What is the difference between a one phase and a three phase motor. And if a three phase motor is given a single phase supply will it run or not?

The difference between a single phase and a three phase motor is the amount of power conductors that feed the device. As to the other part of the question a three phase motor will not start or run on single phase. The phase angles on three phase are 120 degrees apart on a single phase system they are 180 degrees apart.