What is an equine surgeon?
This will depend upon where in the world you are. In North America, an equine surgeon would be a veterinarian who is board certified in equine (horse) surgery. Outside of North America, the term veterinary surgeon refers to any graduate of an accredited veterinary school and an equine veterinary surgeon would be an individual who primarily or exclusively cares for horses.
Veterinary surgeons typically aren't rated like human physicians or restaurants. If you need a veterinary surgeon, I suggest looking for a board-certified veterinary surgeon (ask about board certification credentials) who has specialized in the type of surgery your pet needs (large animal, equine, small animal soft tissue, small animal orthopedic, exotic pet).
There are lots of equine jobs that most people dont mention such as: equine chiropractor, equine dentist, equine lawyers, farrier, riding instructor, horse trainer, groom, sales person in equine goods like horse boxes, equine massage kits etc, equine vet, equine vet nurse, livery stables ( business), yard manager, rda ( riding for the disabled) helper and teacher, apprentice jockey, jockey, equine phisiopherapist and probably more! :0
Once you graduate with your veterinary medicine degree, you would go into an internship focusing on equine medicine or equine surgery (or split between both). After completing the one year internship, you would then apply for a three year residency in equine medicine or equine surgery (you do have to pick one). Once you complete your residency, you then sit for the board certification exam. If you pass, you become a board-certified equine veterinarian.
Any school of veterinary medicine will give you the basics towards becoming an equine veterinarian; if the school doesn't have a strong equine program there you can supplement your time in vet school with externships and experiences at other schools or at private equine facilities. Once you get out of vet school, the important thing is to work with a good established equine veterinarian to hone your technical skills.