Judaism
Tanakh and Talmud

What is the name of the original Hebrew holy book?

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08/18/2017

The Jewish holy book is the Tanakh (Jewish Bible), containing the Torah and the prophetic books. The Torah is the most holy book of Judaism. Torah, which means "teaching", is God's revealed instructions to the Jewish People.

  • Tanakh Composition:
The complete Jewish Bible is composed of 24 books called the Tanakh. In Hebrew, Tanakh is an acronym of T, N, K which stands for the three parts of the Tanakh:
  • Torah
  • Neviim (Prophets)
  • Ketuvim (Writings)
1) Torah (Teachings) also called the Pentateuch, is the primary Jewish holy book. It contains the 5 Books of Moses (also called the Books of the Law). These books are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Jews believe that the Torah was given by God to Moses (Exodus 24:12), who transmitted it to the people (Deuteronomy 31:24). Traditionally, it is read in front of a congregation several times a week and the scroll containing the Torah is considered holy. The word "Torah" derives from the Hebrew word "yarah" which means "to aim" or "direct" and Jews believe that the words of the Torah aim and direct a Jew to proper action and belief. The word Torah also has the same root as 'morah', meaning teacher.
  • 1-5: The Torah or Five Books of Moses:
  1. Bereisheet (Genesis)
  2. Shemot (Exodus)
  3. Vayikra (Leviticus)
  4. Bamidbar (Numbers)
  5. Devarim (Deuteronomy)
2) Nevi'im (the Prophets). The Jews see the book of Prophets as the story of their past and the connection between God and Israel. Jewish tradition (Talmud, Bava Batra 14b) states that the prophetic books were written by the authors whose names they bear: Joshua, Samuel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, etc. Judges is credited to Samuel, Kings was written by Jeremiah. The Prophets is comprised of a total of 8 books according to the Jewish count.
  • Books 6-9 of the Hebrew Bible: The Nevi'im Rishonim (the Early Prophets):
6) Yehoshua (Joshua)

7) Shoftim (Judges)

8) Shemuel (Samuel I and II)

9) Melachim (Kings I and II)

  • Books 10-13 of the Hebrew Bible: The Nevi'im Acharonim (the Later Prophets):
10) Yeshayahu (Isaiah)

11) Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah)

12) Yechezkel (Ezekiel)

13) Trei Asar ("The Twelve" or "The Minor Prophets")

Books and Prophets within the Trei Asar:

Hoshea (Hosea)

Yoel (Joel)

Amos

Ovadiah (Obadiah)

Yonah (Jonah)

Michah (Micah)

Nahum

Havakkuk (Habakkuk)

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

3) Ketuvim (the Writings) includes the remaining History Books: Daniel, Lamentations, and others. Jewish tradition (Talmud, Bava Batra 14b) states that the prophetic books were written by the authors whose names they bear: Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, etc. Ruth was written by Samuel, Lamentations was written by Jeremiah, Psalms was set in writing by King David, Chronicles was written by Ezra, Proverbs, Song of Songs and Kohellet (Ecclesiastes) were written by King Solomon, and Esther was written by Mordecai and Esther. Concerning Job, the Talmud states more than one opinion as to when it was written. The Writings consist of 11 books by the Jewish count.

  • Books 14-24 of the Hebrew Bible:
14) Tehillim (Psalms)

15) Mishlei (Proverbs)

16) Iyov (Job)

17-21: The "Five Megillot" (Five Scrolls)

17) Shir Hashirim (Song of Songs)

18) Ruth

19) Eichah (Lamentations)

20) Kohelet (Ecclesiastes)

21) Esther

22-24: The rest of the Writings:

22) Daniel

23) Ezra-Nehemiah

24) Divrei Hayamim (Chronicles I and II)

Further information:

The term "Torah" can refer loosely to the entire Jewish Bible.

Tradition places the sealing of the Tanakh's canon around 340 BCE.

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08/18/2017
  • The Jewish holy book is the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), containing the Torah and the prophetic books. "Tanakh" is a Hebrew acronym of T, N, K which stands for the three parts of the Tanakh: Torah, Nevi'im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings). In total, the Tanakh has 24 books.

Link: The history of the Hebrew Bible

  • A) The Torah, also called the Pentateuch, is the primary Jewish holy book. It contains the Five Books of Moses (also called the Books of the Law). It was given by God to Moses (Exodus 24:12), who transmitted it to the people and wrote it (Deuteronomy 31:24). Its chief purpose is to teach the laws of Judaism; and it also teaches us historical highlights, attitudes, guidance, beliefs and more.

