Astronomers are scientists. Astrologers are charlatans.
There were no telescopes prior to 1608, so no "ancient" astronomers ever used one.
you need to be able to noice and do any mathimaticl problem with a doctoral degree and you also need to have a doctoral degree on physics
Radio telescopes, big telescopes, gama ray detectores, X ray detectores etc.
A covenant sometimes denotes an agreement between to persons, more often beteeen God and man. Because of their righteousness, God made covenants between Abraham, Moses and many other righteous people. Covenants are made through the Spirit giving a message to the individual or through the voice of Christ who speaks for the father. The covenant made to Moses was that he was to be the father of a great nation, as also was Abraham so blessed that the Savior would come through his line. It was through Moses that the law of God was given (The Commandments).Though the original stone plates were broken and a lesser law was given. Moses was given insites to many great things and Abraham was shown all of the workings of the heavens and is perhaps the greatest astonomer of all time.
Tycho Brahe (14 December 1546 - 24 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman who is said to be the greatest obvervational astronomer of his age. A flamboyant character with a gold nose. His nose was cut off in a dual with another nobleman. He was known to live to excess. He often ate large rich meals and also drank a lot of alcohol. It was this that actually caused his death through an infection in his bladder caused of years of glutony and excess. He was granted an estate on the island of Hven and built an observatory called Uraniborg. However a disagreement with the king in 1597 caused him to leave to become the official imperial astonomer for the Holy Roman Emporer the Czech Rudolph II in Prague. He built a new observatory at Benatky nad Jizereo. It was here that from 1600 until his death in 1601 that Johannes Kepler (27 December 1571 - 15 November 1630) was his assistant. Kepler was is said to be the greatest mathematian of his age. Acurate observations of wandering stars (planets) over many years allowed Johannes Kepler, to calculate the 3 laws of planetary motion. Although Kepler had to wait until after Brahe's death to get all the information he needed.
Who invented the metric system?The metric system was invented in France in 1790, a French National congress directed the Academy of Sciences to standardize the units of measurements.A group from the Academy used a decimal system and defined the meter to be one 10-millionths of the distance from the equator to the earth's Pole (The Earth's circumference would be equal to 40 million meters).The group consisted of mathematicians Jean Charles de Borda, Joseph-Louis Comte de Lagrange, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Gaspard Monge and Marie jean Antoine Nicholas CaritatJean Charles de BordaJean Borda was French Mathemtician, physicist and political scientistHe wrote a book as a miliraty engineer, from this he was elected to the French academy of science where he and five others worked together to create the metric system.Josep-Louis LagrangeJoseph-Louis Lagrange was Italian.He was a Mathemtician and astronomer.He contributed to the calculus of variationsPierre-Simon LaplacePierra-Simon Lapace was FrenchHe was a Mathemtician and Astonomer and he helped with the creation of the Metric systemGaspard MongeGaspard Monge was French.He was the inventor of descriptive geometry. And he helped create the Metric system.Marie Jean Antonie NicolasMarie Jean Antonie Nicolas was FrenchHe was a Philosopher, mathematician and early political scientist, he helped create the Metric system.
Fryderyk Chopin: gifted pianist and composer who rediscovered the piano similar to the way Columbus rediscovered America. A poet, performer and romantic at heart, Chopin's compositions were considered too bland and timid for many of his contemperaries. However, in spite of consistent illness and recurring trauma concerning the fate of his homeland, Poland, Chopin's music has now become the standard by which all other piano composers are judged. Walter Dana: polka promoter. Propelled polka music to a new prominence in postwar America. Adam Didur: opera singer, at the beginning of the 20th century, for 25 years, prinicipal bass of the Metropolitan Opera. Andrzej Dobrowolski: contemporary Polish composer born in Lvov in 1921. Dobrowolski's major works include "Music for Tape and Oboe Solo, Music for Strings, Winds, & Two Loudspeakers," and "Music for Mixed Choir, Winds, & Percussion." "Music for Orchestra" (1973) is one of a group of recent compositions by Dobrowolski that have crystalized in final form years of compositional experimentation in increasingly progressive techniques. The composer's concern with the spatial moulding of sound is especially evident in these works. For example Dobrowolski has divided up an orchestra into eight groups each of which is located at a different site on the stage or in the concert hall itself Bronislaw Kaper: composer, composed for nearly 150 Hollywood movies, won Oscar for Lili. Jan Kiepura: opera singer, star of the Metropolitan Opera and Broadway. Jerzy Kosinski: writer, author of The Painted Bird. Stanislaw Lem : science fiction writer, best know for his novel Solaris, which was later adapted in the 1972 and 2002. His books have sold 27 million copies worldwide. (died at age 84 in on March 26, 2006) Czeslaw Milosz: poet and writer, won Nobel prize for literature. (1980) Helena Modrzejewska: actress, famous in the XIX century America for her appearances in Shakespeare's plays Ignacy Jan Paderewski: