Strophe Antistrophe Catastrophe - 2012 was released on: USA: 4 January 2012
The cast of Strophe Antistrophe Catastrophe - 2012 includes: Ivy Gottet as Girlfriend
I wonder if you mean 'antistrophe'. In ancient Greek Drama the chorus delivering an ode would move across the stage in one direction (the strophe) and then turn and move in the opposite direction (the antistrophe). But since in rhetoric an apostrophe means a diversion or digression, I suppose that the turning point when the chorus switches from strophe to antistrophe could be considered an apostrophe too.
Both terms refer to ancient Greek drama. Strophe = the first of two movements made by a chorus during the performance of a choral ode. Antistrophe = the second of two movements made by a chorus during the performance of a choral ode.
catastrophe, apostrophe, hypostrophe, antistrophe, epistrophe catastrophic, catastrophes
A strophe is a stanza. During the stanza, singers dance from one side of the stage to the other. The stanza that's sung while dancing in the opposite direction is called the antistrophe.
In antistrophe 3 of the parados, the chorus concludes with a plea for Bacchus' help. Bacchus is a god who's liked while the war god Ares isn't. A military solution is feared and rejected, in the immediately preceding strophe 3. So the chorus asks Bacchus, 'blithe god whom we adore', to get any soldiers drunk. The drunkenness will remove the influence of Ares, the 'god whom gods abhor', from Thebes.
Pantele s. Prevelake s has written: 'Ho poie te s Gianne s Ritsos' 'Deichtes poreias' 'E antistrophe metre se'
Here's an example, from Pink Floyd:Big man, pig man, ha ha charade you are.You well heeled big wheel, ha ha charade you are.Bus stop rat bag, ha ha charade you are.You funked up old hag, ha ha charade you are.
Classical odes are usually sung by one person, and sometimes accompanied by musical instruments. They have the structure of a three part stanza: 1. the strophe 2. the antistrophe 3. the epode Modern odes are less formal. They are not usually sung, but rather declared, and there are not really rules as to how to write them.
Antistrophe (also known as epistrophe) is a rhetorical figure of speech that repeats the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses or sentences, (i.e. the direct opposite of Anaphora, which repeats them at the beginning).It's usually used at the end of successive sentences, as in:"It was a creed written into the founding documents that declared the destiny of a nation: Yes, we can. It was whispered by slaves and abolitionists as they blazed a trail towards freedom through the darkest of nights: Yes, we can. It was sung by immigrants as they struck out from distant shores and pioneers who pushed westward against an unforgiving wilderness: Yes, we can" - Barack ObamaBUT .... it can be used within a sentence. One of the most famous examples would be "government of the people, by the people and for the people" (Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address)
In 1931, ten years ago, Japan invaded Manchukuo -- without warning. In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopis -- without warning. In 1938, Hitler occupied Austria -- without warning. In 1939, Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia -- without warning. Later in 1939, Hitler invaded Poland -- without warning. And now Japan has attached Malaya and Thailand -- and the United States -- without warning.Franklin D. Roosevelt
"...or the Fire-god's pine-fed flame had seized our crown of towers" and "For seven captains at seven gates, matched against seven..." are two examples of assonance in "Antigone" by Sophocles (495 B.C.E. - 405 B.C.E.).Specifically, assonance describes the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhymes. The above mentioned examples draw upon English translations available on the Internet. The first example is found in the first antistrophe of the parados. The second example is found in the third systema of the parados.
Comic relief refers to the use of a humorous incident to give temporary relief from the tension among the characters in an opera or play. It isn't a mandatory technique by playwrights. So it well may be absent from the most serious of tragedies. Thus the closest that the tragedy of 'Oedipus Rex' comes to an incident of comic relief is by way of a quick comment by the chorus in the parados. In their first appearance, the chorus calls upon the gods. In the third antistrophe, that call includes a brief reference to the wine god Bacchus, his unpopularity with the other gods, and his popularity with his stumbling, bumbling drunken followers.
It is with those who do not raise arms against Thebesthat the chorus' sympathy lies at the beginning of "Antigone" by Sophocles (495 B.C.E. - 405 B.C.E.).Specifically, the single antistrophe, the two strophes and the four systemas of the chorus criticize Polyneices for raising an army of disgruntled Thebans and invading Argives against his hometown of Thebes. They gloat about their victory and the upcoming dances and songs inspired by Bacchus the wine god. But they are not impartial since they withhold the information that Polyneices is in the right for asserting his legitimate claim to the Theban throne and that his twin brother Eteocles and his uncle Creon are in the wrong for persisting in their illegal occupation of that throne.
