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Answered 2011-09-15 10:14:55

The pons and medulla oblongata are part of the central nervous syst. (CNS) During times of physical or emotional stress, the autonomic nevous syst.(ANS) stimulate the sinoatrial node (SA) and the atrioventricular node (AV) and the cardiac muscle itself. When the demand declines the heart adjusts, the parasympathetic nerves slow and steady the heart.

For breathing:

Neural centers that control respiratory rhythm and depth are located mainly in the medulla and pons. the medulla sets the basic rhythm of breathin, it contains a pacemaker or self-exciting inspiratory center. When its neurons fire, a burst of impulses travels along the phrenic and intercostal nerves to excite the diaphragm and external coastal muscles, respectively. The medulla also contains an expiratory center that inhibits the pacemaker in a rhythmic way. Impulses going back and forth between medulla centers mantain a rate of 12-15 respirations/min. Pons centers appear to smooth out the basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration set by the medulla

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