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What stands for PFP in operation Black Sea harmony?

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Answered 2007-10-22 14:04:51

It stands for Partnership for Peace. It is discussed at http://www.nato.int/issues/pfp/index.html.

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This list: Military Allies of the United StatesNATO MembersAlbaniaBelgiumBulgariaCanadaCroatiaCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIcelandItalyLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgNetherlandsNorwayPolandPortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainTurkeyUnited KingdomNATO by Extension (Complex)British Crown Possessions (Isle of Man, Jersey …) & British Overseas TerritoriesFrench Departments & Communes (Several such as French Guiana and Reunion are incorporated parts of the Republic of France like Hawaii is to the USA, New Caledonia is the least incorporated but is also part of France)Kingdom of the Netherlands (Aruba, Netherland Antilles)Norwegian TerritoriesKingdom of Denmark Countries (Greenland, Faroe Islands)Spanish African EnclavesPortuguese Atlantic IslandsTerritories of the United States (Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Northern Marianas, American Samoa)Independent Countries in Free Association with the United StatesMarshall IslandsFederated States of MicronesiaPalauNATO Occupied Countries (Not UN recognized)KosovoNATO Contact Countries & Mutual Defense Agreements (MDAs)Japan (also MDA)Korea, Republic (also MDA)Australia (also ANZUS)New Zealand (also ANZUS)SingaporeChileOther Special Security Relationships with USAPanamaPhilippinesThailandOther American Military Allies in South AmericaPeruSurinameGuyanaArgentina (Very complex relationship, strained)Non-NATO EU Members (NATO-ESDP)AustriaIrelandFinlandSwedenMaltaCyprusNATO MAPs (Membership Action Plans)MacedoniaBosniaMontenegroIndependent Countries - MDAs with Major Allies and/or the USAAndorraMonacoSan MarinoFijiKiribatiSamoaEast TimorNauruSolomon IslandsTongaPapua New GuineaBelizeJamaicaBahamasDominican RepublicHaitiVarious other Caribbean microstates (changing and complex)Oman (via British)Djibouti (via French)Select NATO (Partners)Switzerland (PfP)Georgia (PfP)Ukraine (PfP)Moldova (PfP)Azerbaijan (PfP, but complexly also a CTSO member, keyword: Central Asia Great Game)Egypt (Med Dialogue, complex relationship)Israel (Med Dialague, special relationship)Jordan (Med Dialogue, also special with British)Morocco (Med Dialogue)Mauritania (Med Dialogue)Other South & West Asian AlliesBahrainUAESaudi ArabiaIraq (sui generis)Afghanistan (sui generis)India (emerging, converging national interests, Chinese building naval base on Sri Lanka, France-India and USA-India nuclear tech deals)Other African AlliesBotswanaSwazilandChadSenegalBeninSui Generis SituationsHonduras (De facto government)Bolivia (Eastern Provinces)Alliances between any two or group of countries are not simple. There are legal agreements, ideological considerations and national interests.There are central Asian nations which have very complex relationships - for example Kazakhstan, which belongs to the Russian dominated CSTO, the Chinese dominated SCO and has a NATO IPAP. It will play to all three as its interests and the situation changes.Also there is a big difference between military allies and political allies. Socialist Chile may work against the United States on global political issues but is a major military ally for its own security reasons. Reality gets really strange with situations like Pakistan and Yemen.


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Kufuor's public service spans over 30 years. From 1964 to 1969 he was a Kumasi-based private legal practitioner. From 1967 to 1969 he was chief legal officer and city manager of Kumasi. He was a member of the Constituent Assemblies that drafted the Constitutions of the Second and Third Republics respectively. He was a member of Parliament during the Second and Third Republics and served as a deputy minister of foreign affairs during the Second Republic. Kufuor led Ghanaian delegations to the annual meetings of the United Nations general assembly in New York, and the 1970 Ghanaian delegation to Moscow, Prague, and Belgrade. Kufuor returned to private life during the period of military leadership after President Busia's overthrow in 1972 and ran a brick and tile factory. He returned to Parliament in 1979.Kufuor was a founding member of the Progress Party (PP), the Popular Front Party (PFP), and the New Patriotic Party (NPP). He was the PFP's spokesman for Foreign Affairs and the deputy opposition leader of the PFP during the Third Republic. He was also a member of the parliamentary delegation that visited the United States in 1981 for talks with the officials of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank on Ghana's economic problems.After the overthrow of the Limann government by Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings in 1981, Kufuor was appointed the minister for local government with the PNDC. However, Kufuor and Rawlings had difficulty establishing rapport, and Kufuor resigned from the Rawlings government after seven months citing "irreconcilable political differences." In 1996, Kufuor ran in the presidential elections as a candidate of the NPP party, losing to incumbent president Jerry Rawlings. He again ran for the presidency on 7 December 2000, this time winning the second round of voting with 56.7% of the vote. He took office on 7 January 2001.var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); try { var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA-892232-20"); pageTracker._trackPageview(); } catch(err) {}Read more: Rise to power - Ghana http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/World-Leaders-2003/Ghana-RISE-TO-POWER.html#ixzz0Y5IqO3Hr


There are a variety of types of search engine marketing.PPC- Pay per click- Google Adwords, Yahoo Overture - a good way to figure out what works very quickly... but it costs.SEO- Optimizing your site so that you dont have to pay. Can work really well but extremly time consuming.SMO- Social Media Optimization - a great new method, can reach tons of people but potentially more time consuming than SEO.Check out AuraDev.com there is a section in our website that goes into detail on the various SEM strategies.Local Map Optimization - Google, Yahoo, and MSN (Bing) all have a local search function that includes a map and up to 10 local relevant business listings on the first page of their search results.Types of Search Engine Marketing:One of the most popular types of Search Engine Marketing (SEM) is SEO (Search Engine Optimization). Other popular types of SEM are search engine advertising and paid submission.• Search engine advertising: It usually follows a PFP model wherein you pay in order to ensure a top rank in the results of a search engine, both on the search site along with its distribution network. A successful PFP advertising campaign depends on 5 factors, namely, bid price, keyword selection, ad distribution, ad copy and effective landing pages.• Paid submission: In a paid submission Search Engine Marketing program, web site owners pay an amount to have their specific websites reviewed by editors. However, there is no guarantee that the site will be accepted into a directory. It applies typically to human-based search engines, which are referred to as directories. A successful directory campaign depends on the title, description and the category selection.Tips for Search Engine Optimization:SEO, a popular type of Search Engine Marketing, is a set of techniques, which help to optimize a specific webpage. The primary aim of Search Engine Optimization is to rank a website in popular search engines (such as, Google, Yahoo, etc.). Here are few tips that will help you to rank your webpage high in popular search engines.1. Create a sitemap: You should create a sitemap as it helps a search engine to understand your website's architecture as it is difficult to access then from backlinks. A sitemap can be defines as a hierarchical arrangement of web pages that are available in your website.2. Produce high quality content: It is one of the prerequisites to rank your page high in popular search engines. The content, posts and article need to be of high quality. It is advisable that put informative article that help a visitor to know about your product category. It is better to keep the length of content short and to the point.3. Maintain keyword density: Keyword density is an important aspect in site optimization. You should always keep the density wityhin4-6%; search engines may label it as spam if the density exceeds 10%. Therefore, always check keyword density before uploading a particular webpage.4. Include internal links: Link your home page with all the pages in your website. Include suitable internal links on all the webpages; it will increase the number of links to each of the webpages and it will also make it easier for a search engine to find all the pages in your website.


Our founding fathers were Christians.AnswerTo plainly say they were "Christians" is a bit misleading. Some of them were, but others were deists, or believed in one spirtual being (God if you will) which had very little to do with governing their lives on earth. However, it is important to note that all of the Founding Fathers followed Christian doctrine for rules on how to conduct ones self, for it was so intertwined with the society. Benjamin Franklin probably explains it best when he, to paraphrase, said that although he is unsure of whether God exists or not, he felt it was better to believe in Christianity and the Christian God than not to, for the Christian teachings prevented moral anarchy. Thus, our nation was founded on Christian principles because the Founding Generation recognized the value in them to create a moral, virtuous society.AnswerActual quotes from Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, John Adams, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and others plainly and unequivocally state that they were NOT Christians, did NOT believe Jesus was the son of god, did NOT want the laws of the United States to be based on ANY religion (and several hold contempt specifically for Christianity), and believed that, in a democracy, religious feeling would eventually subside and disappear. AnswerThe founding fathers were both deist's and christians, as to say which religion they held to. but they all held to the use of the god given reson they had. they did not think that the church should have the input, but that us as god fearing people, be it deist's or christians, should have they say in government. See if you look at what they say, it holds that they all held the ethics of the bible as good. some held the bible as a much of mysticism, Jefferson even wrote his on translation of the bible with out any mircles, but the held that the teachings of christ as good for people to use in their lifes. The point is it wasn't what religon, it was the what God did they belive in, religon is supressive, they knew this. But they did belive their was a God. a God wroth taking time to know, though reason. AnswerSome of the founding fathers were undoubtably Christian of various denominations. Some were outright athiests. Benjamin Franklin was a member of the Hellfire Club, an intellectual organization that scorned and opposed organized and established religions, including Christianity. The Deist view was accepted as an argument for Liberty that was compatible with all the various founders' religious views: simply that mankind was created by some sort of divine power and was MEANT to be free.The misconception that Deism is an offshoot of Christianity may be a result the non-Christian founders' efforts to convince the Christians that they were all on the same team.Ironically, the idea that individuals were meant to be free was not embraced by all Christians at the time, as the Spanish Inquisition was still underway and was not officially ended until 1834.AnswerThe founding fathers were definitely Christian. 24 of the 54 who signed the Declaration of Independence were the head of seminaries. The first meeting of the Congress, on Sept. 6, 1774, started with a THREE HOUR prayer session before moving on to study four books of the Bible. Saying that they're deists totally goes against that. Why would they pray for THREE hours, which is amazing for any Christian, if they didn't believe that God had a direct connection with them? In July, 1775, when Washington became commander-in-chief, he separated the troops into regiments. Then, he said there had to be a chaplain in each one! He even said that if God doesn't help them, they won't win. He said that he hopes that all of the soldiers "endeavor as a Christian soldier." Benjamin Rush started Sunday schools and founded the first Bible study. Francis Hopkins was a choir leader and he set all of the Psalms to music. John Adams wrote his wife a letter telling her to read the 34th Psalm to her friends and parents because it had changed him and the other men as they studied it. Oh, and on that day (Sept. 6, 1774) Congress appointed a continental FAST. George Washington was even quoted, saying, "To the distinguished character of patriot, it should be our highest glory to add the more distinguished character of a Christian." They don't sound like deists to me. AnswerOur founding fathers were a mixture of deist and Christians. Thomas Paine, Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, and George Washington were deists. All of the aforementioned names wrote in books and letters they authored an utter DISBELIEF in the bible as the word of God, they all also stated on numerous occasions their disbelief in the deity of Jesus Christ, and the trinity. Thomas Paine even wrote a lengthy book called "The age of reason" to disprove the bible and Christianity.AnswerThe Founding Fathers only discernable religion's were Christianity, Deism and (very possibly in Benjamin Franklin's case) Atheism. This quote from Thomas Jefferson is used in order to prove either that Jefferson was a Christian or a close facsimile: "A more beautiful or precious morsel of ethics I have never seen. It is a document in proof that I am a real Christian, that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus" (Thomas Jefferson to Charles Thomson, January 9, 1816). By Jefferson's careful selection of words he considered Jesus a great philosopher and counted himself a disciple of Jesus's Doctrines (in fact the document referred to above was a book Jefferson had created by eviscerating a bible in order to extract the words of Jesus alone). Jefferson also calls himself a "real" Christian. The word real is used purposefully here by Jefferson, and any scholar of Jefferson's works knows precisely why. Jefferson while a disciple of Jesus's philosophies rejected the remainder of traditional Christian Scripture (the bible). Jefferson also rejected the Conventional Christian teachings on Jesus himself. In a letter to William Short on Oct. 31, 1819 Jefferson makes this clear while speaking about Jesus:"The establishment of the innocent and genuine character of this benevolent moralist, and the rescuing it from the imputation of imposture, which has resulted from [misconstructions of his words by his pretended votaries] artificial systems*, invented by Ultra-Christian sects, unauthorised by a single word ever uttered by him is a most desirable object, and one to which Priestly has successfully devoted his labors and learning, it would in times it is to be hoped effect a quiet euthanasia of the heretics of bigotry and fanaticism which have so long triumphed over human reason and so generally & deeply afflicted mankind."e.g. the immaculate conception of Jesus, his deification, the creation of the world by him, his miraculous powers, his resurrection & visible ascension, his corporeal presence in the Eucharist, the Trinity, original sin, atonement, regeneration, election orders of Hierarchy etc.(footnote Jefferson's)Jefferson considered the basic tenets of Christianity to be "artificial systems." Here he calls these systems "Ultra-Christian", though today we recognize these doctrines as core tenets."I do not find in orthodox Christianity one redeeming feature." -- Thomas JeffersonAnswerOur nation was built on secular model. The founders had a choice of founding our nation on a biblical model, the new Jerusalem, where Washington became the new Moses or on a secular one, the new Rome, where Washington became the new Cincinatus. If you look at our national symbols and architecture, it's pretty clear that the founding fathers chose the secular model. Washington hated going to church and was happy to stop once he left office. Our founders were men of the Age of Enlightenment. Religion was not a big deal. All this religious stuff got grafted on later, mostly by Abraham Lincoln. AnswerI could use the following quotes from Ben Franklin to justify "my arguments" for his belief in almighty God vs "someone else's" claim that he is an atheist ("Articles of Belief "1728): "I BELIEVE there is one supreme, most perfect Being . . . Also, when I stretch my imagination through and beyond our system of planets, beyond the visible fixed stars themselves, into that space that is every way infinite, and conceive it filled with suns like ours, each with a chorus of worlds for ever moving round him; then this little ball on which we move, seems, even in my narrow imagination, to be almost nothing, and myself less than nothing, and of no sort of consequence . . . That I may be preserved from atheism . . . Help me, O Father! . . . For all thy innumerable benefits; for life, and reason . . . My good God, I thank thee!"Or how about this:"I have lived, Sir, a long time, and the longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth--that God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid? . . . I also believe that without his concurring aid we shall succeed in this political building no better than the Builders of Babel . . .In Federal [Framing] Convention, 1787, making a motion for PrayerMy advice would be to keep an open mind and search out sources that can take you as close to the original as you can get.....read the actual writtings of the Founding Fathers if possible, rather than someones interpretation of what the fathers may have ment....happy hunting! "AnswerBrian writes: Thomas Paine even wrote a lengthy book called "The age of reason" to disprove the bible and Christianity and virtually all of the other names you mention wrote rather scathingly of Paine's book:Ben Franklin wrote: I would advise you, therefore, not to attempt unchaining the tiger, but to burn this piece before it is seen by any other person . . . . If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be without it? I intend this letter itself as proof of my friendshipJohn Adams wrote: The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue equity and humanity, let the Blackguard [scoundrel, rogue] Paine say what he willBenjamin Rush, signer of the Declaration of Independence, wrote to his friend and signer of the Constitution John Dickenson that Paine's Age of Reason was "absurd and impious."[7] Charles Carroll, a signer of the Declaration, described Paine's work as "blasphemous writings against the Christian religion."