Literary/rhetorical figures of speech that use repetition to emphasize a point.Anaphora deliberately repeats a word or words at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. "But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land" – Martin Luther KingEpistrophe (also called antistrophe) repeats the words at the end, e.g. "Government of the people, by the people, for the people"- President Abraham Lincoln
There are actually three normal types of odes: the Pindaric, the Horatian, and the Irregular. Usually, the three parts of an ode are the strophe, the antistrophe, and the epode. These are types of stanzas, or groups of lines in poetry. Odes usually have rhyming lines, but the structure of the rhymes is not always the same, and really... there is disagreement on what qualifies as an ode and what doesn't. Probably the best thing to do if you want to write an ode is to find an example of one and copy the rhyme structure. I found a Pindaric with the structure ABABACDDC... meaning that the first, third, and fifth lines rhyme, and the second and fourth rhyme, and so on. Horatian and Irregular odes are much less formal than that, and many people just use the word "ode" interchangably with the word "poem" ... if you call it an ode, it is an ode. Not everyone would agree with that, but it is definitely what you see with some poems that are called odes. :) Try the following sites for more information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ode http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5784
The purpose of Anaphora is drive a point home into the listener's (or reader's) brain through repetition.It repeats the same word or words at the beginning of several successive phrases or sentences (as opposed to Antistrophe, which does it at the end).Repeating it twice might be overlooked by the audience or just regarded as sloppy editing, so most users of Anaphora will repeat it at least 3 times (though some can repeat it a lot more, e.g. Churchill's use of 'We shall fight ...' and Martin Luther King's 'I believe ...'It's possibly the most commonly used rhetorical device and is a favorite of President Obama's. Some examples of his would be:"That means investments to create new jobs. That means resisting the walls of protectionism that stand in the way of growth. That means a change in our financial system, with new rules to prevent abuse and future crisis.""For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and traveled across oceans in search of a new life. For us, they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West; endured the lash of the whip and ploughed the hard earth. For us, theyfought and died, in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn.""This is the price and the promise of citizenship. This is the source of our confidence - the knowledge that God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny. This is themeaning of our liberty and our creed."
Lyric poetry is by far the most common type of poetry. The word lyric comes from lyre, a harplike instrument played by ancient Greek poets during recitals of their shorter poems. Today, lyric poetry means any short poem.The haiku, a Japanese form, is one of the shortest types of lyric poetry. In Japanese, the haiku consists of 17 syllables arranged in three lines. The first line has 5 syllables, the second 7, and the third 5.Other lyric forms are longer and more complicated than the haiku. The ode is a serious, elaborate lyric full of high praise and noble feeling. Many odes mark important public events. The classical ode, also called the Pindaric ode or choral ode, was developed by the ancient Greeks. It consists of three parts. The first two parts, the strophe and antistrophe, have the same pattern of rhyme. The third part, the epode,has a different pattern. Most odes that were developed later consist of stanzas with the same pattern of rhythm and rhyme.The elegy, another common lyric, is a meditation on life and death. Many elegies mourn the death of a famous person or a close friend. The sonnet is a 14-line lyric with a certain pattern of rhyme and rhythm. Many sonnets are love poems. Other lyric forms include the limerick, rondel, triolet, and villanelle.Narrative poetry tells stories. There are two chief kinds of narrative poems: (1) epics and (2) ballads.
it a word or phrase that describes one thing in terms of another and is not meant to beunderstood literally true.Ex.1 moon walk and smile to me. (personification), Ex.2 the cat dark as night. (simile) * accumulation: Summarization of previous arguments in a forceful manner. * adnomination: Repetition of a word with a change in letter or sound * alliteration: A series of words that begin with the same letter or sound alike * anacoluthon: A change in the syntax within a sentence * anadiplosis: Repetition of a word at the end of a clause at the beginning of another * anaphora: The repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses * anastrophe: Inversion of the usual word order * anticlimax: the arrangement of words in order of decreasing importance * antimetabole: Repetition of words in successive clauses, in reverse order * antistrophe: The repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses (see epistrophe) * antithesis: The juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas * aphorismus: statement that calls into question the definition of a word * aposiopesis: Breaking off or pausing speech for dramatic or emotional effect * apostrophe: Directing the attention away from the audience and to a personified abstraction * apposition: The placing of two elements side by side, in which the second defines the first * assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds, most commonly within a short passage of verse * asteismus: Facetious or mocking answer that plays on a word * asyndeton: Omission of conjunctions between related clauses * cacophony: The juxtaposition of words producing a harsh sound * classification (literature & grammar): linking a proper noun and a common noun with an article * chiasmus: Reversal of grammatical structures in successive clauses * climax: The arrangement of words in order of increasing importance * commoratio: Repetition of an idea, re-worded * consonance: The repetition of consonant sounds, most commonly within a short passage of verse * dystmesis: A synonym for tmesis * ellipsis: Omission of words * enallage: The substitution of forms that are grammatically different, but have the same meaning * enjambment: A breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase, clause, or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. * enthymeme: Informal method of presenting a syllogism * epanalepsis: Repetition of the initial word or words of a clause or sentence at the end of the