mannitol for diuresisd. mortality 60%Fever occurring few hours post-op1) Thyroid storm2) Addisonian crisisa. Tx: resume steriod therapy for Addison's dz3) EtOH withdrawala. Sx: low grade fever, tremors, seizuresb. Wernicke's encephalopathy: confusion, nystagmus, ataxiac. Korsakoff's: confabulation, amnesia caused by damage to mamillary bodiesd. Tx: thiamine4) Anastomotic leak5) Clostridium perfringens wound infection
A chest tube (chest drain or tube thoracostomyin British medicine or intercostal drain) is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. It is used to remove air (pneumothorax) or fluid (pleural effusion, blood, chyle), or pus (empyema) from the intrathoracic space. It is also known as a BÃ¼lau drain or an intercostal catheter.Contents[hide] 1 Indications2 Contraindications3 Technique4 Chest Drainage Canister5 Complications6 References7 External linksIndicationsPneumothorax: accumulation of air in the pleural spacePleural effusion: accumulation of fluid in the pleural space Chylothorax: a collection of lymphatic fluid in the pleural spaceEmpyema: a pyogenic infection of the pleural spaceHemothorax: accumulation of blood in the pleural spaceHydrothorax: accumulation of serous fluid in the pleural spaceContraindicationsContraindications to chest tube placement include refractory coagulopathy, lack of cooperation by the patient, and diaphragmatic hernia. Additional contraindications include scarring in the pleural space (adhesions)TechniqueThe insertion technique is described in detail in an article of the NEJM.The free end of the tube is usually attached to an underwater seal, below the level of the chest. This allows the air or fluid to escape from the pleural space, and prevents anything returning to the chest. Alternatively, the tube can be attached to a flutter valve. This allows patients with pneumothorax to remain more mobile.British Thoracic Society recommends the tube is inserted in an area described as the "safe zone", a region bordered by: the lateral border of pectoralis major, a horizontal line inferior to the axilla, the anterior border of latissimus dorsi and a horizontal line superior to the nipple. More specifically, the tube is inserted into the 5th intercostal space slightly anterior to the mid axillary line.Chest tubes are usually inserted under local anesthesia. The skin over the area of insertion is first cleansed with antiseptic solution, such as iodine, before sterile drapes are placed around the area. The local anesthetic is injected into the skin and down to the muscle, and after the area is numb a small incision is made in the skin and a passage made through the skin and muscle into the chest. The tube is placed through this passage. If necessary, patients may be given additional analgesics for the procedure. Once the tube is in place it is sutured to the skin to prevent it falling out and a dressing applied to the area. Once the drain is in place, a chest radiograph will be taken to check the location of the drain. The tube stays in for as long as there is air or fluid to be removed, or risk of air gathering.Chest tubes can also be placed using a trocar, which is a pointed metallic bar used to guide the tube through the chest wall. This method is less popular due to an increased risk of iatrogenic lung injury. Placement using the Seldinger technique, in which a blunt guidewire is passed through a needle (over which the chest tube is then inserted) has been described.Chest Drainage CanisterA chest drainage canister device is typically used to drain chest tube contents (air, blood, effusions). There are generally three chambers. The first chamber is a collecting chamber. The second is the "water seal" chamber which acts as a one way valve. Air bubbling through the water seal chamber is usual when the patient coughs or exhales but may indicate, if continual, a pleural or system leak that should be evaluated critically. It can also indicate a leak of air from the lung. The third chamber is the suction control chamber. The height of the water in this chamber determines the negative pressure of the system. Bubbling should be kept a gentle bubble to limit evaporating the fluid. Increased wall suction does not increase the negative pressure of the system. Newer systems are designed not to need the water seal chamber, so there is not a column of water that can spill and mix with blood, mandating the replacement of the canister. Even newer systems are smaller and more ambulatory so the patient can be sent home for drainage if indicated.ComplicationsMajor complications are hemorrhage, infection, and reexpansion pulmonary edema. Chest tube clogging can also be a major complication if it occurs in the setting of bleeding or the production of significant air or fluid. When chest tube clogging occurs in this setting, a patient can suffer from pericardial tamponade, tension pneumothorax, or in the setting of infection, an empyema. All of these can lead to prolonged hospitilization and even death. To