[8] John Witherspoon, signer of the Declaration and mentor to many other Founders, said that Paine was "ignorant of human nature as well as an enemy to the Christian faith."[9] John Quincy Adams declared that "Mr. Paine has departed altogether from the principles of the Revolution."Lumping these men with Thomas Paine is simply historically incorrect."Our laws and our institutions must necessarily be based upon the teachings of the Redeemer of Mankind. It is impossible that it should be otherwise; and in this sense and to this extent, our civilization and our institutions are emphatically Christian." U. S. Supreme Court 1892AnswerI think that publicly, many of the "founders" said things in favor of Christianity, not necessarily because that was their sincere belief, but rather to endear themselves to the majority of the people who would not have voted for an outspoken non-Christian. So, an outward expression of prayer to God, even invoking Jesus, should not be construed as definitively showing that such and such a person was a Christian. If there are those who refused to believe that any of the founding fathers were not Christian, how do you explain the anti-Christian quotes by the very same fathers? Some of them may have been "Christian-esque", as in believing some of the sayings ascribed to Jesus in the Bible, claiming that they're wise, and that "original Christianity" was a revelation, but I think that's about as far as it goes. Take a look at their private quotations. I believe that there you will find a more accurate portrayal of their beliefs. AnswerAccording to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the definition of deist or deism is: a movement or system of thought advocating natural religion, emphasizing morality, and in the 18th century denying the interference of the Creator with the laws of the universe. I have read many articles that claim that our founding fathers including Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Hamilton, and Madison were deists. Do these claims hold up to closer scrutiny?In my research, I found none of these founding fathers fit this description. Take for example the following prayer spoken by George Washington:…O eternal and everlasting God, I presume to present myself this morning before Thy Divine Majesty, beseeching Thee to accept of my humble and hearty thanks…Direct my thoughts, words and work, wash away my sins in the immaculate Blood of the Lamb, and purge my heart by Thy Holy Spirit…Daily frame me more and more into the likeness of Thy Son, Jesus Christ, that living in Thy fear, and dying in Thy favor, I may in Thy appointed time attain the resurrection of the just unto eternal life.These are not the words of deist.Thomas JeffersonWhile President, Thomas Jefferson closed his presidential documents with the phrase:In the year of our Lord Christ; by the President; Thomas Jefferson.Writing to Dr. Benjamin Rush in April of 1803, Jefferson stated:My views…are the result of a life of inuiry and reflection, and very different from the anti-christian system imputed to me by those who know nothing of my opinions. To the corruptions of Christianity I am, indeed, opposed; but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself. I am a Christian in the only sense in which he wished any one to be; sincerely attached to his doctrines in preference to all others...Through the years, Jefferson may have said some odd and sometimes conflicting things, but in the end, as his actions show and as the above statement proves, he was a Christian and not a deist.Ben FranklinIt was Ben Franklin that helped found the college that bore his name. It was dedicated as "a nursery of religion and learning" built "on Christ, the Corner-Stone."It was also Benjamin Franklin that insisted that schools teach "the necessity of a public religion… and the excellency of the Christian religion above all others…" And don't forget that it was Benjamin Franklin that proposed a Biblical inscription for the Seal of the United States and it was he that chose from the New Testiment a verse for the motto for the Philadelphia Hospital. These don't sound like the acts of a deist.Alexander HamiltonHamilton stated that there were two things that made America great; Christianity and a Constitution formed under Christianity.Just before his death, Hamilton declared to Rev. Mason and Bishop Moore that "a lively faith in God's mercy through Christ, with a thankful remembrance of the death of Christ."Again, these are not the words of a deist.James MadisonMadison wrote "cursed by all that learning that is contrary to the cross of Christ."Concerning the future of America, he wrote:We have staked the whole future of American civilization, not upon the power of government, far from it. We have staked the future of all of our political institutions upon the capacity of each and all of us to govern ourselves, to control ourselves, to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God.I think it is clear that none of these men were deists. What about the other 200 plus men that make up our founding fathers? Where any of them deists?Abraham Baldwin was a chaplain in the Revolution. James McHenry was the founder of the Baltimore Bible Society. Rufus King helped found the Society for Anglicans. Charles Pinckney and John Langdon were founders of the American Bible Society. Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman, John Dickinson, and Jacob Broom were theological writers. The list goes on and on and does not include the many evangelical Christians who signed the Declaration of Independence or who helped frame the Bill or Rights.AnswerThe founding fathers were Christian. Christianity is the religion, specifically Protestant was the denomination/belief. They were establishing their religious freedom from the Catholic church and it's religious limitations. AnswerIn order to answer this question maybe we should remember why they sought to form the United States. They did so for "religious freedom." We are taught in our history books that they came to America and formed the USA so they could have freedom to worship GOD. They came because the government wanted to run the religion. One person answered that 24 of the 54 who signed the Declaration of Independence were the head of seminaries. The first meeting of the Congress, on Sept. 6, 1774, started with a THREE HOUR prayer session before moving on to study four books of the Bible. I believe that these men loved God, some were "Christian", some were not. The reason we ask this question is because the United States is in such a mess today. A better question to ask would be, do you think the United States is what the founding fathers inteded it to be today? AnswerIt seems that many comments have ignored the key issue regarding Christianity, the belief in the resurrection of Jesus. Without this, the person's belief (if not an athiest) rests upon God. This could include deism, Islam, Buddhism, or any of several other religions. Many of the founding fathers would not qualify as Christians, especially Benjamin Franklin as he stated his religious beliefs in his AUTObiography. The acceptance and adoption of the ethical teachings of Christ as adopting the (very similar) teachings of Buddha make one a Buddhist. I believe that some of the above posts take Jefferson's comments about being a Christian out of context. I do not believe that he accepted Christ in the context of the resurrection or supernatural activities as his rewriting of the Bible suggests. The following quote from his Autobiography suggests that the founding fathers wanted to free this country from the suppression of any established religion, including Christianity."Where the preamble declares, that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed by inserting 'Jesus Christ,' so that it would read 'A departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion;' the insertion was rejected by the great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend, within the mantle of its protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mohammedan, the Hindoo and Infidel of every denomination." -Thomas Jefferson, AutobiographyKevinAnswerIt is widely known (although I as a non-US citizen am surprised that no-one in this forum has mentioned it before) that many of the founding fathers were Freemasons; one of the prime principles of Freemasonry is that religion and politics are forbidden discussion topics, the greater good of humanity is far more important than differences in opinions on these two aspects. The question is therefore irrelevant, what matters is that they managed to build a free and democratic nation, regardless of any differing religious or political backgrounds they might have had. AnswerAs he states clearly in his autobiography, Franklin believed in a God. He was grateful to "divine providence" for his own fortunes in life. However, he had no time for those who merely preached morality and the need to believe. Franklin believed Man's duty is to do good to Man. Thus, he vocally and monitarily supported the establishment of ANY church, regardless of sect or religion, that taught this. It is not what people believe, but rather how they conduct themselves. Let us remember, in our discourse of the proper place of religion in our lives, that our Founding Fathers were keenly aware of how repressive Crown and Church can be when combined in self-serving righteousness. Let us remember that these brilliant statesmen and philosophers, struggling against their European experience, had good reason for creating one of the most fundamental structures of our constitution: SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE. That means freedom of as well as freedom from."Once the religious, the hunted, the weary, chasing the promise of freedom and hope, came to this country to build a new vision, far from the reaches of Kindgom and Pope." --John Kay, SteppenwolfAnswerIf you dedicate a little time to read the small portion of quotes by our founding fathers, along with links to more exhaustive explanations/documentaions, you will gain a much better understanding of the common misconception of their being Christians, especially by today's definition. Links at the end of the page include more quotes, explanations, and thorough evidence showing which were Deists,which were Skeptics, and why being 'politically correct' prevented unnecessary assaults by the clergy. Enjoy: The day will come when the mystical generation of Jesus, by the Supreme Being as his father, in the womb of a virgin, will be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter. -- Thomas Jefferson It is too late in the day for men of sincerity to pretend they believe in the Platonic mysticism that three are one and one is three, and yet, that the one is not three, and the three not one.... But this constitutes the craft, the power, and profits of the priests. Sweep away their gossamer fabrics of fictitious religion, and they would catch no more flies. The priests of the different religious sects ... dread the advance of science as witches do the approach of daylight... The Christian priesthood, finding the doctrines of Christ leveled to every understanding, and too plain to need explanation, saw, in the mysticism of Plato, materials with which they might build up an artificial system which might, from it's indistinctness, admit everlasting controversy, give employment for their order, and introduce it to profit, power and pre-eminence. The natural course of the human mind is certainly from credulity to skepticism. Our civil rights have no dependence upon our religious opinions more than our opinions in physics or geometry. Short time elapsed after the death of the great reformer of the Jewish religion, before his principles were departed from by those who professed to be his special servants, and perverted into an engine for enslaving mankind. Millions of innocent men, women, and children, since the introduction of Christianity, have been burnt, tortured, fined, and imprisoned; yet we have not advanced one inch toward uniformity. What has been the effect of coercion? To make one-half the world fools and the other half hypocrites. To support roguery and error all over the earth. -- Thomas Jefferson I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than to those attending too small a degree of it. "But how has it happened that millions of fables, tales, legaends, hae been blended with both Jewish and Chiistian revelation that have made them the most bloody religion that ever existed "Lighthouses are more helpful than churches." "The age of ignorance commenced with the Christian system." "Whenever we read the obscene stories, the voluptuous debaucheries, the cruel and tortuous executions, the unrelenting vindictiveness with which more than half the Bible is filled, it would be more consistent that we call it the word of a demon than the word of God. It is a history of wickedness that has served to corrupt and brutalize [hu]mankind." "My earlier views of the unsoundness of the Christian scheme of salvation and the human origin of the scriptures, have become clearer and stronger with advancing years and I see no reason for thinking I shall ever change them." --Abraham Lincoln "The United States is not a Christian nation any more than it is a Jewish or a Mohammedan nation." -- Treaty of Tripoli (1797) signed by John Adams "Leave the matter of religion to the family altar, the church and the private school supported entirely by private contributions. Keep the church and state forever separate." -- Ulysses S. Grant "Mr. Lincoln was not a Christian." -- Mary Todd Lincoln In a sermon of October 1831, Episcopalian minister Bird Wilson said, Among all of our Presidents, from Washington downward, not one was a professor of religion, at least not of more than Unitarianism http://www.atheism.org/~godlessheathen/Founders.HTML http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/quotes/Jefferson.htm http://paganinfo.50g.com/quotes.htm http://www.postfun.com/pfp/worbois.HTML http://www.exmormon.org/Mormon/mormon179.htm http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/franklin_steiner/presidents.HTML http://www.jackowitch.com/foundingfathersquotes.HTML http://tftb.com/deify/amhistory.htm http://home.comcast.net/~rkamlet/exploration_of_deism.htm http://www.godlessgeeks.com/LINKS/Quotes.htm http://www.deism.com/thinksam18.htm http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/Psychology/mashist.htm http://www.deism.com/DeistAmerica.htm http://www.angelfire.com/journal2/serpentandlion/americanstatesmen.HTMLAnswerWhat have the courts said about religion and our founding fathers? In 1892 (Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States, 143 U.S. 457, 470) the Supreme Court stated that "this is a religious nation." The Court was clear about the historical role of religion in our society and concluded that "[t]here is an unbroken history of official acknowledgment by all three branches of government of the role of religion in American life from at least 1789."In 1963 (Abington v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203, 212), the Court recognized that "religion has been closely identified with our history and government." The same recognition was also expressed in Zorach (343 U.S. at 313) where the Court stated that "[w]e are a religious people whose institutions presuppose a Supreme Being."In the recent case of Elk Grove Unified School District et al. v. Newdow et al. decided June 14, 2004, Justice O'Connor wrote:Michael Newdow's challenge to petitioner school district's policy is a well-intentioned one, but his distaste for the reference to "one Nation under God," however sincere, cannot be the yardstick of our Establishment Clause inquiry. Certain ceremonial references to God and religion in our Nation are the inevitable consequence of the religious history that gave birth to our founding principles of liberty. It would be ironic indeed if this Court were to wield our constitutional commitment to religious freedom so as to sever our ties to the traditions developed to honor it.Jutice Thomas said as to whether the Pledge policy pertains to an establishment of religion:It is difficult to see how government practices that have nothing to do with creating or maintaining [a] coercive state establishment . . . implicate the sort of liberty interest of being free from coercive state establishments.All of these examples show that these acts do not constitute an "establishment of Religion."Now lets take a look at the last portion of the first amendment.Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof...Our Founding Fathers declared, in no uncertain terms, that Congress is not to prohibit the free exercise of religion in any way. If this is true, then how can our lawmakers, today, tell us that we can not pray in school? How can they tell us we can't speak of God at our graduation cerimonies? How can they tell us that we can't display crosses and other religious symbols across our nation? Why can't we display the Ten Commandments? Do we somehow give up our freedom of Religion every time we step into a school or government building? If so, how can this be considering the fact that the Constitution states that the government is prohibited from limiting the free exercise of Religion?I submit to you that we can do all of these things and that this recent tide to limit the freedom of Religion is simply an effort to rewrite history.Religious expression is protected by law. Displaying the "Ten Commandments" or any other religious symbol by a state or federal entity is protected by law. Praying at home, or in church, in public, in school, at work, in our government buildings, or anywhere else is also protected by law.Answerhttp://www.errantskeptics.org/Fifty_Five_Delegates.htm Having not seen a clear answer to the question I propose the above link for a direct answer. It list by specific denomination the religion of the 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention.Only one was clearly a "deist". Two others belonged to "Christian" denominations and were considered deists. One is unknown. That leaves 50 of the 55 to be specifically identified by "Christian" denomination.A quick list shows Episcopalian (23 + 2 Epis/Quakers) Presbyterian (6 plus 1 Pres/Diest and 1 Presb/Epis) Congregationlist (6) Roman Catholic (2) Methodist (2) Dutch Reformed (2) DEIST (1) Ben Franklin and it is questionable by reading some of his writings as to how long he held such a view.To name our founding fathers as "Deist and Christians" appear to give and indication of a fair mix of the two. The were overwhelmingly "Christian" to the point of many insisted no one could hold public office, with out affirming they believed in the God of the "Old AND New Testament" and that they would one day give an answer for their conduct in that office to that God. Hardly the act of a deist or athiest.Read the documents of the founding fathers to find your answer, not just "histories" telling you what they want you to believe.Many of the founding fathers' quotes can be found on the same web site.http://www.errantskeptics.org/God_And_America.htmGo to http://www.wallbuilders.com as a resource for more information. David Barton owns many actually documents from our founding fathers.AnswerPraying in public has never been questioned, praying in schools is questioned only when the prayers are led by adults who are authority figures, which has the same power/influence issues as the ones that make "consentual" sexual relations between a teacher and a student statutory rape. It's the inequity of power, which leaves little room for disagreement or resistance, that make both the prayer and the sexual activity inappropriate between the participants. My atheist high school teaching spouse assures me that as long as there are tests, and especially with standardized testing, there will ALWAYS be prayer in schools. The problem only comes in when the public school teacher (employee of a government entity within the United States) seems to endorse one religion over another. We are a pluralistic nation, and our founding fathers recognised that. We are not all Christians, there are Hindus, Muslims, Jews, Buddhists, Pagans, Shamans, Atheists... the list goes on and on. As for the beliefs of the Founding Fathers, what seems to be agreed upon is that they saw more value in a persons actions (including their taking time to write words) than in what a person professed to believe.The problem with posting the 10 Commandments on any government owned building in the USA is that the posting of only the doctorine of one religious origin (Judeo-Christianity) is a defacto endorsement of that religion, and hence unconstitutional. Unless they're equally eager to post the doctorine of EVERY religion, no matter how minor its representation, they should not be showing favortisim for one branch of the glorious spiritual worldtree with posting the laws of one. Funny, Wicca is a growing religion in this country, but I've yet to see a single government building proudly displaying the words "An it harm none, do as thou wilt," the major tenant of members of that faith and a rewording of the Golden Rule. How about doing unto others as you would have done unto you if you were the member of the minority? Taking a walk in another's shoes for a while, that sort of thing. A few minutes of earnestly trying to see the world from another's perspective, and suddenly it doesn't matter as much who they love, what they worship, or how they vote. It matters that they're another human being, living in a time and place that shapes who they are from moment to moment. Just like the Founding Fathers were.Of course, when the commandments are posted on judicial buildings where people go to finalize their divorices, sue one another over property disputes, etc, it reinforces that we're a nation of oxymorons, incapable of recognising irony when we see it.AnswerFirst, we should clarify and make sure we're not oversimplifying things too much and point out that the Founding Fathers did not all share one single set of beliefs. However, from my reading (actual writings that is, not just quotes and snippets) and research, I think it's pretty clear that most of the important founders (Jefferson, Adams, Washington, Madison et al.) would have little in common with fundamentalist/evangelical Christians. Whether they were deists or "rational Christians" (a term Jefferson used) I cannot say, but they certainly would not be described as anything like fundy-type Christians, and in some cases it really is questionable as to whether they could accurately be labeled as Christians at all, at least in the traditional sense; for a good discussion of this, see the following link: http://www.theology.edu/journal/volume2/ushistor.htm But to the heart of the matter, i.e., where this discussion invariably leads, there's nothing at all about Christ, Christianity, God, or religion for that matter (other than proscriptions on government's involvement with it) in the U.S. Constitution, any of which would have been easy enough for them to include had they wanted to. So no matter what their personal beliefs may or may not have been, they did want a secular government. If anyone tries to obfuscate of deny this simple fact they are either severely misguided or just plain being dishonest.AnswerTake care in reading the information at http://www.errantskeptics.org/Fifty_Five_Delegates.htm Most of the quotes are taken out of context and I doubt the authors of this site have ever read any of the autobiographies or other historic documents.I believe Robert F. said it as well as anyone can. It doesn't matter what they believed, they gave us separation of church and state based on the freedom of choice. It is certain that most, if not all, believed in a Creator but did not want to circumscribe this Diety into the confines of any particular religion. As Jefferson said:Where the preamble declares, that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed by inserting "Jesus Christ," so that it would read "A departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion;" the insertion was rejected by the great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend, within the mantle of its protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mohammedan, the Hindoo and Infidel of every denomination. -Thomas Jefferson, AutobiographyBelieving with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legislative powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should 'make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,' thus building a wall of separation between church and State. -Thomas Jefferson, letter to Danbury Baptist Association, CT., Jan. 1, 1802http://northtexasdeists.dynamicdeism.org/AnswerThere's another governmental source not yet mentioned that may help. I refer to the Treaty with the Barbary Pirates that settled one of our early wars. (Referenced in the the Marine Hymn, "...to the shores of Tripoli") Artile 11 of that Treaty says this: "As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion, - as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen, - and as the said States never have entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mehomitan nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries"This treaty was signed by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Now I understand that the original question pertains to the specific personal beliefs of the founders, their pesoanl beliefs mean little unless you believe they founded our country on them, which appears to be the bigger question. The above quotes shows that these three did not believe that this was the case, and signed a US Treaty to that effect, that we were founded upon Christian beliefs "...in any sense...".I had thought that historians had long settled the debate upon their personal beliefs. That most were Deists (not Theists) by and large, though some were Atheists, further that Jefferson followed the moral and ethical teachings of Jesus as a philosopher but did not believe him to be God.AnswerI tried to resist clicking on this particular question. I knew beforehand that it would be riddled with numerous responses form christians, shrieking and insisting that the Founding Fathers were all christians, mostly christians or should have been christians. Honestly, I know of no other religion where it adherents have such low self-esteem and so little confidence in their faith, that they feel they must lie about such things in order to validate or justify their beliefs. Having said that, I encourage many of you followers of Jesus to go to the Smithsonian, actually experience history, see it and touch it, view it, and read the actual writings of the Founding Fathers - not the edited versions that many of you have sought out and found on the websites provided by Falwell and Robertson and others. They, unfortunately, have edited and changed many of the actual writings and quotes of famous people to make them appear "christian." Most of our Founding Fathers were, as several people here have correctly stated, Deist. I myself am Deist and a lot of the reason I adopted Deist beliefs/philosophies was a result of my researching and reading the true works of our Founding Fathers, the Federalist Papers, the US Constitution, and everything leading up to the American Revolution. Other Founding Fathers were Episcopalian. And, I haven't noticed anyone point this fact out yet, but several were also Unitarian. A few posters here suggested that Deism is an offshoot of Christianity. I had to laugh at that notion for several reasons -- the main reason being that Deism predates the alleged birth of christ. And, since Christianity began after the date of his alleged birth, and Deism existed before that... Well, you do the math. Next time, try suggesting to people that still photography is an offshoot of television. Catch my drift?Additionally, a couple posters laughingly suggested that Thomas Jefferson was christian. Far from it. He actually rewrote his own version of the bible (a very blasphemous thing to do if one were christian)! He discarded almost all of the biblical text in favor of a few textual pages here and there from christ's philosophy only. He thought the words, teachings and messages were good, but never ever believed that christ was the "son of god." Nor did the majority of our Founding Fathers. You doubt this? Then do a Google Search on The Jefferson Bible. Read it for yourself. Jefferson and his contemporaries held a very public distrust and dislike for the christian faith and its followers. I suggest some of you set your bibles aside for a spell and read actual history text -- it's a slightly different read from tales and mythology, but it will keep you from embarrassing yourself further. Posting answers like this on a webpage (anonymously) is one thing, but I guarantee you this: you raise your hand in a college classroom and blurt out your brainwashed, christ-centric babble, you'll wish you were about an inch high squirming out of the room, once the instructor and the more well-read and knowledgeable students "correct" your educational dishevelment.AnswerWhile many of these posts are excellent and thoroughly explain both sides of this issue, I think it is important to note that "Christianity" has nowhere been defined. There are many people in America today who would call themselves Christians, but who have no knowledge of true Biblical Christianity. Whether or not the majority of the Founding Fathers were true Christians or not (and many of them were), they came to the conclusion that Christianity's principles were the best ones upon which to found a new nation. You may not believe the Bible, but the result of the Founders' decision speaks for itself. This nation has been under ONE Constitution for over 200 years! No other man-fashioned document has governed any other nation for even half as long.AnswerAgain, it's nice that many Christians want to think that the Founding Fathers actually founded the United States on Judeo-Christian values. You can quote all of the "quotes" that you like -- most of the Founding Father quotes that are Christ-centric have been edited later by Falwell, et al, and actually were never uttered by the Founding Fathers at all. But, be that as it may, if you wish to continue believing that the US was founded on Judeo-Christian values, then I urge you to consider these basic facts: 1. The Founding Fathers were not afraid at all about putting their values, thoughts, feelings and intentions in writing and backing-up their words. They were not timid. 2. Read the MOST CRITICAL DOCUMENTS from the Founding Fathers (the writings that WE KNOW were not edited by anyone) to see how they felt. The MOST CRITICAL DOCUMENTS FROM THE FOUNDING FATHERS ARE: The Declaration of Independence. The Bill of Rights. The US Constitution. 3. Once you read these MOST CRITICAL works of the Founders, the works which ACTUALLY FOUNDED THE COUNTRY, you will find that there is NO MENTION OF JESUS CHRIST. There is NO MENTION OF THE BIBLE. There is NO MENTION that the Founding Fathers founded the country on Judeo-Christian values or relied on the bible for the foundation of the United States. 4. Had they Founded the country on the values THEY WOULD HAVE MENTIONED THAT IN THE MOST CRITICAL DOCUMENTS THAT THEY FOUNDED THE COUNTRY WITH!!!! The Founding Fathers were not timid about making their feelings and their thoughts known!! Get real, folks. You can wish and hope that the Founding Fathers were "all this and all that" but, the bottom line is, NOPE. They weren't. And the country was NOT founded on Judeo Christian values. Read those documents. Read them again and again and again until YOU UNDERSTAND THEM. Quit trying to use them to validate your religious and cult beliefs. It is not a factual, reasonable argument whatsoever!AnswerBenjamin Franklin: " God governs in the affairs of man. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without His aid? We have been assured in the Sacred Writings that except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it. I firmly believe this. I also believe that, without His concurring aid, we shall succeed in this political building no better than the builders of Babel" -Constitutional Convention of 1787 | original manuscript of this speech Samuel Adams: " He who made all men hath made the truths necessary to human happiness obvious to all… Our forefathers opened the Bible to all." [ "American Independence," August 1, 1776. Speech delivered at the State House in Philadelphia]" Let divines and philosophers, statesmen and patriots, unite their endeavors to renovate the age by impressing the minds of men with the importance of educating their little boys and girls, inculcating in the minds of youth the fear and love of the Deity… and leading them in the study and practice of the exalted virtues of the Christian system." [October 4, 1790]John Adams: " The general principles upon which the Fathers achieved independence were the general principals of Christianity… I will avow that I believed and now believe that those general principles of Christianity are as eternal and immutable as the existence and attributes of God."Alexander Hamilton: • Hamilton began work with the Rev. James Bayard to form the Christian Constitutional Society to help spread over the world the two things which Hamilton said made America great: (1) Christianity (2) a Constitution formed under Christianity. "The Christian Constitutional Society, its object is first: The support of the Christian religion. Second: The support of the United States."John Hancock: • "In circumstances as dark as these, it becomes us, as Men and Christians, to reflect that whilst every prudent measure should be taken to ward off the impending judgments, …at the same time all confidence must be withheld from the means we use; and reposed only on that God rules in the armies of Heaven, and without His whole blessing, the best human counsels are but foolishness… "Patrick Henry: "It cannot be emphasized too clearly and too often that this nation was founded, not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religion, but on the gospel of Jesus Christ. For this very reason, peoples of other faiths have been afforded asylum, prosperity, and freedom of worship here." [May 1765 Speech to the House of Burgesses]John Jay: " Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty, as well as the privilege and interest of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers." Source: October 12, 1816. The Correspondence and Public Papers of John JayThomas Jefferson: " The doctrines of Jesus are simple, and tend to all the happiness of man.""Of all the systems of morality, ancient or modern which have come under my observation, none appears to me so pure as that of Jesus.""I am a real Christian, that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus."James Madison " We've staked our future on our ability to follow the Ten Commandments with all of our heart.""We have staked the whole future of American civilization, not upon the power of government, far from it. We've staked the future of all our political institutions upon our capacity…to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God." [1778 to the General Assembly of the State of Virginia]James Madison " We've staked our future on our ability to follow the Ten Commandments with all of our heart.""We have staked the whole future of American civilization, not upon the power of government, far from it. We've staked the future of all our political institutions upon our capacity…to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God." [1778 to the General Assembly of the State of Virginia]• I have sometimes thought there could not be a stronger testimony in favor of religion or against temporal enjoyments, even the most rational and manly, than for men who occupy the most honorable and gainful departments and [who] are rising in reputation and wealth, publicly to declare the unsatisfactoriness [of temportal enjoyments] by becoming fervent advocates in the cause of Christ; and I wish you may give in your evidence in this way. Letter by Madison to William Bradford (September 25, 1773) • In 1812, President Madison signed a federal bill which economically aided the Bible Society of Philadelphia in its goal of the mass distribution of the Bible. " An Act for the relief of the Bible Society of Philadelphia" Approved February 2, 1813 by CongressThomas Paine: " It has been the error of the schools to teach astronomy, and all the other sciences, and subjects of natural philosophy, as accomplishments only; whereas they should be taught theologically, or with reference to the Being who is the author of them: for all the principles of science are of divine origin. Man cannot make, or invent, or contrive principles: he can only discover them; and he ought to look through the discovery to the Author." " The evil that has resulted from the error of the schools, in teaching natural philosophy as an accomplishment only, has been that of generating in the pupils a species of atheism. Instead of looking through the works of creation to the Creator himself, they stop short, and employ the knowledge they acquire to create doubts of his existence. They labour with studied ingenuity to ascribe every thing they behold to innate properties of matter, and jump over all the rest by saying, that matter is eternal." "The Existence of God--1810"AnswerWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their CREATOR with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness... You find an inference to God inthe first sentence of The Declaration Of Independence. Since most of the founders were Christians, it clearly means the Christian God. The word CREATOR was used to literally be Politically Correct due to the TOLERANCE our Christian forefathers had.Answer"It is impossible to rightly govern the world without God and Bible." "What students would learn in American schools above all is the religion of Jesus Christ.""To the distinguished character of patriot, it should be our highest glory to add the more distinguished character of Christian" [May 2, 1778, at Valley Forge]- George WashintgonAnswerThere are many interesting conclusions that can be interpreted differently by anyone, depending on their depth of research and bias. All I can say after reading Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson's autobiographies, biographies, and their personal correspondence, is that both are undoubtedly Deists; Jefferson could be said to be a christian Deist in that he believed in most of the teachings of Jesus but did not believe him to be divine and did not believe in miracles or the supernatural. I know some people use Franklin's belief that any religion is better than none because, as he implied to Thomas Paine (about publishing The