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Virus and plasmid. Both can insert the target gene into the host's genome.


Genetic engineering is the use of science to recombine DNA in many different procedures to develop organisms. Genetic engineering is mostly used in agriculture and medicine.


To duplicate, viruses insert their genetic material into a host cell along with enzymes. The host cell's internal replication machinery is hijacked, and the cell begins producing the proteins to make new viruses. In genetic engineering, the viral DNA is changed (through a variety of techniques) to include the altered genetic material that is intended to change or replace pieces of the host's genome. It also usually includes a "repair protein" that keeps it from killing the host cell. Special receptors on the surface of the virus allow it to attach to the appropriate cells (for instance certain adeno-associated viruses can insert information specifically into chromosome 19), and the modified DNA is introduced via the usual method of viral reproduction. Instead of replicating new copies of the virus, the cells begin to copy the new genetic material, which then is incorporated into the host's genome.


In genetic engineering, bacteria is used in altering and replicating the genes that are subsequently introduced into animals or plants.


It will be used for finding out the genetic material of a human. and to figure out diseases


In genetic engineering, plasmid is used as the vector. Vector is the "vehicle" where the to be cloned DNA fragment is inserted (passenger).


The technology used in genetic engineering on animals is roughly called animal engineering


Genetic Engineering is the study and application of genetics for a better life/future. Genetic engineering can be used to produce medicines & to improve food crops. Researchers are also using genetic engineering to try to cure human genetic disorders.


Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including agriculture. One of the best-known applications of genetic engineering in agriculture is genetically modified organisms.


The DNA lipases are the paste enzyme which helps to join the broken DNA fragments in genetic engineering


Some believe genetic engineering is moral because it can be used for the good of mankind. Others believe it is not moral because the DNA should not be artificially changed. Still others question the uses of genetic engineering based on the way it is being used. Ultimately, whether one considers genetic engineering as moral is something they must determine for themselves.



saccharomyces cerevisiae - yeast



it is used to clone things and make super things.




Ligase is an enzyme used in genetic engineering for "gluing"


From the Web site of safe-food.org, genetic engineering is "a laboratory technique used by scientists to change the DNA of living organisms." Put another way, genetic engineering is "the alteration of genetic code using artificial means" (from www.globalchange.com). Genetic engineering is also called bio-engineering, gene-splicing, gene manipulation, etc. and the organisms that result from the practice are called genetically modified organisms (GMOs).


Genetic engineering when used on microorganisms help in the creation of new pharmaceuticals which cannot be made in any other way.Genetic engineering helps in the process of bioremediation which is the process of cleaning up waste and pollution with the help of living organisms.Genetic engineering has helped lower the overall usage of herbicide and pesticide.Genetic engineering has helped with the production of vaccines and other drugs in plants.Genetic engineering has helped produce quicker and more predictable way of generating new cultivars. Further, the cultivar properties are better known today than it was ever known before.Today, genetic engineering can produce sustainable agriculture.Genetic engineering has produced very useful genetically modified breeds which can tolerate factory farming without any suffering.In humans, genetic engineering is used to treat genetic disorders and cancer. It also helps in supplying new body parts.Although, this has not been done today, genetic engineering has the potential of creating new types of human beings with many advantageous traits.


So far we do not know of any human deaths that can be attributed to genetic engineering. But we could not rule out the possibility that genetic engineering may, at some time in the future, be used for the purpose of killing people. The greatest risk would be the engineering of new diseases, for the purpose of biological warfare or terrorism.


bacteria, can be grown cheaply in bulk.


there is no certin vaccine to treat diabetes.





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