minimize potential for clogging, surgeons often employ larger diameter tubes. These large diameter tubes however, contribute significantly to chest tube related pain. Even larger diameter chest tubes can clog.In most cases, the chest tube related pain goes away after the chest tube is removed, however, chronic pain related to chest tube induced scarring of the intercostal space is not uncommon.In recent years surgeons have advocated using softer, silicone Blake drains rather than more traditional PVC conventional chest tubes to address the pain issues. Clogging and chest tube occlusion issues have been a problem, including reports of life threatening unrecognized bleeding that occurs in the chest due to an occluded or clogged drain.Thus when a chest tube is inserted for whatever reason, maintaining patency is critical to avoid complications.Injury to the liver, spleen or diaphragm is possible if the tube is placed inferior to the pleural cavity. Injuries to the thoracic aorta and heart have also been described.Minor complications include a subcutaneous hematoma or seroma, anxiety, shortness of breath (dyspnea), and cough (after removing large volume of fluid).Subcutaneous emphysema indicates backpressure created by a clogged drain or insufficient negative pressure.
DefinitionAfter a mastectomy, some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. During breast reconstruction therapy using natural tissue, the breast is reshaped using muscle, skin, and fat from another part of your body.This surgery can be performed at the same time as mastectomy or later.Alternative NamesTransverse rectus abdominous muscle flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implantDescriptionIf you are having breast reconstruction at the same time as your mastectomy, your surgeon may do a skin sparing mastectomy. This means only the area around your nipple and areola is removed, and more skin is left to make reconstruction easier.If you will have breast reconstruction later, your surgeon will remove enough skin over your breast to be able to close the skin flaps.The 2 most common methods of breast reconstruction are transverse rectus abdominous muscle flap (TRAM) and latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant. For both of these procedures, you will have general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free)For TRAM surgery:Your surgeon will make an incision (cut) across your lower belly, from one hip to the other. Your scare will be hidden later by most clothing and bathing suits.Your surgeon will loosen skin, fat, and muscle in this area. The surgeon will then tunnel this tissue under the skin of your abdomen up to the breast area. Your surgeon will use this tissue to create your new breast. Blood vessels remain connected to the area where the tissue is taken from.In another method, the skin, fat, and muscle tissue are removed from your lower belly. Then the surgeon places it in your breast area to create your new breast. In this method, the arteries and veins are cut and reattached to blood vessels under your arm.This tissue is then shaped into a new breast. Your surgeon will match the size and shape of your remaining natural breast as closely as possible.Your surgeon will close your belly incision with stitches.If you would like a new nipple and areola created, you will need a second, much smaller surgery later.For latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant:Your surgeon will make an incision in your upper back, on the side of your breast that was removed.Your surgeon will loosen skin, fat, and muscle from this area and then tunnel this tissue under your skin to the breast area. This tissue will be used to create your new breast. Blood vessels will remain connected to the area the tissue was taken from.This tissue is then shaped into a new breast. Your surgeon will match the size and shape of your remaining natural breast as closely as possible.An implant may be placed underneath the chest wall muscles to help match the look of your other breast.If you would like a new nipple and areola created, you will need a second, much smaller surgery later.When breast reconstruction is done at the same time as a mastectomy, it adds about 2 to 3 hours to the surgery. When it is done as a second surgery, it may take more than 2 or 3 hours.Why the Procedure Is PerformedYou and your doctor will decide together about whether to have breast reconstruction, and when. The decision depends on many different factors.Having breast reconstruction does not make it harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back.The advantage of breast reconstruction with natural tissue is that the remade breast is softer and more natural than breast implants. The size, fullness, and shape of the new breast can be closely matched to your other breast.But muscle flap procedures are more complicated than placing breast implants. You may need blood transfusions during the procedure. You will usually spend 2 or 3 more days in