clause or sentence. * epistrophe: The repetition of the same word or group of words at the end of successive clauses. The counterpart of anaphora (also known as antistrophe) * euphony: The opposite of cacophony - i.e. pleasant sounding * hendiadys: Use of two nouns to express an idea when the normal structure would be a noun and a modifier * hendiatris: Use of three nouns to express one idea * homographs: Words that are identical in spelling but different in origin and meaning * homonyms: Words that are identical with each other in pronunciation and spelling, but differing in origin and meaning. * homophones:Words that are identical with each other in pronunciation but differing in origin and meaning. * hypallage: Changing the order of words so that they are associated with words normally associated with others * hyperbaton: Schemes featuring unusual or inverted word order. * hyperbole: An exaggeration of a statement. * hysteron proteron: The inversion of the usual temporal or causal order between two elements. * isocolon: Use of parallel structures of the same length in successive clauses * internal rhyme : Using two or more rhyming words in the same sentence * kenning: A metonymic compound where the terms together form a sort of synecdoche * merism: Referring to a whole by enumerating some of its parts * non sequitur: A statement that bears no relationship to the context preceding * onomatopoeia: A word imitating a real sound (e.g. tick-tock or boom) * paradiastole: Repetition of the disjunctive pair "neither" and "nor" * parallelism: The use of similar structures in two or more clauses * paraprosdokian: Unexpected ending or truncation of a clause * parenthesis: Insertion of a clause or sentence in a place where it interrupts the natural flow of the sentence * paroemion: A resolute alliteration in which every word in a sentence or phrase begins with the same letter * parrhesia: Speaking openly or boldly, or apologizing for doing so (declaring to do so) * perissologia: The fault of wordiness * pleonasm: The use of superfluous or redundant words * polyptoton: Repetition of words derived from the same root * polysyndeton: Repetition of conjunctions * pun: When a word or phrase is used in two different senses * sibilance: Repetition of letter 's', it is a form of alliteration] * sine dicendo: A statement that is so obvious it need not be stated; when uttered almost seems pointless (e.g. 'You can never save too much') * superlative: Saying something the best of something i.e. the ugliest most precious * spoonerism: Interchanging of (usually initial) letters of words with amusing effect * symploce: Simultaneous use of anaphora and epistrophe: the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning and the end of successive clauses * synchysis: Interlocked word order * synesis: An agreement of words according to the sense, and not the grammatical form * synizesis: The pronunciation of two juxtaposed vowels or diphthongs as a single sound * synonymia: The use of two or more synonyms in the same clause or sentence * tautology: Redundancy due to superfluous qualification; saying the same thing twice * tmesis: Division of the elements of a compound word Source: wikipedia.org
The Romantic Poets and the OdeIn most required literature courses, students will read at least one novel and some examples of lyric poetry, often drawn from the Romantic period, which raised the lyric to unprecedented prominence. Although there are many different species of lyric, most of them apply and/or renovate some set of conventions, whether derived from classical models or from the lyric types generated in earlier periods of European and English poetry. Selected for examination here is the ode, because British Romantic poets perfected a special form of it--"the personal ode of description and passionate meditation," as M. H. Abrams described it--sometimes called the "Romantic meditative ode."Origin and Development of the OdeTraditionally, the ode is lengthy (as lyrics go), serious in subject matter, elevated in its diction and style, and often elaborate in its stanzaic structure. There were two classical prototypes, one Greek, the other Roman. The first was established by Pindar, a Greek poet, who modeled his odes on the choral songs of Greek drama. They were encomiums, i.e., written to give public praise, usually to athletes who had been successful in the Olympic games. Pindar patterned his complex stanzas in a triad: the strophe and antistrophe had the same metrical form; the epode had another. What is called in English the regular or Pindaric ode imitates this pattern; the most famous example is Thomas Gray's "The Progress of Poesy."As the ode developed in England, poets modified the Pindaric form to suit their own purposes and also turned to Roman models. In 1656, Abraham Cowley introduced the "irregular ode," which imitated the Pindaric style and retained the serious subject matter, but opted for greater freedom. It abandoned the recurrent strophic triad and instead permitted each stanza to be individually shaped, resulting in stanzas of varying line lengths, number of lines, and rhyme scheme. This "irregular" stanzaic structure, which created different patterns to accord with changes of mood or subject, became a common English tradition. Poets also turned to an ode form modeled after the Roman poet, Horace. The Horatian ode employed uniform stanzas, each with the same metrical pattern, and tended generally to be more personal, more meditative, and more restrained. Keats' "Ode to Autumn" and Wordsworth's "Ode to Duty" are Horatian odes.The Romantic meditative ode was developed from these varying traditions. It tended to combine the stanzaic complexity of the irregular ode with the personal meditation of the Horatian ode, usually dropping the emotional restraint of the Horatian tradition. However, the typical structure of the new form can best be described, not by traditional stanzaic patterns, but by its development of subject matter. There are usually three elements:the description of a particularized outer natural scene;an extended meditation, which the scene stimulates, and which may be focused on a private problem or a universal situation or both;the occurrence of an insight or vision, a resolution or decision, which signals a return to the scene originally described, but with a new perspective created by the intervening meditation.Wordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality," Coleridge's "Dejection: An Ode," and Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind," are examples, and Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale," while Horatian in its uniform stanzaic form, reproduces the architectural format of the meditative soliloquy, or, it may be, intimate colloquy with a silent auditor.