Age of Reason), is that if people are this bad with religion, imagine how bad they will be without it. Many of the founders who were not Christian attended various Christian churches and contributed to various congregations in order to further their political asperations. Franklin himself, although he did not believe in Jesus as divine or a man-god (read the last few pages of his autobiography for more), had his own pew in one of the dominant churches in his area. Also, he contributed financially to most of the churches in his area. You can go to all the lists you want but I know that many of them represent Franklin and Jefferson in a specious manner.The only way to really find out with accuracy is to read the autobiographies and biographies along with the individual's personal letters and related correspondence. So find a person of interest and start reading for yourself. Don't leave it to lists that someone else has compiled.The following is a quote from Franlin's autobiography that we all should all consider:"I had been religiously educated as a Presbyterian; and tho' some of the dogmas of that persuasion, such as the eternal decrees of God, election, reprobation, etc., appeared to me unintelligible, others doubtful, and I early absented myself from the public assemblies of the sect, Sunday being my studying day, I never was without some religious principles. I never doubted, for instance, the existence of the Deity; that he made the world, and govern'd it by his Providence; that the most acceptable service of God was the doing good to man; that our souls are immortal; and that all crime will be punished, and virtue rewarded, either here or hereafter. These I esteem'd the essentials of every religion; and, being to be found in all the religions we had in our country, I respected them all, tho' with different degrees of respect, as I found them more or less mix'd with other articles, which, without any tendency to inspire, promote, or confirm morality, serv'd principally to divide us, and make us unfriendly to one another. This respect to all, with an opinion that the worst had some good effects, induc'd me to avoid all discourse that might tend to lessen the good opinion another might have of his own religion; and as our province increas'd in people, and new places of worship were continually wanted, and generally erected by voluntary contributions, my mite for such purpose, whatever might be the sect, was never refused."The only way to be sure is to find a founding father of interest and read all that you can about his life, especially his correspondence with others and his autobiography if one exists; don't rely on biased information to base your decisions on.AnswerWhere the preamble declares, that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed by inserting "Jesus Christ," so that it would read "A departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion;" the insertion was rejected by the great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend, within the mantle of its protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mohammedan, the Hindoo and Infidel of every denomination. -Thomas Jefferson, Autobiography Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legislative powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should 'make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,' thus building a wall of separation between church and State. -Thomas Jefferson, letter to Danbury Baptist Association, CT., Jan. 1, 1802Christianity neither is, nor ever was a part of the common law. -Thomas Jefferson, letter to Dr. Thomas Cooper, February 10, 1814Answer"The government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion." --John Adams (1735-1826) Where the preamble declares, that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed by inserting "Jesus Christ," so that it would read "A departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion;" the insertion was rejected by the great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend, within the mantle of its protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mohammedan, the Hindoo and Infidel of every denomination. -Thomas Jefferson, AutobiographyBelieving with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legislative powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should 'make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,' thus building a wall of separation between church and State. -Thomas Jefferson, letter to Danbury Baptist Association, CT., Jan. 1, 1802Christianity neither is, nor ever was a part of the common law. -Thomas Jefferson, letter to Dr. Thomas Cooper, February 10, 1814"The United States of America have exhibited, perhaps, the first example of governments erected on the simple principles of nature; and if men are now sufficiently enlightened to disabuse themselves of artifice, imposture, hypocrisy, and superstition, they will consider this event as an era in their history. Although the detail of the formation of the American governments is at present little known or regarded either in Europe or in America, it may hereafter become an object of curiosity. It will never be pretended that any persons employed in that service had interviews with the gods, or were in any degree under the influence of Heaven, more than those at work upon ships or houses, or laboring in merchandise or agriculture; it will forever be acknowledged that these governments were contrived merely by the use of reason and the senses. -John Adams, A Defense of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America [1787-1788]."During almost fifteen centuries has the legal establishment of Christianity been on trial. What have been its fruits? More or less in all places, pride and indolence in the Clergy, ignorance and servility in the laity; in both, superstition, bigotry and persecution." -James Madison, 1785, Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments."What influence, in fact, have ecclesiastical establishments had on society? In some instances they have been seen to erect a spiritual tyranny on the ruins of the civil authority; on many instances they have been seen upholding the thrones of political tyranny; in no instance have they been the guardians of the liberties of the people. Rulers who wish to subvert the public liberty may have found an established clergy convenient auxiliaries. A just government, instituted to secure and perpetuate it, needs them not." -James Madison, 1785, Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments."The divinity of Jesus is made a convenient cover for absurdity." --John Adams (1735-1826)"The question before the human race is, whether the God of nature shall govern the world by his own laws, or whether priests and kings shall rule it by fictitious miracles." --John Adams (1735-1826)"As I understand the Christian religion, it was, and is, a revelation. But how has it happened that millions of fables, tales, legends, have been blended with both Jewish and Christian revelation that have made them the most bloody religion that ever existed?" --John Adams (1735-1826)"During almost fifteen centuries has the legal establishment of Christianity been on trial. What has been its fruits? More or less, in all places, pride and indolence in the clergy; ignorance and servility in the laity; in both, superstition, bigotry, and persecution." --James Madison (1751-1836)"We hold it for a fundamental and undeniable truth that religion, or the duty which we owe our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence. The religion, then, of every man must be left to the conviction and conscience of every man: and that it is the right of every man to exercise it as these may dictate." --James Madison (1751-1836)AnswerI looked it up as best I could some years ago on the net. There was a website, "Dead Poiticians" a genelogical site that was most helpful. Here's the list, consists of signers of the Declaration, Aticles of Confederation, and Constitution: Oh, Not listed means I couldn't find out, or like Bengamin Franklin they weren't traditional believers: Richard Hutson Not Listed Articles Edward Langworthy Not Listed Articles Henry Marchant Not Listed Articles Edward Telfair Not Listed Articles Nicholas Van Dyke Not Listed Articles John Walton Not Listed Articles John Wentworth Jr. Not Listed Articles William Houstoun Not Listed Consitution Alexander Martin Not Listed Consitution James McClurg Not Listed Consitution Carter Braxton Not Listed Declaration Button Gwinnett Not Listed Declaration Lyman Hall Not Listed Declaration Benjamin Harrison Not Listed Declaration Thomas Heyward Jr. Not Listed Declaration Stephen Hopkins Not Listed Declaration Francis Hopkinson Not Listed Declaration Thomas Jefferson Not Listed Declaration Francis Lightfoot Lee Not Listed Declaration Richard Henry Lee Not Listed Declaration Francis Lewis Not Listed Declaration Thomas Lynch Jr. Not Listed Declaration Arthur Middleton Not Listed Declaration Lewis Morris Not Listed Declaration John Morton Not Listed Declaration Thomas Nelson Jr. Not Listed Declaration Caesar Augustus Rodney Not Listed Declaration George Ross Not Listed Declaration Benjamin Rush Not Listed Declaration Edward Rutledge Not Listed Declaration George Taylor Not Listed Declaration George Walton Not Listed Declaration Thomas McKean Not Listed Declaration, Articles John Penn Not Listed Declaration, Articles Benjamin Franklin Not Listed Declaration, Constitution Gunning Bedford Jr. Presbyterian Consitution William Blount Presbyterian Consitution William Richardson Davie Presbyterian Consitution William Churchill Houston Presbyterian Consitution Jared Ingersoll Presbyterian Consitution William Livingston Presbyterian Consitution James McHenry Presbyterian Consitution William Paterson Presbyterian Consitution Hugh Williamson Presbyterian Consitution Abraham Clark Presbyterian Declaration William Floyd Presbyterian Declaration John Hart Presbyterian Declaration Philip Livingston Presbyterian Declaration James Smith Presbyterian Declaration Richard Stockton Presbyterian Declaration Matthew Thornton Presbyterian Declaration John Witherspoon Presbyterian Declaration Joseph Hewes Quaker Declaration John Adams Unitarian DeclarationAnswerI looked it up as best I could some years ago on the net. There was a website, "Dead Poiticians" a genelogical site that was most helpful. Here's the list, consists of signers of the Declaration, Aticles of Confederation, and Constitution: Oh, Not listed means I couldn't find out, or like Bengamin Franklin they weren't traditional believers: Abraham Baldwin Congregationalist Consitution Abraham Clark Presbyterian Declaration Alexander Hamilton Episcopalian Consitution Alexander Martin Not Listed Consitution Andrew Adams Not Listed Articles Arthur Middleton Not Listed Declaration Benjamin Franklin Not Listed Declaration, Constitution Benjamin Harrison Not Listed Declaration Benjamin Rush Not Listed Declaration Button Gwinnett Not Listed Declaration Caesar Augustus Rodney Not Listed Declaration Caleb Strong Congregationalist Consitution Carter Braxton Not Listed Declaration Charles Carroll of Carrollton Catholic Declaration Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Episcopalian Consitution Charles Pinckney Episcopalian Consitution Daniel Carroll Catholic. Articles, Constitution Daniel Jenifer of St.Thomas Episcopalian Consitution David Brearly Episcopalian Consitution Edmund Jenings Randolph Episcopalian Consitution Edward Langworthy Not Listed Articles Edward Rutledge Not Listed Declaration Edward Telfair Not Listed Articles Elbridge Gerry Episcopalian Declaration, Articles, Constitution Francis Dana Not Listed Articles Francis Hopkinson Not Listed Declaration Francis Lewis Not Listed Declaration Francis Lightfoot Lee Not Listed Declaration George Clymer Episcopalian Declaration, Constitution George Mason Episcopalian Consitution George Read Episcopalian Declaration, Constitution George Ross Not Listed Declaration George Taylor Not Listed Declaration George Walton Not Listed Declaration George Washington Episcopalian Consitution George Wythe Episcopalian Declaration, Constitution Gouverneur Morris Episcopalian Articles, Constitution Gunning Bedford Jr. Presbyterian Consitution Henry Marchant Not Listed Articles Hugh Williamson Presbyterian Consitution Jacob Broom Lutheran Consitution James Madison Episcopalian Consitution James McClurg Not Listed Consitution James McHenry Presbyterian Consitution James Smith Presbyterian Declaration James Wilson Episcopalian Declaration, Constitution Jared Ingersoll Presbyterian Consitution John Adams Unitarian Declaration John Banister Not Listed Articles John Blair Jr. Episcopalian Consitution John Dickinson Episcopalian Consitution John Francis Mercer Episcopalian Consitution John Hancock Congregationalist Declaration John Hanson Not Listed Articles John Hart Presbyterian Declaration John Harvie Not Listed Articles John Langdon Congregationalist Consitution John Lansing, Jr. Christian Reformed Consitution John Morton Not Listed Declaration John Penn Not Listed Declaration, Articles John Rutledge Episcopalian Consitution John Walton Not Listed Articles John Wentworth Jr. Not Listed Articles John Witherspoon Presbyterian Declaration Jonathan Dayton Episcopalian Consitution Joseph Hewes Quaker Declaration Josiah Bartlett Congregationalist Declaration, Articles Lewis Morris Not Listed Declaration Luther Martin Episcopalian Consitution Lyman Hall Not Listed Declaration Matthew Thornton Presbyterian Declaration Nathaniel Gorham Congregationalist Consitution Nicholas Gilman Congregationalist Consitution Nicholas Van Dyke Not Listed Articles Oliver Ellsworth Congregationalist Consitution Oliver Wolcott Sr. Congregationalist Declaration Philip Livingston Presbyterian Declaration Pierce Butler Episcopalian Consitution Richard Bassett Methodist. Consitution Richard Dobbs Spaight Episcopalian Consitution Richard Henry Lee Not Listed Declaration Richard Hutson Not Listed Articles Richard Stockton Presbyterian Declaration Robert Morris Episcopalian Declaration, Constitution Robert Treat Paine Congregationalist Declaration Robert Yates Christian Reformed Consitution Roger Sherman Congregationalist Declaration, Articles, Constitution Rufus King Episcopalian Consitution Samuel Adams Congregationalist Declaration Samuel Chase Episcopalian Declaration Samuel Huntington Congregationalist Declaration Stephen Hopkins Not Listed Declaration Thomas Adams Not Listed Articles Thomas Fitzsimons Catholic. Consitution Thomas Heyward Jr. Not Listed Declaration Thomas Jefferson Not Listed Declaration Thomas Lynch Jr. Not Listed Declaration Thomas McKean Not Listed Declaration, Articles Thomas Mifflin Lutheran Consitution Thomas Nelson Jr. Not Listed Declaration Thomas Stone Episcopalian Declaration William Blount Presbyterian Consitution William Churchill Houston Presbyterian Consitution William Clingan Not Listed Articles William Ellery Congregationalist Declaration William Few Methodist. Consitution William Floyd Presbyterian Declaration William Hooper Episcopalian Declaration William Houstoun Not Listed Consitution William Leigh Pierce Episcopalian Consitution William Livingston Presbyterian Consitution William Paca Episcopalian Declaration William Paterson Presbyterian Consitution William Richardson Davie Presbyterian Consitution William Samuel Johnson Episcopalian Consitution William Whipple Congregationalist Declaration William Williams Congregationalist DeclarationAnswerThe founding fathers were a diverse group of men having varied religious ideologies that were impacted by the age of enlightenment. Many were also of the gentry and influenced by the Anglican Church, others were of humble origins that held to Presbyterian tenets, and some were Deists. However, one individual that is controversially termed as Deist was not one and that is Benjamin Franklin. In his autobiography he plainly states that he embraced it at one time but saw no use for it. He was not a Deist. Franklin was a minister in his way to his community in America. His voice was not heard in sermons but read up and down the east coast. The American public was his congregation and, in his way, Franklin taught morality, virtue and good living to the country. Franklin tried, through his words, to teach people that they could get along regardless of their religion and that doing good service to one another was doing service to God. AnswerI would suggest actually reading Franklin's autobiography, other correspondence from and regarding him, and learning more about what a Deist is; then you would find out that Franklin is undoubtedly a Deist. He did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. He thought that, at best, he was a gifted phrophet and teacher and did find value in most of his teachings. "...Some books against Deism fell into my hands....It happened that they wrought an effect on me quite contrary to what was intended by them; for the arguments of the Deists, which were quote to be refuted, appeared to me much stronger than the refutations, in short, I soon became a thorough Deist." -- Benjamin FranklinKevinAnswerIt is clear that there is a lot of evidence on both sides of the argument, however, actions often speak louder than words. Remember, it was Ben Franklin that helped found the college that bore his name. It was dedicated as "a nursery of religion and learning" built "on Christ, the Corner-Stone."It was also Benjamin Franklin that insisted that schools teach "the necessity of a public religion… and the excellency of the Christian religion above all others…" And don't forget that it was Benjamin Franklin that proposed a Biblical inscription for the Seal of the United States and it was he that chose from the New Testiment a verse for the motto for the Philadelphia Hospital.These don't sound like the acts of a deist.AnswerI guess you will have to accept the fact that he was a Deist from someone who has actually read Franklin's autobiography and other papers. It was no secret that Franklin gave money to the more popular churches as that was the thing to do if you wanted to gain popularity for political or business reasons. He also indicated (it is generally accepted to be Thomas Paine) that he supported religion because if people behaved this badly with religion, he could imagine how bad they would be without a carrot and stick to guide their behavior. I would suggest reading Franklin's personal writings before accepting some blurbs you have read at other places. KevinAnswerHere is a link to Franklin's autobiography: http://etext.lib.Virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=Fra2Aut.