the hospital after this surgery compared to other reconstruction procedures. Also, your recovery time at home will probably be longer.Many women choose not to have breast reconstruction or implants. They may use a prosthesis (an artificial breast) in their bra that gives a natural shape, or they may choose to use nothing at all.RisksRisks for any surgery are:Blood clots in the legs that may travel to the lungsBreathing problemsInfection, including in the surgical wound, lungs (pneumonia), bladder, or kidneyBlood lossHeart attack or stroke during surgeryReactions to medicinesThe risks for breast reconstruction with natural tissue are:Skin loss or chronic wounds on the chest wallScarsThere is also a risk of bleeding into the area where the breast used to be. Sometimes a second operation is needed to control this bleeding.Before the ProcedureAlways tell your doctor or nurse if you are taking any drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription.During the week before your surgery:Several days before surgery, you may be asked to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), vitamin E, clopidogrel (Plavix), warfarin (Coumadin), and any other drugs that make it hard for your blood to clot.Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.On the day of your surgery:Do not eat or drink anything after midnight the night before surgery.Take your drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Shower the night before or the morning of surgery.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.After the ProcedureYou will stay in the hospital for 2 to 5 days.You may still have drains in your chest when you go home. Your surgeon will remove them later during an office visit. You may have pain around your incision after surgery.Fluid may collect under the skin of your armpit. This is called a seroma. It is fairly common. Seromas usually go away on their own, but sometimes they need to be drained.Outlook (Prognosis)Results of reconstruction surgery using natural tissue are usually very good. But reconstruction will not restore normal sensation on your new breast or nipple.Recovery is usually faster when reconstruction is done after the mastectomy wound has healed.Having breast reconstruction surgery after breast cancer can improve your sense of well-being and quality of life.ReferencesWilhelmi BJ, Phillips LG. Breast reconstruction. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 35.
DefinitionA mastectomy is surgery to remove the entire breast. It is usually done to treat breast cancer.Alternative NamesBreast removal surgery; Subcutaneous mastectomy; Total mastectomy; Simple mastectomy; Modified radical mastectomyDescriptionYou will be given general anesthesia (unconscious and pain-free). The surgeon will make an elliptical cut in your breast:For a subcutaneous mastectomy, the surgeon removes the entire breast but leaves the nipple and areola (the pigmented circle around the nipple) in place.For a total or simple mastectomy, the surgeon cuts breast tissue free from the skin and muscle and removes it. The nipple and the areola are also removed. The surgeon may do a biopsy of nearby lymph nodes to see if the cancer has spread.For a modified radical mastectomy, the surgeon removes the entire breast along with the lining over some of the muscles. Some of the lymph nodes underneath the arm are also removed.For a radical mastectomy, the surgeon removes the overlying skin, all of the lymph nodes underneath the arm, and the chest muscles. This surgery is not done unless breast cancer has spread to your chest wall muscles.The skin is closed with sutures (stitches) or tape (Steri-Strips).One or two small plastic drains or tubes are usually left in your chest to remove extra fluid from where the breast tissue used to be.Your surgeon may be able to reconstruct the breast (with artificial implants or tissue from your own body) during the same operation. You may also choose to have reconstruction later.See also:Breast reconstruction - natural tissueBreast reconstruction - implantsMastectomy generally takes 1 to 3 hours.Why the Procedure Is PerformedWOMAN DIAGNOSED WITH BREAST CANCERThe most common reason for a mastectomy is breast cancer. Mastectomy may treat several types of breast cancer: invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous and tubular carcinomas, inflammatory carcinoma, Paget's disease, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS).If you are diagnosed with breast cancer, talk to your doctor about your choices:Surgery where only the breast cancer and tissue around the cancer are removed. This is called breast conservation therapy (breast lump removal). Part of your breast will be left.Mastectomy: all breast tissue is removed.You and your doctor must consider:The size of your tumor, where in your breast it is located, whether you have more than one tumor in your breast, how much of your breast the cancer affects, and the size of your breastsYour age, family history, overall health, and