Drama is a form of literature acted out by performers. Performers work with the playwright, director, set and lighting designers to stage a show. Live actors act as someone else called a character. A play consists of: dialogue - where characters talk with each other action - what characters do in the play gesture - what the character shows through motion(s) and expression(s) A script, written by a playwright, gives the actors words and cues to perform the dialogue, actions and gestures of their characters on stage. As a reader, you can only imagine what the gestures, expressions and voices of the characters are like. Remember you must imagine the "sounds," actions and scenery when you are reading a script. Reading a play is like listening to a conversation, and using your imagination to guess at what the characters are like. This conversation is what actors will perform on the stage and will give you an idea of how other people, including the playwright, imagined the play to be. Drama differs from short stories and novels because it is made to be performed by different actors in different locations throughout time. While the script remains the same, actors' interpretations of a single role may differ. If you have read a play and then see it, you may be surprised because the play may be different from what you had imagined. This is similar to reading a story and then seeing a movie of that story-- it is rarely exactly what you had imagined. There are two basic types of drama: * Tragedy - a serious, solemn play based on an important social, personal, or religious issue. * Comedy - a play that shows the humorous actions of characters when they try to solve social, personal, or religious problems. Some of the first forms of documented drama come from ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks performed both tragedies and comedies. Ancient tragedy - invented by the ancient Greeks to show the actions of a tragic hero or heroine. (Ex: Oedipus Rex.) * tragic hero/heroine- the protagonist, or main character, in the play. * Aspects of the Greek tragic hero: ** he/she must be of noble birth or hold an important social position ** he/she is generally virtuous ** he/she has a desire to do good deeds ** he/she dies in the end of the play The hero/heroine seems "better" than the other character(s), but there is a fate which overpowers this "good" character. Poor judgment by the protagonist (hero/heroine) causes a fall from grace and social ranking. Poor judgment is a tragic flaw, or error, called hamatria. It leads to personal catastrophe and unintended harm to others. Hybris (hubris), which means excessive pride or arrogance, is the most common type of hamatria. A hero/heroine's misfortune is an example of human fallibility (human's tendency to fail). Learning from the mistakes of others was an important part of Greek tragedy. * Aspects of tragedy in Greek drama: ** crisis of feeling - painful or harmful experience that may upset or depress the audience. ** catharsis/purgation - the audience cleanses their emotions. For example, they may feel uplifted and/or get a new sense of spiritual understanding or tragic pleasure. ** reversal/peripeteia - the hero/heroine goes through a significant change in fortune for the worse. Reversal may happen after a discovery (anagnorisis,)or a recognition of something previously not known to the hero/heroine. Example: **: In Sophocles' Oedipus Rex, Oedipus experiences a reversal when he gets the message that his father, Polybos, has died of old age. Oedipus is at first relieved to find out that the prophesy that he would kill his own father was wrong. Then his dread is renewed when the same message reveals that Polybos was not his biological father (Kennedy 871). (Comedies can have reversals too, but in comedy, the change is almost always for the better). Modern tragedy - unlike Greek tragedy, the protagonist is often a common or middle class person, not high born, noble or important. Ordinary people exemplify basic issues of social and personal conflict. ---- Ancient Greek Comedy - performed to show the humorous actions of one or more characters as they attempt to solve a problem. * * Aspects of Greek Comedy: ** required action and conflict that led to a happy ending. ** included ridiculing and violent personal attacks on contemporary personalities. ** involved acting out of bawdy personal and social relationships. ** as opposed to ancient Greek tragedy, a change in fortune is almost always for the better. Types of comedy from ancient to modern times: * romantic - involves a love affair that does not run smoothly but ends happily. Example: *# Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream *# the movie, Pretty Woman * manners - portrays upper-class society involved in witty repartee that focuses on their relationships and "affairs." A comedy of manners focuses on the behavior of men and women who violate the rules and manners of upper-class society. Example: *: Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest * farce- "low comedy" with lots of "belly laughs" that uses quick physical action to induce immediate laughter. The verbal humor is often crude or ridiculous. Farce is sometimes based on incongruities of character and action; a character doing something that is completely unlike what we would expect of them. Example: *# In Shakespeare uses farcical humor in his play, Twelfth Night.Malvolio, a very prude, self-important character, is convinced to wear funny clothing and act like a fool (Meyer 900). *# Most of Jim Carey's comedy is farce. His comedy is based on quick physical humor and often crude dialogue. * satire - mean jokes (barbs) are aimed at people, ideas or things in order to improve, correct, or prevent something. Example: *: Again, the character Malvolio in Shakespeare's play, Twelth Night is a satirical character. He is held up for scrutiny and ridicule by other characters and the audience because of his self-important, pompous attitude. Shakespeare reveals Malvolio's faults, and shows him to be pathetic. * absurd (black) - unusual, some would say weird or uncomfortable, comedy that portrays the world as unstable. The action includes improbable events with highly unpredictable characters. Black comedy is very different from other comedies in that this type tends to end unhappily. Example: *# True West*# The movies, Fargo, and