Link: The purpose of the Torah
Books 1-5 of the Hebrew Bible: The Torah (the Five Books of Moses):

  1. Bereisheet (Genesis)
  2. Shemot (Exodus)
  3. Vayikra (Leviticus)
  4. Bamidbar (Numbers)
  5. Devarim (Deuteronomy)

Link: More about Moses

  • B) Nevi'im, the Prophets. The books of the Hebrew Prophets are the Divinely-inspired narrative of Israelite history and the relationship between God and Israel. The prophets were called upon by God to guide the people and to guide the king. While the king had authority in national matters of state, and the Sanhedrin (Sages) had say in Torah-rulings and halakha (law), the prophets spoke in matters of ethics, of belief, of loyalty to God, and behavior. They rebuked the people at God's command, they predicted events which God revealed to them, they taught through Divine inspiration, and they provided optimism and hope with the prophecies of eventual Redemption.

Link: The function of the Prophets
Jewish tradition (Talmud, Bava Batra 14b) states that the prophetic books were written by the authors whose names they bear: Joshua*, Samuel*, Isaiah*, Jeremiah*, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel*, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah*, etc. Judges was written by Samuel, and Kings was written by Jeremiah. The prophetic books were written in the time of the prophets, from the 1200s BCE (Joshua) to the mid-300s BCE (Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi).

(*See the Related Links.)

Books 6-9 of the Hebrew Bible: The Nevi'im Rishonim (the Early Prophets):

6) Yehoshua (Joshua)
7) Shoftim (Judges)
8) Shemuel (Samuel I and II)
9) Melachim (Kings I and II)

Books 10-13 of the Hebrew Bible: The Nevi'im Acharonim (the Later Prophets):
10) Yeshayahu (Isaiah)
11) Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah)
12) Yechezkel (Ezekiel)
13) Trei Asar ("The Twelve" or "The Minor Prophets")
Books and Prophets within the Trei Asar:
Hoshea (Hosea)
Yoel (Joel)
Amos
Ovadiah (Obadiah)
Yonah (Jonah)
Michah (Micah)
Nahum
Havakkuk (Habakkuk)
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi

  • C) Ketuvim, the Writings. The Ketuvim (also called Hagiographa) contains the remaining History Books: Daniel, Chronicles, Ezra, and others. Some of these narrate Israelite history and past events, some predict events, some serve to comfort the nation, some speak of prayer and love of God, and some speak of life, experience and wisdom.
Jewish tradition (Talmud, Bava Batra 14b) states that the Writings were written by the authors whose names they bear: Daniel*, Ezra* and Nehemiah*. Ruth* was written by Samuel; Lamentations was written by Jeremiah; Psalms was set in writing by King David*; Chronicles was written by Ezra; Proverbs, Song of Songs* and Kohellet (Ecclesiastes) were written by King Solomon*; and Esther was written by Mordecai and Esther*. The Writings were written between 900 BCE (Ruth) to the mid-300s BCE (Esther, Daniel, Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah).
Concerning Job*, the Talmud states more than one opinion as to when it was written.

(*See the Related Links.)

The Writings consist of 11 books by the Jewish count.

Books 14-24 of the Hebrew Bible:
14) Tehillim (Psalms)
15) Mishlei (Proverbs)
16) Iyov (Job)
17-21: The "Five Megillot" (Five Scrolls)
17) Shir Hashirim (Song of Songs)
18) Ruth
19) Eichah (Lamentations)
20) Kohelet (Ecclesiastes)
21) Esther
22-24: The rest of the Writings:
22) Daniel
23) Ezra-Nehemiah
24) Divrei Hayamim (Chronicles I and II)
Further information:
The term "Torah" can refer loosely to the entire Jewish Bible.
Tradition places the sealing of the Tanakh's canon around 340 BCE.

***See also the other Related Links.

Link: More about Joshua

Link: More about Samuel

Link: How many Isaiahs?

Link: More about Jeremiah

Link: More about Joel

Link: More about Jonah

Link: More about Daniel

Link: More about Ruth

Link: More about King David

Link: More about the Song of Songs

Link: More about King Solomon

Link: More about Esther

Link: More about Ezra

Link: More about Nehemiah

Link: More about Job

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Wiki User
12/02/2012

The Jewish holy book is the Tanakh (Jewish Bible), containing the Torah and the prophetic books. The Torah is the most holy book of Judaism. Torah, which means "teaching", is God's revealed instructions to the Jewish People.

