Close one hole of your nose and try to breath in. Feel any difference. Coming back to the subject. By increasing the # of valves you get the below features. a) better combustion chamber shape, resulting in better combustion, resulting in better power and fuel economy.
There are intake valves and exhaust valves. On the intake side, the intake valve opens which lets the fuel/air mixture into the combusion chamber. At some point (measured in degrees of crank rotation) the intake valve closes, the air/fuel mixture is compressed and ignited by the spark plug. Then the spent mixture exits the cylinder when the exhaust valve opens. Valve configuration varies somewhat, but regardless of how many valves there are there will always be at least one intake and one exhaust valve. Some cylinder heads have 2 intake and 2 exhaust valves which is what is described as the 4-valve per cylinder setup.
As the first two responders pointed out, you have intake valves, which let air in a diesel, or air plus gas in a gasoline engine, into the cylinder; and exhaust valves, which let the spent gases leave the cylinder.
One important thing multiple valves can do for you is to let the spark plug be put in the center of the cylinder, from where the flame front can radiate evenly through the chamber.
A 16-valve engine (if it's a 4-cylinder) has two intake and two exhaust valves. A 16-valve engine could also be an 8-cylinder engine with 1 intake and 1 exhaust valve per cylinder. A 12-valve engine has two intake and one exhaust valve (if it's a 4 cylinder engine). a 12-valve engine may also be a 6-cylinder engine with 1 intake and 1 exhaust valve per cylinder.
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