Pulp Fiction ANALYZING DRAMA How you react to a play will depend on: ** your individual perspective of the world ** your sense of humor ** you political attitudes ** your moral values Analysis begins by asking what factors about the play shaped your response. Aspects of drama that help you to enjoy and interpret a play: ** setting ** structure ** characterization ** theme ** dramatic irony * setting - The scenic design and props. These add meaning and historical context to what characters do and say in the drama. Some components of the setting are as follows: ** *** the orchestra, the performance and dancing area for actors and chorus, which was utilized by Greek theater to inform audiences of what happens "off stage." (i.e. no murders or suicides were shown; instead, a messenger would inform the characters of the news). *** lighting is used to show illusion of time, highlight an action, or emphasize an event or character. Lighting is more complicated today than it was in ancient times, because plays used to be shown only outside. *** costumes are used to portray age, class, profession or ethnic culture. ---- ** structure - The way a play is organized into sections. Most plays are divided into acts and scenes. Ancient Greek drama did not use acts and scenes but had a system of divisions which were: *** prologue (exposition) - the introductory speech given to the audience at the beginning of the play. *** parados (entry of chorus) - the parados is the song chanted by the chorus on their entry. Their song is usually about the action of the play and helps to build emotion in the audience. *** episodes - modern drama would call these scenes, or acts. There are usually four or five episodes. Each episode consists of dialogue and action that takes place in one location at one time. Each is separated by a choric interlude, or the strophe and antistrophe. *** choric interlude - immediately follows each of the episodes. Like the parados, these are songs or odes performed by the chorus. They serve to comment on the characters' actions, express emotion, and explain the plot. Also, because Greek theatre had no curtain, the interludes indicate a change of scene. **** strophe and antistrophe - these are terms that describe the chorus' movement from one side of the stage to the other. For the strophe, they are on one side of the stage, and for the antistrophe, they move to the other. When the chorus speaks outside of these interludes, directly with the characters, their lines are said by only one member of the chorus, their leader (Miller 38). *** exodus - the final scene and resolution. The ancient Greek episodic structural pattern gradually evolved into a five part division of action. By the 16th century, most plays had five acts with as many scenes as needed. The playwright determines how many acts and scenes the play will have. A traditional play follows the structural pattern of a traditional short story or novel. It has an introduction (exposition), conflict, climax, and a resolution (denouement). ---- ** characterization - the way the actor portrays the character's qualities and faults. The actor plays a role that animates the character's: *** traits *** moral qualities *** physical presence *** voice Qualities of a personality may be either physical and superficial (external) or psychological and spiritual (internal). Characters can possess both types of traits. External characteristics (characteristics that flat, one-dimensional characters possess): *** names *** physical appearance *** physical nature *** manner of speech and accent *** manner of dress *** social status *** class *** education *** friends *** family *** community interests Internal characteristics (characters that round, multi-dimensional characters possess): *** thoughts *** feelings *** emotions Types of Characters: *** protagonist - the main character of a play, the one who is the center of action and holds your attention. *** antagonist (or villain) - the character who causes problems for the protagonist. Example: ***# In Shakespeare's play, Othello, Othello is the protagonist and Iago is the antagonist (Desdemona can also be considered to be a protagonist). ***# In the fairy tale and movie, Cinderella, Cinderella is the protagonist and her wicked step mother is the antagonist. *** foil - the character that acts as the butt of the jokes. Also a character used to show contrast with the main character. *** confidant/confidante - friend or servant of the antagonist or portagonist who by "listening" provides the audience with a window into what the major characters are thinking and feeling. Example: ***# In Othello,Desdemona's nurse acts as her confidant. ***# In Cinderella,the friendly mice serve as Cinderella's confidants. *** stock characters - superficial roles. (Ex: comic, victim, simpleton/fool, braggart, pretender). ---- *** theme - the central purpose or message of the play as developed by the playwright (i.e. the playwright's message for the audience). ---- *** dramatic irony - the contrast between what the character thinks the truth is and what the audience knows the truth to be. This occurs when the speaker fails to recognize the irony of his actions. For example, if the speaker were to put a curse on the murderer without realizing that he himself is the murderer, then he would have unwittingly cursed himself. Example: ***: In Oedipus Rex,Oedipus places a curse on the murderer of Laios, not realizing that he was actually that murderer. Since the audience has information of which Othello is ignorant, they recognizes the significance of Othello's actions, while he does not. http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/literature/drama.html#basic[taken from]