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/English/modeng/parsed&tag=public∂=all And here is a link to a Deist site because it seems that few people actually know what a Deist is: www.dynamicdeism.orgAnswerI have a great many sources, however, the one you should check out is "The Founding Fathers and Deism" by David Barton. You can find this and a lot of other great information on the subject at www.wallbuilders.com AnswerAfter completing a master's degree and being well into a doctorate program, I am quite capable of critically reading and evaluating source material as this person indicates. I find Burton's articles to be very biased and lacking in reference to source material. As a Deist, I am amazed at David Burton's ignorance of the term and what it means; I don't see any evidence of his "research" on the matter, only his own bias as to what a dictionary term may mean; not only this, but he is actually wrong in some aspects. I also find that he takes Franklin's and Jefferson's works out of context in order to make them fit his own personal needs and perspectives. This may be due to denial or his own inability to critically read source material, I do not know.All I can suggest is to pick a particular Founding Father for research and focus on their writings and the writings of others who knew them and wrote biographies about them. I have done this on Franklin and Jefferson so I cannot speak about anyone else but I know these two to be Deists almost certainly.Also, I am assuming you to be a Christian who grew up believing that this country was founded on Christianity and all the founders Christian. I was the same way and understand the difficulty many people have with this concept. When I started my research on these two men, I had no interest in their religious beliefs and was a lifelong Christian myself. I had a lot of trouble accepting the fact that both of these men did not accept Jesus as the savior and they did not believe him to be the Son of God. They did find the teachings of Jesus beneficial for mankind and did support SOME biblical teachings. I struggled with this for about a year and also began looking into Deism as I was not familiar with its beliefs. I can only describe my transference from Christianity to Deism as very troubling. I went through a lot of doubt before I finally realized that I would have to read about these men with an open mind, not biased by my previous religious perspectives and expectations. This is what you will have to do if you are to find out for yourself. I would suggest against reading severely biased information such as this for your main source. I do not believe that Burton's arguments would stand up in an academic examination or discussion as they are too biased and not objective enough.If you are interested, a popular book is "Asking the Right Questions" by Browne and Keeley.AnswerI am a Christian and have been most of my life, however, I did not grow up believing that America was founded on Christian principles. It wasn�t until a few years ago when I started researching the subject for a book that I became convenced that America was founded on the principles of the Bible. I suppose we could debate about the religion of each founding father, howerver, I would be the first to admit that only God knows what is in each of our hearts. I believe that reguardless of the religion of each individual, there is certainly no doubt in my mind that our nation was founded on Judeo/Christian principles. If you want proof, read America�s God and Country Encyclopedia of Quotations by William J. Federer (Coppell, Tx: Fame Publishing, Inc.). This book contains over 2,100 quotes from nearly 700 sources highlighting America�s Christian heritage. After reading it, the Federalist Papers and many other documents, I have become absolutely convenced that ours is a nation founded on Christian principles.Listen to what others have to say on the subject.Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859), French philosopher and Statesman who visited America during the American Revolution observed:"Moreover, almost all the sects of the United States are comprised within the great unity of Christianity, and Christian morality is everywhere the same. In the United States the sovereign authority is religious, and consequently hypocrisy must be common; but there is no country in the whole world in which the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America, and there can be no greater proof of its utility, and of its conformity to human nature, than that its influence is most powerfully felt over the most enlightened and free nation of the earth.""The Americans combine the notions of Christianity and of liberty so intimately in their minds, that it is impossible to make them conceive the one without the other; and with them this conviction does not spring from that barren traditionary faith which seems to vegetate in the soul rather than to live.""There are certain populations in Europe whose unbelief is only equaled by their ignorance and their debasement, while in America one of the freest and most enlightened nations in the world fulfills all the outward duties of religion with fervor.""Upon my arrival in the United States, the religious aspect of the country was the first thing that struck my attention; and the longer I stayed there, the more did I perceive the great political consequences resulting from this state of things, to which I was unaccustomed. In France I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country."Everyone interested in Church/state issues should read Alexis de Tocqueville's work, �Democracy in America.� A significant portion of this work is dedicated to the religious element of American life.John Jay, founding father and America�s first Supreme Court Chief Justice and Co-Author of the Federalist Papers wrote:"Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty, as well as the privilege and interest of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.""To the kindly influence of Christianity we owe that degree of civil freedom, and political and social happiness which mankind now enjoys. In proportion as the genuine effects of Christianity are diminished in any nation, either through unbelief, or the corruptions of its doctrines, or the neglect of its institutions; in the same proportion will the people of that nation recede from the blessings of genuine freedom, and approximate the miseries of complete despotism. "All efforts to destroy the foundations of our holy religion, ultimately tend to the subversion also of our political freedom and happiness. Whenever the pillars of Christianity shall be overthrown, our present republican forms of government, and all blessings which flow from them, must fall with them. (Jedediah Morse, father of American Geography)Benjamin Franklin Morris was a notable American historian, who in 1864 wrote "The Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of the United States." In this book, he states:These fundamental objects of the Constitution are in perfect harmony with the revealed objects of the Christian religion. Union, justice, peace, the general welfare, and the blessings of civil and religious liberty, are the objects of Christianity, and always secured under its practical and beneficent reign. The state must rest upon the basis of religion, and it must preserve this basis, or itself must fall. But the support which religion gives to the state will obviously cease the moment religion loses its hold upon the popular mind. This is a Christian nation, first in name, and secondly because of the many and mighty elements of a pure Christianity which have given it character and shaped its destiny from the beginning. It is preeminently the land of the Bible, of the Christian Church, and of the Christian Sabbath....The chief security and glory of the United States of America has been, is now, and will be forever, the prevalence and domination of the Christian Faith.If you ask an American, who is his master? He will tell you he has none, nor any governor but Jesus Christ. (Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut)Education is useless without the Bible. (Noah Webster, father of public education in America)The most perfect maxims and examples for regulating your social conduct and domestic economy, as well as the best rules of morality and religion, are to be found in the Bible. . . . The moral principles and precepts found in the scriptures ought to form the basis of all our civil constitutions and laws. These principles and precepts have truth, immutable truth, for their foundation. . . . All the evils which men suffer from vice, crime, ambition, injustice, oppression, slavery and war, proceed from their despising or neglecting the precepts contained in the Bible. . . . For instruction then in social, religious and civil duties resort to the scriptures for the best precepts. (Noah Webster)The evidence that America was founded on Christian principals is simply overwhelming. To show that I am not the only one to come to this conclusion, I have added a portion of a statement made by Supreme Court Justice Josiah Brewer on February 29, 1892 in the case of �Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States.�Though Justice Brewer is not one of our founding fathers, his statements show that for over 100 years it was common knowledge that religion played a very important role in government.Excerpts from that text include:These, and many other matters which might be noticed, add a volume of unofficial declarations to the mass of organic utterances that this is a Christian nation.No purpose of action against religion can be imputed to any legislation, state or national, because this is a religious people. This is historically true. From the discovery of this continent to the present hour, there is a single voice making this affirmation.The commission to Christopher Columbus� that �it is hoped that by God�s assistance some of the continents and islands in the ocean will be discovered�� The first colonial grant made to Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584� and the grant authorizing him to enact statutes for the government of the proposed colony provided that they �be not against the true Christian faith��The first charter of Virginia, granted by King James I in 1606� commenced the grant in these words: ��in propagating of Christian Religion to such People as yet live in Darkness��Language of similar import may be found in the subsequent charters of that colony�in 1609 and 1611; and the same is true of the various charters granted to the other colonies. In language more or less emphatic is the establishment of the Christian religion declared to be one of the purposes of the grant. The celebrated compact made by the Pilgrims in the Mayflower, 1620, recites: �Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith�a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia��The fundamental orders of Connecticut, under which a provisional government was instituted in 1638-1639, commence with this declaration: ��And well knowing where a people are gathered together the word of God requires that to maintain the peace and union�there should be an orderly and decent government established according to God�to maintain and preserve the liberty and purity of the gospel of our Lord Jesus which we now profess�of the said gospel [which] is now practiced amongst us.�In the charter of privileges granted by William Penn to the province of Pennsylvania, in 1701, it is recited: ��no people can be truly happy, though under the greatest enjoyment of civil liberities, if abridged of�their religious profession and worship�� Coming nearer to the present time, the Declaration of Independence recognizes the presence of the Divine in human affairs in these words:�We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights� appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions� And for the support of this Declaration, with firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.��We find everwhere a clear recognition of the same truth� because of a general recognition of this truth [that we are a Christian nation], the question has seldom been presented to the courts�There is no dissonance in these declarations. There is a universal language pervading them all, having one meaning; they affirm and reaffirm that this is a religious nation. These are not individual sayings, declarations of private persons: they are organic utterances; they speak the voice of the entire people.While because of a general recognition of this truth the question has seldom been presented to the courts, yet we find that in Updegraph v. The Commonwealth, it was decided that, Christianity, general Christianity, is, and always has been, a part of the common law�not Christinity with an established church�but Christianity with liberty and conscience to all men.Justice Josiah Brewer continues listing case after case in support of his statements and then concludes by stating:The happiness of a people and the good order and preservation of civil government essentially depend upon piety, religion and morality.Religion, morality, and knowledge [are] necessary to good government, the preservation of liberty, and the happiness of mankind.Justice Brewer also wrote a book in 1905 called �The United States: A Christian Nation.� In it, Brewer states:We classify nations in various ways. As, for instance, by their form of government. One is a kingdom, another an empire, and still another a republic. Also by race. Great Britain is an Anglo-Saxon nation, France a Gallic, Germany a Teutonic, Russia a Slav. And still again by religion. One is a Mohammedan nation, others are heathen, and still others are Christian nations. This republic is classified among the Christian nations of the world. It was so formally declared by the Supreme Court of the United States. But in what sense can it be called a Christian nation? Not in the sense that Christianity is the established religion or that the people are in any manner compelled to support it. On the contrary, the Constitution specifically provides that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." Neither is it Christian in the sense that all its citizens are either in fact or name Christians. On the contrary, all religions have free scope within our borders. Numbers of our people profess other religions, and many reject all. Nor is it Christian in the sense that a profession of Christianity is a condition of holding office or otherwise engaging in the public service, or essential to recognition either politically or socially. In fact the government as a legal organization is independent of all religions. Nevertheless, we constantly speak of this republic as a Christian nation-in fact, as the leading Christian nation of the world.Again and again our founding fathers stated the importance of having a firm religious foundation for government.I would like to encourage you to read America�s God and Country Encyclopedia of Quotations by William J. Federer (Coppell, Tx: Fame Publishing, Inc.) and see for yourself that our founding fathers were not only a deeply religious people but they understood that good government, liberty, and happiness could only last with a firm religious foundation. They believed that when religion is removed from government, you remove the only lasting and meaningful reference point for morality and without morality, government will degrade and collapse into tyranny.Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, put it this way:By renouncing the Bible, philosophers swing from their moorings upon all moral subjects. . . . It is the only correct map of the human heart that ever has been published. . . . All systems of religion, morals, and government not founded upon it [the Bible] must perish, and how consoling the thought, it will not only survive the wreck of these systems but the world itself.Public Education in AmericaIn 1828, after working 26 years writing �An American Dictionary of the English Language,� Noah Webster, the father of public education in America wrote in the preface of this great work:In my view, the Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government ought to be instructed....No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.I think it�s interesting how crime in our schools increased shortly after removing God and prayer from schools. When I was in grade school the worst things that happened were running in the halls and chewing gum in class. Then we started removing God from our lives. The further we pushed God out of our lives the worst things got. Now we have guns, drugs, and prostitution in our schools.The New England PrimerThe New England Primer was the first textbook ever printed in America. It was used to teach reading and Bible lessons in our schools until the twentieth century.Introduced in the Boston public schools in 1690, the New England Primer was a required textbook from which every first grader learned grammar and spelling.The book opened with the following prayer:HOW glorious is our heavenly King, Who reigns above the Sky! How shall a Child presume to sing His dreadful Majesty!How great his Power is none can tell, Nor think how large his grace: Nor men below, nor Saints that dwell, On high before his Face.Nor Angels that stand round the Lord, Can search his secret will; But they perform his heav'nly Word, And sing his Praises still.Then let me join this holy Train; And my first Off'rings bring; The eternal GOD will not disdain To hear an Infant sing.My Heart resolves, my Tongue obeys, And Angels shall rejoice, To hear their mighty Maker's Praise, Sound from a feeble Voice.The 1900 reprint of the New England Primer described, within its pages, the impact of the book by stating:The New England Primer was one of the greatest books ever published. ...It reflected in a marvelous way the spirit of the age that produced it, and contributed, perhaps more than any other book except the Bible, to the molding of those sturdy generations that gave to America its liberty and its institutions.Also contained in its pages were several prayers including the Lord�s prayer, the Christian Creed, Bible verses, hymns, the Catechism, and of course lessons on grammar and spelling.This clearly shows, with out a doubt, that for over 200 years our schools and our government had no problem with prayer, hymns and Bible verses in our schools.SummaryLet me make an important distintion here. I don�t believe that our founding fathers were trying to form a Christian government or one that was run exclusively by Christians. Certainly not. They saw what could happen in the name of religion in Europe. Instead, what our founding fathers wanted was a government that was friendly to all religions and built upon the moral and ethical foundation of the Bible.The Bible provided the moral anchor without which government would become hopelessly lost in a sea of ideas and beliefs. They believed that government should not interfere in religion in any way, but because the government was built on a Biblical foundation, it should never turn its back on that foundation and always be supportive of it.Our founding fathers believed it was perfectly acceptable to teach the Bible and pray in our schools as they did for over 200 years. It was perfectly acceptable to acknoledge God by opening Congress and the Supreme court with prayer as they themselves did.Our founding fathers would have applauded the phrase �In God we trust� on our money and �One nation under God� in our pledge of allegiance. There is no doubt that our founding fathers would have supported the placement of Justice Roy Moore's 2.6-ton granite monument of the Ten Commandments in the state building in Alabama. They would have applauded each of these acts because none of these acts constitute the establishment of a church or a religion but simply acknowledge the religious foundation upon which our government was built.AnswerThe founding fathers' of the USA were predominantly Christian. However, some, like Thomas Jefferson, were Deists.AnswerThe founding fathers were not christians because if they were they would of put god in the constitution.