whether you have reached menopauseWhether the cancer has spread to your lymph nodes or other parts of the bodyThe type of breast cancer you have. This is important because some types of breast cancer are more likely to spread or come back.The choice of what is best for you can be difficult. Sometimes, your doctor may recommend one type of surgery. This is because your doctor can tell you what is known about the type of cancer you have and your risk factors. Other times, your doctor will talk with you about two or more surgical treatments that would be good for your cancer.WOMEN AT HIGH RISK FOR BREAST CANCERYour doctor may do either a subcutaneous or total mastectomy to reduce your risk of breast cancer if you are at very high risk of developing breast cancer. This is called prophylactic mastectomy.You may have a higher risk of getting breast cancer if one close family relative, or more, has had breast cancer, especially at an early age. Genetic tests (such as BRCA1 or BRCA2) may also show you have a high risk. This surgery should be done only after very careful thought and discussion with your doctor, a genetic counselor, your family, and others.Mastectomy greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of breast cancer.RisksRisks for any surgery are:Blood clots in the legs that may travel to the lungsBreathing problemsInfection, including in the surgical wound, lungs (pneumonia), bladder, or kidneyBlood lossHeart attack or stroke during surgeryReactions to medicationsThe risks for breast removal are:Skin loss or long-term wounds on the chest wallBleeding into the area where the breast used to be. Sometimes a second operation is needed to control bleeding.Risks when you have lymph nodes removed during surgery are:Shoulder pain and stiffness occur in most women. Some may have severe stabbing or burning pain. They may also feel pins and needles where the breast used to be and underneath their arm.Swelling of the arm (called lymphedema) on the same side as the breast that is removed. This swelling is not common, but it can be an ongoing problem.Damage to nerves. This may cause numbing on the inside of the arm or weakness in muscles of the back and chest wall.There are also risks related to breast reconstructive surgery.Before the ProcedureYou will have many blood and imaging tests (such as CT scans, bone scans, and chest x-ray) after your doctor finds breast cancer. Your surgeon will want to know whether your cancer has spread to the liver, lungs, bones, or somewhere else.Always tell your doctor or nurse if:You could be pregnant.You are taking any drugs or herbs you bought without a prescription.During the week before the surgery:Several days before your surgery, you may be asked to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), vitamin E, clopidogrel (Plavix), warfarin (Coumadin), and any other drugs that make it hard for your blood to clot.Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of the surgery.On the day of the surgery:Do not eat or drink anything after midnight the night before the surgery.Take your drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Shower the night before or the morning of the procedure.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.After the ProcedureYou may stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days, depending on the type of surgery you had. If you have a simple mastectomy, you may go home on the same day. Most women go home after 1 to 2 days. You may stay longer if you have breast reconstruction.Many women go home with drains still in their chest. The doctor then removes them later during an office visit.You may have pain around the site of your incision after surgery.Fluid may collect in your armpit. This is called a seroma and is relatively common. It usually goes away on its own, but it may need to be drain.Outlook (Prognosis)Most women recover well after mastectomy.In addition to surgery, you may need other treatments for breast cancer. These treatments may include hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. All have their own side effects. Talk to your doctor.Your breast cancer may respond differently to surgery and other treatments for many reasons. Talk to your doctor about these reasons.ReferencesRobson M and Offit K. Clinical practice. Management of an inherited predisposition to breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(2):154-162.Khatcheressian JL, Wolff AC, Smith TJ, Grunfeld E, Muss HB, Vogel VG, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2006 update of the breast cancer follow-up and management guidelines in the adjuvant setting. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(31):5091-5097.Abeloff MD, Wolff AC, Weber BL, Zaks TZ, Sacchini V, McCormick B. Cancer of the breast. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKena WG, eds. Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 95.Iglehart JD, Smith BL. Diseases of the breast. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 34.