SchemesMain article: Scheme (linguistics) accumulation: Summary of previous arguments in a forceful manneradnomination: Repetition of a word with a change in letter or soundalliteration: Series of words that begin with the same consonant or sound alikeadynaton: hyperbole taken to such extreme lengths as to suggest a complete impossibility.anacoluthon: Change in the syntax within a sentenceanadiplosis: Repetition of a word at the end of a clause at the beginning of anotheranaphora: Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clausesanastrophe: Inversion of the usual word orderanticlimax: Arrangement of words in order of decreasing importanceantimetabole: Repetition of words in successive clauses, in reverse orderantistrophe: Repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses (see epistrophe)antithesis: Juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideasaphorismus: Statement that calls into question the definition of a wordaposiopesis: Breaking off or pausing speech for dramatic or emotional effectapostrophe: Directing the attention away from the audience and to a personified abstractionapposition: Placing of two elements side by side, in which the second defines the firstassonance: Repetition of vowel sounds, most commonly within a short passage of verseasteismus: Facetious or mocking answer that plays on a wordasyndeton: Omission of conjunctions between related clausescacophony: Juxtaposition of words producing a harsh soundcataphora: Co-reference of one expression with another expression which follows it (example: If you need one, there's a towel in the top drawer.)classification: Linking a proper noun and a common noun with an articlechiasmus: Word order in one clause is inverted in the other (inverted parallelism).climax: Arrangement of words in order of increasing importancecommoratio: Repetition of an idea, re-wordedconversion (linguistics): An unaltered transformation of a word of one word class into another word classconsonance: Repetition of consonant sounds, most commonly within a short passage of versedystmesis: A synonym for tmesisellipsis: Omission of wordsenallage: Substitution of forms that are grammatically different, but have the same meaningenjambment: Breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase, clause, or sentence) by the end of a line or between two versesenthymeme: Informal method of presenting a syllogismepanalepsis: Repetition of the initial word or words of a clause or sentence at the end of the clause or sentenceepistrophe: (also known as antistrophe) Repetition of the same word or group of words at the end of successive clauses. The counterpart of anaphoraeuphony: Opposite of cacophony - i.e. pleasant soundinghendiadys: Use of two nouns to express an idea when the normal structure would be a noun and a modifierhendiatris: Use of three nouns to express one ideahomeoptoton: in a flexive language the use the first and last words of a sentence in the same formshomographs: Words that are identical in spelling but different in origin and meaninghomonyms: Words that are identical with each other in pronunciation and spelling, but differing in origin and meaninghomophones:Words that are identical with each other in pronunciation but differing in origin and meaninghypallage: Changing the order of words so that they are associated with words normally associated with othershyperbaton: Unusual or inverted word orderhyperbole: Exaggeration of a statementhysteron proteron: The inversion of the usual temporal or causal order between two elementsisocolon: Use of parallel structures of the same length in successive clausesinternal rhyme: Using two or more rhyming words in the same sentencekenning: A metonymic compound where the terms together form a sort of anecdotemerism: Referring to a whole by enumerating some of its partsnon sequitur: Statement that bears no relationship to the context precedingonomatopoeia: Word that imitates a real sound (e.g. tick-tock or boom)paradiastole: Repetition of the disjunctive pair "neither" and "nor"parallelism: The use of similar structures in two or more clausesparaprosdokian: Unexpected ending or truncation of a clauseparenthesis: Insertion of a clause or sentence in a place where it interrupts the natural flow of the sentenceparoemion: Resolute alliteration in which every word in a sentence or phrase begins with the same letterparrhesia: Speaking openly or boldly, or apologizing for doing so (declaring to do so)perissologia: The fault of wordinesspleonasm: Use of superfluous or redundant wordspolyptoton: Repetition of words derived from the same rootpolysyndeton: Repetition of conjunctionspun: When a word or phrase is used in two(or more) different sensesrepetition: Repeated usage of word(s)/group of words in the same sentence to create a poetic/rhythmic effectsibilance: Repetition of letter 's', it is a form of alliterationsine dicendo: A statement that is so obvious it need not be stated, and if stated, it seems almost pointless (e.g. 'It's always in the last place you look.')spoonerism: Interchanging of (usually initial) letters of words with amusing effectsuperlative: Declaring something the best within its class i.e. the ugliest, the most precioussymploce: Simultaneous use of anaphora and epistrophe: the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning and the end of successive clausessynchysis: Interlocked word ordersynesis: Agreement of words according to the sense, and not the grammatical formsynecdoche:Part for whole and whole for partsynizesis: Pronunciation of two juxtaposed vowels or diphthongs as a single soundsynonymia: Use of two or more synonyms in the same clause or sentencetautology: Redundancy due to superfluous qualification; saying the same thing twicetmesis: Division of the elements of a compound wordzeugma: The using of one verb for two actionsTropesMain article: Trope (linguistics) allegory: Extended metaphor in which a story is told to illustrate an important attribute of the subjectalliteration: Repetition of the first consonant sound in a phrase.allusion: Indirect reference to another work of literature or artanacoenosis: Posing a question to an audience, often with the implication that it shares a common interest with the speakerantanaclasis: A form of pun in which a word is repeated in two different sensesanthimeria: Substitution of one part of speech for another, often turning a noun into a verbanthropomorphism: Ascribing human characteristics to something that is not human, such as an animal or a god (see zoomorphism)antimetabole: Repetition of words in successive clauses, but in transposed grammatical orderantiphrasis: Word or words used contradictory to their usual meaning, often with ironyantonomasia: Substitution of a phrase for a proper name or vice versaaphorism: Tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion, an adageapophasis: Invoking an idea by denying its invocationapostrophe: Addressing a thing, an abstraction or a person not presentarchaism: Use of an obsolete, archaic, word (a word used