.### Temporary File .#24 Locoscript 24-pin Printer Data File .#IB Locoscript Dot Matrix Data File .#SC Locoscript Dot Matrix Data File .#ST Locoscript Dot Matrix Printer Definition File .~ Temporary File .~AP Borland C++ AppExpert Project Database File .~DE Borland C++ Project Backup File .~MN Norton Menu Backup .~PR Terramodel Project Backup .~SG TapCIS Message Index File .~$~ 1st Reader Temporary File .?q? Squeeze .??? ANY three character audio file: May be a dictation file where the extension is the dictator's initials; playable by BCB Voice Systems software. .$$$ Temporary File (various) .$$A OS/2 .$$F OS/2 Database .$$P OS/2 Notes .$$S OS/2 Spreadsheet .$D$ OS/2 Planner Data File .$DB dBase Temp File .$ED MS C/C++ Temporary Editor File .$LN Borland C++ TLink Response File .$VM MS Windows Virtual Manager Temp File .@@@ Screen Files (shown during various installations) ._DD Norton Disk Doctor Recovered File ._DM Nuts n Bolts Disk Minder Recovered File (Helix Software now part of McAfee) Top of Page .000 (000-999) Sequentially Numbered Backup Files MS Doublespace Compressed Data File Geoworks Data File .001 Fax Data File (various) .075 Ventura Publisher 75dpi Screen Characters .085 Ventura Publisher 85dpi Screen Characters .091 Ventura Publisher 91dpi Screen Characters .096 Ventura Publisher 96dpi Screen Characters .0B PageMaker Printer Font LineDraw Characters .10X Gemini Bitmap Printer Graphics File .113 Iomega Backup File .123 Lotus File .12M Lotus Smartmaster File .12U PageMaker Font File .15U PageMaker Printer Font .196 Computer Snooper Log File (inactive domain: http://www.computersnooper.com) .1PE TurboTax Form File .1ST Information (e.g., README.1ST) .24B 24-bit Graphic File .286 Windows Standard Mode Driver .2D 2D VersaCAD Drawing File .2GR Windows EGA/VGA Screen Grabber [EGA] [VGA] .301 Fax Data .303 Seq-303 Settings .320 Chromelion Demo Data File .323 H.323 Internet Telephony .340 Chromelion Demo Data File .386 Windows Enhanced Mode Driver or Swap File .3D VersaCAD 3D Drawing File .3DM 3D Modeler File .3DP Serif 3D Plus .3DS 3D Studio Graphic .3DT The database in InterBase 6.0 format (the open source version) in which a 3D Topicscape is held. URL: www.topicscape.com (added 2005-09-22) .3FX Corel Chart 3D Effect .3GR Windows SVGA/XVGA Screen Grabber [SVGA] .3IN MSN Setup Information .411 Sony Mavica Data File .4GE Informix 4GL Compiled Code .4GL Informix 4GL Source .4SW 4DOS Swap File .4TH FORTH Program .4V Quartet Music File .669 669 Tracker Module Unis Composer Music File .8 A86 Assembler Program File .8BA Adobe PhotoDeluxe Plugin (also ends in E, F, I, X, & Y) .8BF Filter Factory File [Viewer] .8M PageMaker Math 8 Printer Font .8U PageMaker Roman 8 Printer Font .906 Calcomp Plotter File Top of Page .A UNIX Library [UNIX] ADA Program .A01 ARJ Multi-volume Compressed Archive (can be 01 to 99) .A11 Graphic .A3K Yamaha A3000 Sampler File .A3L Authorware 3.x Library .A3M Unpackaged Authorware MacIntosh File .A3W Unpackaged Authorware Windows File .A4L Authorware 4.x Library .A4M Unpackaged Authorware MacIntosh File .A4P Authorware File Without Runtime .A4W Unpackaged Authorware Windows File .A5L Authorware 5.x Library .A5W Unpackaged Authorware Windows File .A86 A86 Assembler Program File .A_T A-Train .AA Audio Book File .AAM Authorware Shocked File .AAS Authorware Shocked Packet .AB Applix Builder File .AB6 AB Stat Data .AB8 AB Stat Data .AB$ AutoCAD Spooled Plot File .ABC Flowchart .ABD AmBiz Bonus Calculator Data File .ABF Adobe Binary Screen Font .ABK Corel Draw AutoBackup Any Automatic Backup .ABM HitPlayer Audio Album File Album File (various) .ABO Applix Builder Turbo File .ABR Photoshop Brush .ABS Abstracts MPEG Audio Sound File [MPEG] PC GNU Compiler Output Abscissa Data File .ABW AbiWord Document File .ACA MS Agent Character File Project Manager Workbench File .ACB ACBM Graphic Image Archived Data File .ACC DR-DOS Viewmax File .ACD Chromeleon Channel Raw Data Sonic Foundry Acid Music File MS Agent Character Definiton File .ACE The Ace Archiver Compressed File .ACF MS Agent Character File Photoshop Custom Filter .ACG MS Agent Preview File .ACI ACI Development Appraisal .ACL Corel Draw 6 Keyboard Accelerator .ACM Audio Compression Manager Driver (Windows) Photoshop Command Button Windows System File ACBM Image File Interplay Compressed Sound File .ACO Photoshop Color Swatch File .ACP MS Office Assistant Preview File .ACR American College of Radiology File .ACS MS Agent Character File .ACT MS Office Actor Program File FoxPro Documenting Wizard Action Diagram Photoshop Color Table .ACV OS/2 Audio Drivers Photoshop Saved Curve Also see .AD AfterDark Screen Saver .ADA ADA Program File .ADB ADA Package Body HP Organizer Appointment Database .ADC Chromeleon Demo Data File Scanstudio 16-color Bitmap Graphic File Lingvo Dictionary Text File .ADD OS/2 Adapter Device Driver Adobe Pagemaker File .ADE MS Access Project Extension ADC Audio File .ADF Adapter Description File Admin Config File Amiga Disk File (Uncompressed 901120 byte DD Diskimage) .ADI AutoCAD Plotter File .ADL QEMM MCA Adapter Description Library [MCA] .ADM After Dark Screen Saver Module Windows NT Policy Template .ADN 1-2-3 Add In Utility MS Access Blank Project Template .ADO Photoshop Duotone Options .ADP FaxWorks Modem Setup File Astound Dynamite File MS Access Project AOLserver Dynamic Page File [AOL] .ADR After Dark Random Screen Saver Module Smart Address Address Book .ADS ADA Package Specification .ADT HP NewWave Card Application Data File Lingvo Dictionary File AdTech Fax File .ADV GUS Virtual Device Driver .ADX Lotus Approach Index File Archetype Designer Document Dynazip Active Delivery Script .ADZ GZ-Packed Amiga Disk File (see ADF) .AE SoftQuad Author/Editor File .AEH iPer Advanced Embedded Hypertext .AEP ArcExplorer Project File .AEX PGP Armored Extracted Public Encryption Key [PGP] .AF2 ABC Flowchart .AF3 ABC Flowchart .AFC Apple Sound File .AFI Truevision Bitmap Graphic .AFL Lotus Font .AFM Outline Font Metric HP NewWave Cardfile Application .AFP Flowchart Symbol Palette .AFS Filter Factory Photoshop Filter .AFT Flowchart Template .AFW Flowchart Work Area .AG Applix Graphic .AG4 Access G4 File .AHS Photoshop Halftone Screens .AI Adobe Illustrator Vector Graphic Corel Trace Drawing .AIF Knowledgeware Setup Information Audio Interchange File [Viewer] .AIM AOL Instant Messenger File [AOL] .AIN AIN Compressed Archive .AIO APL File Transfer Format .AIR Align It! Resource File .AIS Array of Intensity Samples (Graphic) Velvet Studio Instruments ACDSee Image Sequence File .AIX HP NewWave Cardfile Application Data .AKF Acrobat Key File .AKW RoboHELP Help Project Index File .ALB JASC Image Commander Album .ALC Norton Internet Security Ad Server File .ALL Arts & Letters Symbols and Characters WordPerfect Printer Info .ALS Alias Image .ALT WordPerfect Menu File .ALV Photoshop Levels .AM Applix SHELF Macro .AMF Advanced Module Format Music File DSMIA/Asylum Module Music .AMG AMGC Compressed Archive (alternate site) AMG ACTOR System Image .AMI Cocreate SolidDesigner Annotation File .AMP Photoshop Arbitrary Map Settings .AMS Extreme's Tracker Module Format Photoshop Monitor Setup Velvet Studio Module .AN Groundworks Text File .ANC Canon Computer Pattern Maker File .ANI Animated Cursor [Viewer] .ANL Project Analyzer Saved Analysis .ANM DeluxPaint Animation .ANN Help Annotation .ANS ANSI Graphic [ANSI] MS Word Text and Layout .ANT SimAnt for Windows Saved Game File .AOS Nokia Add-on Software .AOT ZenWorks Application Binary Object Template File .AP Applix Presents File WHAP-Compressed Amiga Archive .APC Lotus Printer Driver Characters Centura Team Developer Compiled Application File .APD Lotus Printer Driver Centura Team Developer Dynamic Application Library File .APF Lotus Printer Driver Fonts Acrobat Profile File Homesite Project File .API Lotus Printer Driver Info Photoshop Ink Colors Setup Application Program Interface .APL Centura Team Developer Application Library File APL Workspace File .APP R:Base, Symphony, DR-DOS, FoxPro (or other) Application Centura Team Developer Normal Mode Application File .APR Lotus Approach 97 File ArcView Project File .APS MS Visual C++ File .APT Centura Team Developer Text Mode Application File Lotus Approach Data View File .APX Lotus Approach Paradox-specific Information File Borland C++ Appexpert Database .AQ Applix Data .ARC Archive File Compressed File .ARF Automatic Response File .ARI Aristotle Audio File Compressed Archive .ARJ Compressed Archive .ARK Compressed Archive .ARL AOL Organizer File [AOL] .ARR Atari Cubase Arrangement .ART Clip Art File Xara Studio Drawing Canon Crayola Art File Another Ray Tracer Format AOL Johnson-Grace Compressed File [AOL] First Publisher Raster Graphic .ARX Compressed Archive .AS Applix Spreadsheet .ASA MS Visual InterDev File Active Server Document .ASC ASCII Text File [ASCII] PGP Armored Encrypted File [PGP] .ASD MS Word Automatic Backup Lotus Screen Driver MS Advanced Streaming Format Description File .ASE Velvet Studio Sample .ASF MS Active Streaming File Statgraphics Data Lotus Screen Font APL*Plus/PC APL Shared File Electronic Arts Music File .ASH TASM Assembler Header .ASI Borland Assembler Include .ASK askSam Database .ASM Assembler Source Language (various) .ASO Assembler Object Astound Dynamite Objects .ASP Active Server Page Procomm Plus ASPECT Program Astound Presentation File Photoshop Photo File Index Photoshop Separation Setup .ASR Automap Route Photoshop Scratch Area .AST Astound Multimedia File Photoshop Separation Tables Claris Works Assistant File .ASV DataCAD Autosave File Photoshop Selective Color .ASX Active Streaming File Cheyenne Backup Script MS Advanced Streaming Redirector File Video File .AT2 Aldus Persuasion 2.0 Auto Template .ATF Photoshop Transfer Function .ATM Adobe Type Manager Data File .ATT AT&T Group 4 Bitmap (fax) .ATW AnyTime Deluxe PIM File [PIM] .AU Music File (various) [Viewer] .AUD Audio File used by Westwood Studios for various games .AUX TeX/LaTeX Auxilliary Reference File ChiWriter Auxilliary Dictionary File .AVA Avagio Publication .AVB Inculan Anti-Virus Virus Infected File .AVI Audio Video Interleave File [Viewer] .AVR Audio Visual Research Sound File .AVS Animation File Application Visualization System Format Stardent AVS-X Image Winamp Advanced Visualization Studio File .AVX ArcView File .AW HP AdvanceWrite Text File Applix Word File .AWD Faxviewer Document .AWK AWK Script .AWM Animation Works Movie .AWR Telsis Digital Audio File .AWS StatGraphics Data File .AXL ArcIMS XML Project File [XML] .AXR Telsis Digital Audio File .AXT ASCII Application Object Template Photoshop Replace Color/Color Range Top of Page .B1J BookJones .B1N 1st Reader Binary Screen Image .B1S BookSmith .B30 Ventura Publisher Printer Font .B3D 3D Builder File .B4 Helix Nuts and Bolts File (Helix Software now part of McAfee) .B64 Base 64 MIME-encoded File [MIME] .B8 Piclab Raw Graphic File .BAC Backup .BAD Rime Mailer Address File Oracle BAD File .BAK Backup .BAL Ballade Music Score .BAS BASIC Language Source Basic Module .BAT Batch Processing .BB Papyrus Database Backup .BBL TeX/BibTeX Bibliographic Reference File .BBM Deluxe Paint Image File .BBS Bulletin Board Sytem Text .BCH dBase Application Generator Batch Process Object Phoenix Software (Datalex) Entry Point 90 Data File .BCK Backup .BCM MS Works Communications Ffile .BCO Bitstream Fontware File .BCP Borland C++ Makefile .BCW Borland C++ 4.5 Environment Settings .BDB MS Works Dababase File .BDF West Point Bridge Designer File .BDF Egret Data File .BDR MS Publisher Border .BEZ Bitstream Fontware File .BF2 Bradford 2 Font .BFA Blowfish-encrypted File (Extension added to original) .BFC Briefcase File .BFM UNIX Font Metrics File .BFX BitFax Document .BG MS Backgammon for Windows