Tanakh Composition:

The complete Jewish Bible is composed of 24 books called the Tanakh (תנ״ך). In Hebrew, Tanakh is an acronym of T, N, K which stands for the three parts of the Tanakh:

Torah

Neviim (Prophets)

Ketuvim (Writings)

1) Torah (תורה) (Teachings) also called the Pentateuch, is the primary Jewish holy book. It contains the 5 Books of Moses (also called the Books of the Law). These books are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Jews believe that the Torah was given by God to Moses (Exodus 24:12), who transmitted it to the people (Deuteronomy 31:24). Traditionally, it is read in front of a congregation several times a week and the scroll containing the Torah is considered holy. The word "Torah" derives from the Hebrew word "yarah" which means "to aim" or "direct" and Jews believe that the words of the Torah aim and direct a Jew to proper action and belief. The word Torah also has the same root as 'morah', meaning teacher.

1-5: The Torah or Five Books of Moses:

1. (בראשית / Bereshit) - Genesis2. (שמות / Shemot) - Exodus3. (ויקרא / Vayikra) - Leviticus4. (במדבר / Bamidbar) - Numbers5. (דברים / Devarim) - Deuteronomy

2) Nevi'im (נביאים) (the Prophets). The Jews see the book of Prophets as the story of their past and the connection between God and Israel. Jewish tradition (Talmud, Bava Batra 14b) states that the prophetic books were written by the authors whose names they bear: Joshua, Samuel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, etc. Judges is credited to Samuel, Kings was written by Jeremiah. The Prophets is comprised of a total of 8 books according to the Jewish count.

6-9: The Nevi'im Rishonim, the Early Prophets: 6. (יהושע / Y'hoshua) - Joshua7. (שופטים / Shophtim) - Judges8. (שמואל / Sh'muel) - Samuel (I & II)9. (מלכים / M'lakhim) - Kings (I & II)10-13: The Nevi'im Acharonim, the Later Prophets10. (ישעיה / Y'shayahu) - Isaiah11. (ירמיה / Yir'mi'yahu) - Jeremiah12. (יחזקאל / Y'khezqel) - Ezekiel13. (תרי עשר / Trei Asar), or Minor Prophets (or "The Twelve Prophets")

Books and Prophets within the Trei Asar:

a. (הושע / Hoshea) - Hoseab. (יואל / Yo'el) - Joelc. (עמוס / Amos) - Amosd. (עובדיה / Ovadyah) - Obadiahe. (יונה / Yonah) - Jonahf. (מיכה / Mikhah) - Micahg. (נחום / Nakhum) - Nahumh. (חבקוק /Havakuk) - Habakkuki. (צפניה / Ts'phanyah) - Zephaniahj. (חגי / Khagai) - Haggaik. (זכריה / Z'kharyah) - Zechariahl. (מלאכי / Mal'akhi) - Malachi

3) Ketuvim (כתובים) (the Writings) includes the remaining History Books: Daniel, Lamentations, and others. Jewish tradition (Talmud, Bava Batra 14b) states that the prophetic books were written by the authors whose names they bear: Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, etc. Ruth was written by Samuel, Lamentations was written by Jeremiah, Psalms was set in writing by King David, Chronicles was written by Ezra, Proverbs, Song of Songs and Kohellet (Ecclesiastes) were written by King Solomon, and Esther was written by Mordecai and Esther. Concerning Job, the Talmud states more than one opinion as to when it was written. The Writings consists of 11 books by the Jewish count:

14-16: The "Sifrei Emet"

14. (תהלים / Tehillim) - Psalms

15. (משלי / Mishlei) - Proverbs

16. (איוב / Iyov) - Job

17-21: The "Five Megilot" or "Five Scrolls"

17. (שיר השירים / Shir Hashirim) - Song of Songs

18. (רות / Rut) - Ruth

19. (איכה / Eikhah) - Lamentations

20. (קהלת / Kohelet) - Ecclesiastes

21. (אסתר / Esther) - Esther

22-24: The rest of the Writings:

22. (דניאל / Dani'el) - Daniel

23. (עזרא ונחמיה / Ezra v'Nechemia) - Ezra-Nehemiah

24. (דברי הימים / Divrei Hayamim) - Chronicles (I & II)

Further Discussion on the Tanakh

The term Torah can refer loosely to the entire Jewish Bible.

Tradition places the sealing of the Tanakh's canon around 340 BCE.