in olden language, e.g. Shakespeare's language)auxesis: Form of hyperbole, in which a more important sounding word is used in place of a more descriptive termbathos: Pompous speech with a ludicrously mundane worded anti-climaxcatachresis: Mixed metaphor (sometimes used by design and sometimes a rhetorical fault)circumlocution: "Talking around" a topic by substituting or adding words, as in euphemism or periphrasiscommiseration: Evoking pity in the audiencecorrectio: Linguistic device used for correcting one's mistakes, a form of which is epanorthosisdenominatio: Another word for metonymydouble negative: Grammar construction that can be used as an expression and it is the repetition of negative wordsdysphemism: Substitution of a harsher, more offensive, or more disagreeable term for another. Opposite of euphemismepanorthosis: Immediate and emphatic self-correction, often following a slip of the tongueenumeratio: A form of amplification in which a subject is divided, detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forciblyepanodos: Repetition in a sentence with a reversal of words. Example: The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbatherotema: Synonym for rhetorical questioneuphemism: Substitution of a less offensive or more agreeable term for anotherexclamation: An emphatic parenthetic addition that is complete in itself, exclamation differs from interjection in that it usually involves an emotional response.hermeneia: Repetition for the purpose of interpreting what has already been saidhumour: Provoking laughter and providing amusementhyperbaton: Words that naturally belong together are separated from each other for emphasis or effecthyperbole: Use of exaggerated terms for emphasishypocatastasis: An implication or declaration of resemblance that does not directly name both termshypophora: Answering one's own rhetorical question at lengthhysteron proteron: Reversal of anticipated order of events; a form of hyperbatoninnuendo: Having a hidden meaning in a sentence that makes sense whether it is detected or notinversion: A reversal of normal word order, especially the placement of a verb ahead of the subject (subject-verb inversion).invocation: Apostrophe to a god or museirony: Use of word in a way that conveys a meaning opposite to its usual meaningkataphora: Repetition of a cohesive device at the endlitotes: Emphasizing the magnitude of a statement by denying its oppositemalapropism: Using a word through confusion with a word that sounds similarmeiosis: Use of understatement, usually to diminish the importance of somethingmerism: Statement of opposites to indicate realitymetalepsis: Referring to something through reference to another thing to which it is remotely relatedmetaphor: Stating one entity is another for the purpose of comparing them in qualitymetonymy: Substitution of an associated word to suggest what is really meantneologism: The use of a word or term that has recently been created, or has been in use for a short time. Opposite of archaismonomatopoeia: Words that sound like their meaningoxymoron: Using two terms together, that normally contradict each otherparable: Extended metaphor told as an anecdote to illustrate or teach a moral lessonparadox: Use of apparently contradictory ideas to point out some underlying truthparadiastole: Extenuating a vice in order to flatter or sootheparaprosdokian: Phrase in which the latter part causes a rethinking or reframing of the beginningparallel irony: An ironic juxtaposition of sentences or situations (informal)paralipsis: Drawing attention to something while pretending to pass it overparody: Humouristic imitationparonomasia: A form of pun, in which words similar in sound but with different meanings are usedpathetic fallacy: Using a word that refers to a human action on something non-humanperiphrasis: Using several words instead of fewpersonification/prosopopoeia/anthropomorphism: Attributing or applying human qualities to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomenapraeteritio: Another word for paralipsisprocatalepsis: Refuting anticipated objections as part of the main argumentprolepsis: Another word for procatalepsisproslepsis: Extreme form of paralipsis in which the speaker provides great detail while feigning to pass over a topicproverb: Succinct or pithy expression of what is commonly observed and believed to be truepun: Play on words that will have two meaningsrhetorical question: Asking a question as a way of asserting something. Asking a question which already has the answer hidden in it. Or asking a question not for the sake of getting an answer but for asserting something (or as in a poem for creating a poetic effect)satire: Humoristic criticism of societysensory detail Imagery: sight, sound, taste, touch, smellsimile: Comparison between two things using like or assnowclone: Quoted or misquoted cliché or phrasal templatesuperlative: Saying that something is the best of something or has the most of some quality, e.g. the ugliest, the most precious etc.syllepsis: Form of pun, in which a single word is used to modify two other words, with which it normally would have differing meaningssyncatabasis (condescension, accommodation): adaptation of style to the level of the audiencesynecdoche: Form of metonymy, in which a part stands for the wholesynesthesia: Description of one kind of sense impression by using words that normally describe another.tautology: Needless repetition of the same sense in different words Example: The children gathered in a round circletransferred epithet: Placing of an adjective with what appears to be the incorrect nountruism: a self-evident statementtricolon diminuens: Combination of three elements, each decreasing in sizetricolon crescens: Combination of three elements, each increasing in sizezeugma: A figure of speech related to syllepsis, but different in that the word used as a modifier is not compatible with one of the two words it modifieszoomorphism: Applying animal characteristics to humans or gods