Game .BGA OS/2 Graphic Array .BGI Borland Graphic Interface .BGL Flight Simulator Scenery File .BHF pcAnywhere Host File .BI Binary File .BIB Bibliography TeX/BibTeX Literature Database .BIF GroupWise Initialization File .BIG Chinese (old version) .BIK BioCharter Profile Backup File .BIN Binary File .BIO BioCharter Profile File OS/2 Bios File .BIT Bitmap Image .BK Backup JetFax Faxbook File .BK! Backup .BK$ Backup .BK1 Backup (Can be 1 to 9, usually with WordPerfect) .BKI Backup Index .BKP Backup .BKS Bookshelf Backup IBM BookManager Read Bookshelf MS Works Spreadsheet Backup .BKW FontEdit Fontset Mirror Image .BLB DreamWorks Resource Archive .BLD BASIC Bload Graphics .BLK WordPerfect Temp File Alias Wavefront Image .BLT Wordperfect for DOS File .BM Graphic (bitmap) .BM1 Apogee BioMenace Data File .BMF Image File .BMI Buzz Instrument .BMK Help Bookmark .BMP Windows OS/2 Bitmap Graphics [Viewer] .BMS Backup Magic Backup Set .BMW Buzz Music File with Waves .BMX Buzz Music File .BN AdLib Instrument Bank .BNK Adlib Instrument Bank SimCity Game File (reported to be) Bink Compressed Video/Audio File .BOO Image File Book Compressed Archive File .BOX Notes Mailbox .BPC Business Plan Toolkit Chart .BPL Delphi Library .BPS MS Works Document .BPT Bitmap Master File .BPX Truevision Targa Bitmap .BQY BrioQuery File .BR Bridge Script .BR3 Bryce 3D Scene File .BRC Bryce 2 Scene File .BRD EAGLE Board File .BRI Basic Rate Interface File .BRK Brooktrout Fax-Mail File .BRX Multimedia Browsing Index .BS_ MS Bookshelf Find Menu Shell Extension .BS1 Apogee Blake Stone Data File .BSA BSARC Compressed Archive .BSC Apple II Compressed Archive Boyan Script MS Developer Studio Browser File .BSK Bryce 4 File .BSP Quake Map .BSV BASIC Bsave Graphics .BTM 4DOS Batch To Memory Batch File .BTN ButtonWare File .BTR Btrieve Database File .BUD Quicken Backup .BUG Bug (Problem) File .BUN CakeWalk Audio Bundle File .BUP Backup .BUT Buttons! Button Definition .BUY Movie Data File .BV1 WordPerfect Overflow File (Can be 1 to 9) .BW SGI Black and White Image .BWB Visual Baler Spreadsheet File .BWR Kermit Beware Bug List .BWV Business Wave File .BYU Movie File .BZ Bzip UNIX Compressed File .BZ2 Bzip UNIX Compressed File (Replaces .BZ) Top of Page .C C Program File .C00 Ventura Print File .C01 Typhoon Wave File .C86 C86 C Program .C-- Sphinx C-- Source code .CA Telnet Server Initial Cache Data File .CA7 Beta 44 Job File .CAB Cabinet File (Microsoft installation archive) .CAC dBase IV Executable File .CAD Softdesk Drafix CAD File .CAG MS Clip Gallery Catalog File .CAL SuperCalc Worksheet Calendar File CALS compressed bitmap .CAM Casio Camera Graphic [Viewer] .CAN Navigator Fax .CAP Ventura Caption Telix Session Capture Compressed Music File .CAR AtHome Assistant File .CAS Comma-delimited ASCII File .CAT dBase Catalog Quicken IntelliCharge Categorization File .CB MS Clean Boot File .CBC CubiCalc Fuzzy Logic System File .CBI IBM Mainframe Column Binary Formatted File .CBL COBOL Program .CBM XLib Compiled Bitmap .CBT Computer Based Training .CC C++ Program File Visual dBASE Custom Class File .CCA CC:Mail File .CCB Visual Basic Animated Button Configuration .CCC Chat Curtain Call Native Bitmap Graphic .CCE Calendar Creator Plus Data File .CCF OS/2 Multimedia Viewer Configuration File Symphony Communications Configuration File .CCH Corel Chart .CCL Intalk Communication Command Language .CCM Lotus CC:Mail Mailbox .CCO CyberChat Data File .CCR Chat Room Shortcut .CCT Macromedia Director Shockwave Cast .CDA CD Audio Track .CDB Turbo C Database Clipboard File CardScan Database PowerDesigner Conceptual Model Backup File .CDC Chromeleon Driver Configuration Plugin .CDD Chromeleon Device Driver .CDF Comma Delimited Format Cyberspace Description Format MS Channel Definition Format .CDI Phillips Compact Disk Interactive Format .CDK Atari Calamus Document .CDM PowerDesigner Conceptual Model File Visual dBASE Custom Data Module .CDR Corel Vector Graphic Raw Audio-CD Data .CDT Corel Draw Template .CDX Compound Index Corel Draw Compressed Drawing MS Visual Foxpro Index Active Server Document .CE FarSide Computer Calendar File .CEG Continuous Edge Graphic Tempra Show Bitmap Graphic .CEL Autodesk Animator Graphic CIMFast Event Language File Kiss Paper Doll File .CER Certificate File .CEX The Currency Exchanger Rate File .CF Imake Configurtion File .CFB Comptons Multimedia File .CFG Configuration (various) .CFL Corel Flowchart File .CFM Corel FontMaster Cold Fusion Template File Visual dBASE Windows Customer Form .CFN Atari Calamus Font Data File .CFO TCU Turbo C Utilities C Form Object .CFP Complete Fax Portable Fax File .CGA Ventura CGA Screen Characters .CGI Common Gateway Interface Script .CGM Computer Graphics Metafile .CH Clipper Header OS/2 Configuration File .CH3 Harvard Chart (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .CH4 Charisma 4.0 Presentation .CHA Adobe Pagemaker Kerning Data .CHD FontChameleon Font Descriptor .CHF pcAnywhere Remote Control File .CHI Chiwriter Document .CHJ Help Composer Project .CHK CHKDSK/SCANDISK Output WordPerfect Temp File .CHL Chromeleon Channel Raw Data Configuration History Log .CHM Compiled HTML Help .CHN Ethnograph Data File .CHP Ventura Publisher Chapter .CHR Character or Font File .CHT Cheat Machine Data File ChartViewer dBase Interface File Harvard Graphics Vector File (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .CIF Ventura Chapter Information Easy CD Creator Image pcAnywhere Caller File Ventura Converted Image File Colombo Ipermedia File .CIL Clip Gallery Download Package .CIM Sim City 200 File .CIN OS/2 Change Control File .CIR SuperMax E-CAD Save-File Command .CIT Intergraph Scanned Image .CIX TCU Turbo C Utilities Database Index .CK1 iD/Apogee Commander Keen 1 Data File (.CK1 to .CK6) .CKB Borland C++ Keyboard Mapping File .CKP Ingres Checkpoint File .CL Generic LISP Source Code .CL3 Easy CD Creator Layout File .CL4 Easy CD Creator Layout File .CLA Java Class File (usually .CLASS but can be shortened) .CLG Disk Catalog Database .CLL Crick Software Clicker File .CLO Cloe Image .CLP Windows Clipboard/Picture [Viewer] Quattro Pro Clip Art Clipper 5 Compiler Script .CLR WinEdit Colorization Word List 1st Reader Binary Color Screen Image PhotStyler Color Defintion .CLS Visual Basic Class Module C++ Class Definition .CM Craftman Data File .CMA Applix TM1 Database File (text) .CMB Chromeleon Backup Archive .CMD OS/2, WinNT Command File DOS CP/M Command File dBase II Program File 1st Reader External Command Menu .CMF Creative Music File Corel Metafile .CMG Chessmaster Saved Game .CMK Card Shop Plus File .CML Cheat Machine Library File (Windows) PADGen Company Info File .CMP Leadview Bitmap Open Access File Address Document JPEG Bitmap CorelDRAW Postscript Printer Header Route 66 Address Document MS Word for DOS User Dictionary .CMR MediaPlayer Movie .CMU Carnegie Mellon Univeristy Stereo Raster Image .CMV Corel Move Animation .CMX Corel PhotoPaint Image Corel Presentation Exchange Image Apple Viewer File .CNF Configuration (various) SpeedDial .CNM Windows Application Menu Options and Setup File .CNQ Compuworks Design Shop File .CNT Help File Contents (and other contents needs) .CNV MS Word Data Conversion File WS_FTP Pro Upload Conversion File Data WordPerfect Temporary File .COB COBOL Program File Caligari Truespace Format TrueSpace2 Object .COD Code List Compiler Program Code .COD Multiplan Data File dBase Template Source File FORTRAN Compiled Code .COL Autodesk Color Palette Multiplan Spreadsheet Lotus Notes Import Column Description File .COM Command (Executable file) .CON Knowledgeware Consolidation File Simdir Configuration File .CP8 CP8 256 Gray Scale Image .CPD Fax Coversheet Corel PrintOffice File Complaints Desk Script .CPE Fax Coversheet .CPF Complete Fax File .CPH Corel Print House Image .CPI Code Page Information ColorLab Image .CPJ CeQuadrant CD Project .CPL Control Panel Extension Corel Color Palette Compel Presentation .CPO Corel Print House File .CPP C++ Program CA-Cricket Presents Presentation .CPR Corel Presents Presentation Knowledge Access Graphics .CPS Antivirus Checksum File Central Point PC Tools Backup Colored PostScript File .CPT Macintosh Compressed File Corel Photo-Paint Image [Viewer] dBase Encrypted Memo CA Cricket Presents Template .CPX Control Panel Applet CryptaPix Encrypted Image Corel Presentation Exchange Compressed Drawing .CPY Copy Books Data File .CPZ COMPOZ Music Text .CRD Cardfile (Windows 3.x Database) .CRF Zortech C++ Cross-Reference File .CRH MS Golf Image File .CRL Certificate Revocation List .CRP dBase Encrypted Database Visual dBASE Custom Report Corel Presents Run-Time Presentation .CRS WordPerfect 5.1 for Windows File Conversion Resource .CRT Certificate File Oracle Terminal Settings Info UNIX Crontab File (not a required extension for Crontab) .CRU CRUSH Compressed Archive .CRY Crypto Chat II Encrypted Notebook-content .CSA Comma Deliminated Text .CSC Corel Script .CSD Bitstream Fontware File Chemsoft® MSDS Database File .CSF Chemical Sample File - Cache Software .CSH Hamilton Labs C Shell Script File .CSK Claris Works .CSM Borland C++ Symbol File Borland C++ 4.5 Precompiled Header Kodak DC265 Camera Script .CSP PC Emcee On-Screen Image .CSQ Foxpro Queries .CSS Hypertext Cascading Style Sheet Stats+ Datafile Statistica Datasheet .CST Macromedia Director Cast File .CSV Comma-Separated Variables .CT Scitex CT Bitmap .CTF TIFF Compressed File Symphony Character Code Translation .CTL Setup Information (various) User Control (various) .CTX Compressed Text Visual Basic User Control Binary File Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) Ciphertext File MS Online Course Text .CTY SimCity City File .CUE MS Cue Cards Data .CUF Turbo C Utilities Form Definition .CUL IconForge/ImageForge Cursor Library .CUR Cursor [Viewer] .CUT Dr. Halo Bitmap Graphic .CV Corel Versions Archive MS CodeView Information .CV4 Codeview Colors .CVP WinFax Cover Page .CVS Canvas Drawing File .CVT dBase Converted Database .CVW Codeview Colors .CWE Crossword Express .CWK Claris Works Data .CWS Claris Works Template .CXT Macromedia Director Protected Cast File .CXX Zortech C++ Program Top of Page .D Dialect Source Code File .D3D CorelDream 3D File .D64 Commodore 64 Emulator Disk Image .D8A AmBiz Productivity Pak Catalog .DAD Chromeleon Channel Raw Data .DAP Omnis5 Application File MS Access Data Access Page .DAT Data (multiple programs) WordPerfect Merge Data (also possibly) MPEG File .DB Paradox Database .DB2 dBase II File .DBC MS Visual Foxpro Database Container .DBF Database (multiple programs) [started as dBASE] Oracle 8.x Tablespace File .DBK dBase Database Backup Orcad Schematic Capture Backup File .DBM Cold Fusion Template .DBO dBase IV Compiled Program File .DBQ Paradox Memo .DBT Database Text File [dBASE] .DBV Flexfile Memo Field File .DBW DataBoss Database File .DBX Database (multiple programs) DataBeam Image MS Visual Foxpro Table .DC DesignCAD CAD File .DC2 DesignCAD CAD File .DC5 DataCAD Drawing File .DCA Visual Basic Active Designer Cache IBM DisplayWrite Document Content Architecture Text File .DCD Document Content Description File .DCF Design Rule for Camera File Systems File .DCM DCM Module Format .DCP Delphi Compiled Packages OS/2 Data CodePage .DCR Shockwave File .DCS Quark Desktop Color Separation Specification ACT! Activity Data File .DCT Dictionary (various) MS Visual Foxpro Database Container .DCU Delphi Compiled Unit .DCX FAX Image [Viewer] Bitmap Graphics [Viewer] Macros MS Visual Foxpro Database Container .DD Macintosh Compressed Disk Doubler Archive .DDB Bitmap Graphics File .DDE Dynamic Data Exchange .DDF BTRIEVE Database Bitstream Fontware File .DDI DiskDupe Image Disk Doubler Image .DDP OS/2 Device Driver Profile File .DEB DOS Debug Script Debian