pianist, composer and statesman, loved by the American audience, played an important role in establishing free Poland after the World War I, Prime Minister. Ed Paschke: contemporary painter, representative of the Chicago Abstract Imagists. Roman Polanski: film director, famous for Rosemary's Baby, Chinatown and other movies. Leopold Stokowski: conductor. Wislawa Szymborska: Poet. She won the 1996 Nobel Prize for Literature. Leopold Tyrmand: writer, editor of Chronicles of Culture. Andy Warhol: (Andy Warhola) 1928-1987. Painter and commercial illustrator. Most well known for the Campbell's Soup Cans painting. Vist the Warhol Foundation. Korczak Ziolkowski: sculptor, creator of the statue of Crazy Horse in the Dakota Black Hills, member of the team of artists that carved heads of presidents in Mt. Rushmore. Steve Bartkowski: quarterback for the Atlanta Falcons. The team was really bad, but he was good. Frank "Red" Dobrowolski: solid baseball player in the 1930's and 40's. Infielder deluxe. Wladyslaw Dobrowolski: A member of the 1934 World Champion fencing team from Poland. Whitey Ford: Major League Baseball player. Edward "Whitey" Ford was the "money pitcher" on the great Yankee teams of the 1950s and early 1960s, earning him the moniker "Chairman of the Board." The wily southpaw's lifetime record of 236-106 gives him the best winning percentage (.690) of any 20th century pitcher. Ron Jaworski: quarterback for the Philadelphia Eagles, led them to the 1980 Super Bowl, and now a comentator on ESPN. Ted Kluszewski: Major League Baseball player. 1B 1947-61 Reds, Pirates, White Sox, Angels. He led the NL with 49 homers and 141 RBI in 1954 and averaged 43 HRs and 116 RBIs from 1953 to 1956. He also hit .300 seven times. In 1955 he led in hits (192) and set a modern NL record by scoring runs in 17 straight games. Stan Musial: Major League Baseball player (St. Louis Cardinals), Sportsman of 1957, Baseball Player of the Decade 1946-56 Moose Skowron: Major League Baseball first baseman from 1954-1967. A powerful opposite-field hitter, he topped the .300 mark five times with New York Yankees and he became a hero of the 1958 World Series versus the Braves. Carl Yastrzemski: professional American baseball player. He had an excellent 23-year career, playing only for the Boston Red Sox. His best year was in 1967, when he won the American League Triple Crown, with an average of .326, 44 home runs and 126 rbi....more... Mieczyslaw Haiman: historian, the first curator of the Polish Museum of America in Chicago Pola Negri: actress, star of many films in the early era of Hollywood. Zbigniew Brzezinski: professor of political science, National Security Advisor in President Carter Administration.(1977-1981) Jan Karski: diplomat and professor of political science, author of the report concerning conditions in the Warsaw Ghetto and concentration camps in the early World War II, who tried to bring to the attention of unwilling to listen Allied governments and societies the atrocities committed by Germans in Europe. Tadeusz Kosciuszko: potitical leader and philosopher, brilliant military strategist, the Revolutionary War hero (built West Point). Edmund Muskie-Marciszewski: U.S. Senator from Maine, Democratic candidate in the presidential elections of 1968 and 1972. Lech Walesa: Some average polish worker who organized a labor movement in Poland. Jan Krol: the first Polish American Cardinal (from Philadelphia). Pope John Paul II: John Paul II is The Pope.The leader of the catholic church and one of the most well known and powerful people in the world. Mieczyslaw G. Bekker: scientist, built the first vehicle used on the moon, the moon rover used by Apollo 15 in 1971. Stanislaw Burzynski: physician, cancer specialist. Nicholas Copernicus: Polish astonomer who lived between 1473-1543. He was born in Torun, Poland to a middle class family. He attended school at Krakaw and eventually moved on to Italy where he received a degree in mathematical science. Before his time, people believed in the Ptolemaic model of the solar system, which maintained that the Earth was the center of the universe. Unfortunately, this model was inadequate at predicting the positions of the planets. In 1543, Copernicus started a scientific revolution when he published the heliocentric theory, in which all the planets, including Earth, revolved around the sun. He also introduced a full mathematical system that could accurately calculate the positions of the planets at any given time. Madame Curie: she and her husband discovered some really cool stuff about atoms. She died of cancer after over-exposure to X-Rays. The dangers of x-rays were not know until many years after x-rays were discovered. Bronislaw Malinowski: anthropologist, one of the founders of cultural anthropology, famous for his research in Trobriand Islands. Ralph Modjeski: engineer, specialized in building bridges (f.e. Thebes Bridge over Mississippi, Delaware River Bridge, Trans-Bay Bridge in San Francisco, Blue Water Bridge in Michigan). He built numerous other bridges across America, from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico. Tadeusz Sendzimir: engineer, author of over 50 inventions in mining and metallurgy. Stanislaw Ulam: mathematician, co-creator of the atomic bomb and Hydrogen bomb. Florian Znaniecki: sociologist, co-author of The Polish Peasant in Europe and America 1918-1920 considered the foundation of modern empirical sociology Wladimir B. Krzyzanowski: soldier, organized Polish Legion that fought in the Civil War, the first governor of Alaska. Kazimierz Pulaski: soldier, the Revolutionary War hero, Father of the American Cavalry. Ted Kazynski: The unabomber.