ABCA poem that has five lines that create a mood, picture, or feeling. Lines 1 through 4 are made up of words, phrases or clauses while the first word of each line is in alphabetical order. Line 5 is one sentence long and begins with any letter.AcrosticPoetry that certain letters, usually the first in each line form a word or message when read in a sequence.BalladA poem that tells a story similar to a folk tail or legend which often has a repeated refrain.BalladePoetry which has three stanzas of seven, eight or ten lines and a shorter final stanza of four or five. All stanzas end with the same one line refrain.Blank verseA poem written in unrhymed iambic pentameter and is often unobtrusive. The iambic pentameter form often resembles the rhythms of speech.BioA poem written about one self's life, personality traits, and ambitions.BurlesquePoetry that treats a serious subject as humor.CanzoneMedieval Italian lyric style poetry with five or six stanzas and a shorter ending stanza.Carpe diemLatin expression that means 'seize the day.' Carpe diem poems have a theme of living for today.CinquainPoetry with five lines. Line 1 has one word (the title). Line 2 has two words that describe the title. Line 3 has three words that tell the action. Line 4 has four words that express the feeling, and line 5 has one word which recalls the title.ClassicismPoetry which holds the principles and ideals of beauty that are characteristic of Greek and Roman art, architecture, and literature.CoupletA couplet has rhyming stanzas made up of two lines.Dramatic monologueA type of poem which is spoken to a listener. The speaker addresses a specific topic while the listener unwittingly reveals details about him/herself.ElegyA sad and thoughtful poem about the death of an individual.EpicAn extensive, serious poem that tells the story about a heroic figure.EpigramA very short, ironic and witty poem usually written as a brief couplet or quatrain. The term is derived from the Greek epigramma meaning inscription.EpitaphA commemorative inscription on a tomb or mortuary monument written to praise the deceased.Epithalamium (Epithalamion)A poem written in honor of the bride and groom.Free verse (vers libre)Poetry written in either rhyme or unrhymed lines that have no set fixed metrical pattern.GhazalA short lyrical poem that arose in Urdu. It is between 5 and 15 couplets long. Each couplet contains its own poetic thought but is linked in rhyme that is established in the first couplet and continued in the second line of each pair. The lines of each couplet are equal in length. Themes are usually connected to love and romance. The closing signature often includes the poet's name or allusion to it.HaikuA Japanese poem composed of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five morae, usually containing a season word.Horatian odeShort lyric poem written in two or four-line stanzas, each with its the same metrical pattern, often addressed to a friend and deal with friendship, love and the practice of poetry. It is named after its creator, Horace.Iambic pentameterOne short syllabel followed by one long one five sets in a row. Example: la-LAH la-LAH la-LAH la-LAH la-LAHIdyll (Idyl)Poetry that either depicts a peaceful, idealized country scene or a long poem telling a story about heroes of a bye gone age.Irregular (Pseudo-Pindaric or Cowleyan) odeNeither the three part form of the pindaric ode nor the two or four-line stanza of the Horatian ode. It is characterized by irregularity of verse and structure and lack of coorespondence between the parts.Italian sonnetA sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba followed by six lines with a rhyme pattern of cdecde or cdcdcd.LayA long narrative poem, especially one that was sung by medieval minstrels.LimerickA short sometimes vulgar, humorous poem consisting of five anapestic lines. Lines 1, 2, and 5 have seven to ten syllables, rhyme and have the same verbal rhythm. The 3rd and 4th lines have five to seven syllables, rhyme and have the same rhythm.ListA poem that is made up of a list of items or events. It can be any length and rhymed or unrhymed.LyricA poem that expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet.Memoriam stanzaA quatrain in iambic tetrameter with a rhyme scheme of abba -- named after the pattern used by Lord Tennyson.NamePoetry that tells about the word. It uses the letters of the word for the first letter of each line.NarrativeA poem that tells a story.OdeA lengthy lyric poem typically of a serious or meditative nature and having an elevated style and formal stanza structure.PastoralA poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful, romanticized way.PetrarchanA 14-line sonnet consisting of an octave rhyming abbaabba followed by a sestet of cddcee or cdecdePindaric odeA ceremonious poem consisting of a strophe (two or more lines repeated as a unit) followed by a an antistrophe with the same metrical pattern and concluding with a summary line (an epode) in a different meter. Named after Pindar, a Greek professional lyrist of the 5th century B.C.QuatrainA stanza or poem consisting of four lines. Lines 2 and 4 must rhyme while having a similar number of syllables.RhymeA rhyming poem has the repetition of the same or similar sounds of two or more words, often at the end of the line.Rhyme royalA type of poetry consisting of stanzas having seven lines in iambic pentameter.RomanticismA poem about nature and love while having emphasis on the personal experience.RondeauA lyrical poem of French origin having 10 or 13 lines with two rhymes and with the opening phrase repeated twice as the refrain.SenryuA short Japanese style poem, similar to haiku in structure that treats human beings rather than nature: Often in a humorous or satiric way.SestinaA poem consisting of six six-line stanzas and a three-line envoy. The end words of the first stanza are repeated in varied order as end words in the other stanzas and also recur in the envoy.ShakespeareanA 14-line sonnet consisting of three quatrains of abab cdcd efef followed by a couplet, gg. Shakespearean sonnets generally use iambic pentameter.ShapePoetry written in the shape or form of an object.SonnetA lyric poem that consists of 14 lines which usually have one or more conventional rhyme schemes.TankaA Japanese poem of five lines, the first and third composed of five syllables and the other seven.Terza RimaA type of poetry consisting of 10 or 11 syllable lines arranged in three-line tercets.VerseA single metrical line of poetry.VillanelleA 19-line poem consisting of five tercets and a final quatrain on two rhymes. The first and third lines of the first tercet repeat alternately as a refrain closing the succeeding stanzas and joined as the final couplet of the quatrain.