A RNA copy of a DNA gene <--- Gradpoint/NovaNet Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a form of RNA that codes for amino acids. During transcription a sequence of mRNA is made from a corresponding sequence of DNA. In a eukaryote, the mRNA is then processed and sent outside the nucleus to be translated by a ribosome in the cytoplasm. As for a prokaryote (which has no nucleus), the mRNA is already in the cytoplasm and just needs to be translated by a ribosome also in the prokaryote's cytoplasm.
The process wherein messenger RNQ (or mRNA) is given a message is called transcription. In this process, n mRNA molecule is made (or transcribed) using DNA as the template. Essentially, the nucleotide sequence on a gene is read by an enzyme called RNA polymerase which synthesizes the mRNA molecule. Put simply, RNA polymerase scans the length of DNA until a gene is encountered. When the enzyme reaches the correct position, it begins adding complimentary nucleotides to make the mRNA molecule. This way, the entire gene is transcribed and copied on to the mRNA molecule.
Yes . For a gene to be expressed it must first be transcribed. When the action of the product of a gene is needed (protein/enzyme), its gene is activated and a RNA copy is made of it. Various processing steps performed upon this RNA transcript make it into the RNA mentioned above - a messenger Rna (mRna).
DNA and RNA (m and t) are made of nucleotides. Proteins like hemoglobin are composed of amino acids. The mRNA specifies the sequence information needed for making the hemoglobin protein. This information is a direct and temporary copy of information contained on a gene on DNA. The tRNA is a separate molecule the carries an amino acid on it. It is like a mediator. It has sequence that matches to a small part of the sequence being specified by the mRNA. When the tRNA moves into the right position on the mRNA, the amino acid detaches from the tRNA and is added to the growing protein or polypeptide chain.
- stability of the DNA molecule (more C-G than A-T means greater stability since C-G has triple hydrogen bonds whereas A-T only has double hydrogen bonds) - where gene starts (look for promoter sequence) - what mRNA will be produced - what codons would be formed from the mRNA - what tRNA matches these codons - what amino acids would be carried by these tRNA - what protein would be made - what type of protein (membrane spanning protein for instance has sequence of hydrophobic amino acids) would be made - what allele of the gene would be expressed
There are two steps to protein synthesis: 1. Transcription - DNA unwinds, mRNA is made on the DNA template, the mRNA leaves the nucleus (through the nuclear pores) and goes to the ribosomes. 2. Translation - The mRNA moves along the ribosome where the information in the mRNA (codons) give the instructions for the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is being made. Once the amino acid sequence (protein, or "polypeptide") is complete, it detaches from the ribosome.
Recall for any DNA sequence, there are actually two sequences because DNA is a double helix composed of two strands. By convention (a thankfully logical convention) we typically record the DNA sequence of the "sense strand" from the 5' end to the 3' end. The sense strand was chosen because the sense DNA sequence is exactly the same as the mRNA sequence except that it has T's where RNA has U's. Thus if the sequence you provided is the sense strand 5'-acagtgc-3', then the mRNA sequence would be 5'-acagugc-3'. However, if what you were asking for is what mRNA sequence would be transcribed from the given DNA sequence, that would depend if you'd given me the sequence 5' to 3' or 3' to 5'. If you've given me the sequence of the antisense strand, 3' to 5' (that is, if you're asking what would happen if an RNA polymerase landed at the left of the sequence and began moving right) the mRNA sequence would be ugucacg. If you've given me the sequence of the antisense strand 5' to 3', then the answer would be gcacugu. I'm sorry if I made this more complicated for you.... I have a feeling you were looking for a simpler answer than this.
I assume you are talking about protein synthesis? Good. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is ejected from the nucleus after it has made a copy of the base pairing sequence for that particular gene (to produce a protein) via a nuclear pore. The mRNA comes into contact with Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in the cytoplasm of the cell. The Transfer RNA (tRNA) then brings along the correct amino acids as indicated by the sequence of the mRNA which is attached to the rRNA. The mRNA is passed between the sub units of the ribosome and the tRNA brings along the amino acids in the correct sequence until a codon is present (tells it to stop). The amino acids are then joined by a condensation reaction with peptide bonds to form a polypeptide chain and eventually a protein. Amazing stuff huh?!
From http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k3ch13dogma.htmlSimply stated, during transcription, one gene (DNA) is 're-written' into an RNA in the nucleus:A team of enzymes and proteins binds to the promoter, or starting region, of a gene.These enzymes and proteins unzip the DNA double helix just at the region of the gene.The enzyme RNA polymerase uses one of the DNA strands to make an RNA copy of that one gene.This copy, which contains the instructions to make 1 protein, is called an mRNA or messenger RNA.After the mRNA is made, it is trimmed down to a final size, and shipped out of the nucleus!When the mRNA gets into the cytoplasm, it is made into protein.
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