Linux Package .DEF Definitions Defaults SGML Tag Definition SmartWare II Data File C++ Definition Geoworks Assembly Header File .DEL Data .DEM Demonstration USGS Map .DEP Setup Wizard Dependency .DER Certificate File .DES Description Text .DEV Device Driver Device Independent TeX LaTeX File .DEZ DES Encrypted Zip File .DF1 Omnis7 and Omnis Studio Database File (also .DF2, .DF3, etc.) .DFD File Flow Diagram Graphic .DFI Digifont Outline Font Description .DFL Signature Default Program Settings .DFM Delphi Forms File Flow Diagram Model .DFS Delight Sound File .DFV Word Print Format Template .DG Autotrol Graphics .DGC TurboTax-related File .DGN Microstation95 CAD Drawing File Intergraph Graphics .DGS AT Advanced Diagnostics File .DH Geoworks Dependency Information File .DHP Dr. Halo PIC .DHT Gauss Data File .DIA Computer Support Corp Diagraph Graphics File .DIB Device-Independent Bitmap Graphic [Viewer] .DIC Dictionary (various) .DIF Data Interchange Format .DIG Text Document Digilink Format Sound Designer Audio File .DIP Graphics File .DIR Procomm Plus Dialing Directory Macromedia Director File DEC VAX Directory .DIS Corel Draw Thesaurus .DIT MS Win2000 Active Directory Schema .DIZ Description In Zip File .DKB DKBTrace Ray-Traced Graphics File .DL Animations file .DLD Lotus File .DLG Dialog Resource Script C++ Dialogue Script .DLL Dynamic Link Library CorelDraw Export/Import Filter .DLS Downloadable Sounds (Interactive Music Architecture) Norton DiskLock Setup File .DMD Visual dBASE Data Module .DMF Delusion/XTracker Digital Music File Packed Amiga Disk Image .DMO Demo .DMP Dump (various) .DMS Compressed Archive .DNE Darn v5+ (Windows) Events List .DOB User Document Form File .DOC Document or Documentation (many programs/formats) MS Word Document .DOG Laughing Dog Screen Saver .DOH Geoworks Dependency Information File .DOS Text File/DOS Specification Info .DOT MS Word Document Template Corel Lines-Definition .DOX Text File MultiMate Document User Document Binary Form File .DOZ VENDINFO Description Out of Zip File .DP Daily Planner Calendar File DataPhile Data File .DPA Serif DrawPlus Animation .DPJ DeskProto CAM Project File .DPK Delphi Package File .DPL Borland Delphi 3 Packed Library .DPP Serif DrawPlus Drawing .DPR Borland C++ (or Delphi) Default Project .DPT Publish-It! Publication File .DPX Digital Moving Picture Exchange .DQY MS Excel ODBC Query File .DRC Orcad Schematic Capture Design Rules Check Report File .DRN Darn for DOS .DRS WordPerfect Driver Resource .DRV Device Driver .DRW Drawing (various) Micrografix Vector Graphic Pro/E Drawing .DS4 Micrografx Designer Graphics (ver 4) .DSC Oracle Discard File Nikon Coolpix Disk Identification File .DSD DataShaper Database File Document Structure Definition File .DSF Micrografx Designer Delusion/XTracker Digital Sample .DSG Doom Saved Game .DSK Borland C++ or Turbo Pascal Project Desktop File Novell Driver File .DSL Lingvo User Feature Dictionary .DSM Delphi Symbol File Digital Sound Module Tracker Format Dynamic Studio Music Module .DSN ODBC Data Source SureThing Office Labeler (formerly DesignExpress) Document Orcad Schematic Capture Schematic File .DSP Signature Display Parameters Dr. Halo Graphic Screen Driver MS Developer Studio Project .DSQ Corel QUERY File .DSR WordPerfect Driver Active Designer File .DSS Digital Soup Digital Sound File .DST Embroidery Machines Graphics File .DSW MS Developer Studio Workspace Borland C++ Desktop Settings .DSX Active Designer Binary File .DT_ Macintosh Data File Fork .DTA Data (Various) .DTD SGML Document Definition File .DTF Q&A Database .DTM DigiTrekker Module .DTP SecurDesk! Desktop Timeworks Publisher Text Document Pressworks Template File .DUN Dial-Up Network .DUP Duplicate Backup .DV DESQview Script Digital Video File .DVC Lotus File .DVF DV Studio Camcorder Graphics File .DVI Device Independent Document .DVP DESQview Program Information AutoCAD Device Parameter .DVR Device Driver .DW2 DesignCAD Drawing File .DWC Compressed Archive .DWD DiamondWare Digitized File .DWF Autodesk Vector Graphic .DWG AutoCAD Drawing Database .DWP Dweep Game Levels DeScribe Document File .DWS Dyadic Workspace File .DWT AutoCAD Template/Prototype File .DX Document Imaging File Digital Electric Corporation (DEC) Data Exchange File .DXB Drawing Interchange Binary .DXF AutoCAD Drawing Interchange Format .DXN Fujitsu dexNet Fax Document .DXR Macromedia Director Protected Movie File .DYN Lotus File Top of Page .EBJ Geoworks Error Checking Object File .ECC Ecchi Role-playing Format (Generally X-rated Anime File) .ECW Ensoniq Waveset Format .ED5 EDMICS Graphics File .ED6 EDMICS Graphics File .EDA Ensoniq ASR Disk Image .EDB ROOTS3 Geneological Data .EDD FrameMaker Element Definition Document .EDE Ensoniq EPS Disk Image .EDK Ensoniq KT Disk Image .EDQ Ensoniq SQ1/SQ2/KS32 Disk Image .EDS Ensoniq SQ80 Disk Image .EDT VAX Edt Default Settings .EDV Ensoniq VFX-SD Disk Image .EEB WordPerfect Equation Editor Button Bar .EFA Ensoniq ASR File .EFE Ensoniq EPS File .EFK Ensoniq KT File .EFQ Ensoniq SQ1/SQ2/KS32 File .EFS Ensoniq SQ80 File .EFT Chiwriter High Res Screen Characters .EFV Ensoniq VFX-SD File .EFX Everex EFax Fax Document .EGA Ventura EGA Screen Characters .EL eMacs Lisp Source Code .ELC eMacs Lisp Byte-compiled Source Code .ELI Encyclopedia Article List .ELM MS FrontPage Theme-Pack File .ELT Event List Text .EMB Everest Embedded Bank File .EMD ABT Extended Module .EMF Extended Windows Metafile Format [Viewer] .EML MS Outlook Express Electronic Mail .EMS PC Tools Enhanced Menu System Config .EMU Emulation .ENC UUENCODEd Encoded File Video File Knowledgeware Encyclopedia Encore Music File .END Corel Arrow Definition .ENG Dictionary .ENR Enroute Toolath .ENV WordPerfect Environment .EPD Express Publisher Publication File .EPI Express Publisher Document File .EPS Encapsulated PostScript [Viewer] Ventura Printer Font .EQN WordPerfect Equation .ER1 ERWin File .ERD Entity Relationship Diagram .ERM Entity Relationship Diagram Model .ERR Error Log (various) .ERX ERWin File .ESF Emblaze Audio File .ESH Extended Shell Batch File .ESI Esri Plot File .ESL MS Visual FoxPro Distributable Support Library .ETH Ethnograph Document File .ETX SetText Structure Enhanced Text .EUC Japanese (Kanji) .EUI Ensoniq EPS Family Compacted Disk Image .EVT PC Tools Event File Scheduler MS WinNT/2000 Event Log .EVY Envoy Document .EWD Express Publisher for Windows Document .EWL MS Encarta Document .EX3 Harvard Device Driver (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .EXC QEMM Exclude File REXX Program MS Word Exclusion Dictionary Text Document .EXE Executable File .EXP ICQ Saved Chat File .EXT Norton Commander Extension File .EYB Encyclopedia Yearbook File .EZP Edify Electronic Workforce Backup Utility .EZS Sunburst Technology Easy Sheet Document .EZT Sunburst Technology Easy Sheet Template Top of Page .F Compressed Archive File (UNIX) FORTRAN Program .F01 Perfect Fax Document .F06 DOS 6 Pixel Screen Font .F07 DOS 7 Pixel Screen Font .F08 DOS 8 Pixel Screen Font .F09 DOS 9 pixel Screen Font .F10 DOS 10 Pixel Screen Font .F11 DOS 11 Pixel Screen Font .F12 DOS 12 Pixel Screen Font .F13 DOS 13 Pixel Screen Font .F14 DOS 14 Pixel Screen Font .F15 DOS 15 Pixel Screen Font .F16 DOS 16 Pixel Screen Font .F2R Farandoyle Linear Module Format .F3R Farandoyle Blocked Module Format .F32 Raw 32-bit IEEE Floating Point Values .F64 Raw 64-bit IEEE Floating Point Values .F77 FORTRAN 77 Program .F90 FORTRAN Program .F96 Frecom FAX96 Document .FAC FACE Graphic .FAQ Frequently Asked Questions .FAR Farandoyle Tracker Music Module .FAS 3D Fassade Plus Basic Module .FAV MS Outlook Bar Shortcuts .FAX Fax File .FBC FamilyTree Compressed Backup File .FBK Navison Financials Backup FamilyTree Backup File .FBM Fuzzy Bitmap .FBS File Burner Skin .FC Harvard Dictionary (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .FCD Virtual CD-ROM FastCAD/EasyCAD Output Patton & Patton Flow Charting 3 File .FCT Foxpro Catalog .FD FORTRAN Declarations Dataflex Field Compiler Offsets .FDB Navison Financials Database Art Explosion Portfolio Catalog File .FDF Adobe Acrobat Forms Document .FDX Force Index .FEB WordPerfect Figure Editor Button Bar .FEM CADRE Finite Element Mesh File .FES A file produced when a fileless occurrence in Topicscape is exported to Windows. URL: www.topicscape.com Company: 3D-Scape Limited www.3d-scape.com (added 2005-09-22) .FEX Focus File .FF AGFA CompuGraphics Outline Font Description .FFA MS Fast Find File .FFF GUS PnP Bank defFax Fax Document .FFL MS Fast Find File PrintMaster Gold Image File .FFO MS Fast Find File .FFT DCA/FFT Final Form Text .FFX MS Fast Find File .FGA Folder Guard Attributes .FGD Folder Guard Data .FGP Folder Guard Passwords File .FH3 Aldus Freehand 3 Drawing .FH4 Aldus Freehand 4 Drawing .FI FORTRAN Interface File .FIF Fractal Image Format .FIG REND386/AVRIL Graphic .FIL dBase Files List Object WordPerfect Overlay .FIN WordPerfect Print Format Text .FIT FITS Graphic .FIX Generic Patch File .FKY Foxpro Macro .FLA Macromedia Flash Movie .FLB Papyrus Format Library .FLC AutoDesk FLIC Animated Picture .FLD Charisma Folder Hijaak Thumbnail Folder .FLF Corel Paradox Form OS/2 Driver File Navison Financials License File .FLI Autodesk FLIC Animation .FLL Foxpro Library .FLM AutoCAD Film .FLR Live3D File .FLT Corel Graphic Filter StarTrekker Music Module MulitGen Open Flight File .FLX Image File Dataflex Ordered Binder .FM Adobe FrameMaker Document FileMaker Pro Spreadsheet .FM1 Lotus Spreadsheet File .FM3 Harvard Device Driver (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) 1-2-3 Format File .FMB WordPerfect File Manager Button Bar Oracle Binary Form Source Code .FMD Open Access File .FML GetRight File Mirror List .FMO dBase Ordered Format .FMP FileMaker Pro Document .FMT Format File Style Sheet Oracle Text Form Format MS Schedule+ Print File MS Visual FoxPro Csreen Format File .FMV Frame Vector Metafile .FMX Oracle Executable Form .FND MS Explorer Saved Search .FNG Font Navigator Group File .FNK FunkTracker Module .FNO Folio Infobase .FNT Font File .FOG Fontographer Font .FON Font File Procomm Plus Call Log .FOR FORTRAN Source .FOT Font-related File .FOX FoxBase File .FP FileMaker Pro File .FP1 Flying Pigs for Windows Data .FP3 FileMaker Pro File .FP5 FileMaker Pro Document .FPC FoxPro Catalog File .FPT FileMaker Pro File FoxPro Memo Fields .FPX FlashPix Bitmap [Viewer] .FRM Form File FrameMaker Document FrameBuilder Document Oracle Executable Form Visual Basic Form WordPerfect Merge Form DataCAD Symbol Report File .FRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver .FRT FoxPro Report File .FRX Visual Basic Binary Form File FoxPro Report File .FSF Convert It! Factor File fPrint Audit Tool File .FSL Borderland's Paradox 7 Forms Corel Paradox Saved Form .FSM Farandoyle Sample Format .FST FastStats Analyzer File .FT Lotus Notes Full Text Index .FTG Windows Help Full-text Search Group File .FTM Family File .FTS Windows Help Full-Text Search Index File .FTV Forest & Trees File .FTW Family File .FW2 Framework II File .FW3 Framework III File .FW4 Framework IV File .FWL FileWrangler EXE Library .FXD WinFax Sent Document (TIFF format) .FXI File-Ex File .FXP FoxPro Compiled Source .FXR WinFax Received Document (TIFF format) .FZB Casio FZ-1 Bank Dump .FZF Casio FZ-1 Full Dump .FZV Casio FZ-1 Voice Dump Top of Page .G3 G3 FAX File [Viewer] .G4 GTX RasterCAD File .GAL Gallery of Pictures Corel Multimedia Manager Album .GB Chinese .GBK Interbase Database Backup .GC Sierra Print Artist File .GCA GOCA Graphics File .GCD Generic CADD Drawing .GCF WinXComp Grouped Compressed File .GCI GTA2 Game File .GCP Ground Control Point File (map projection) .GDB Interbase Database .GDM Bells, Whistles, and Sound Boards Module .GDS Image File .GED GEDCOM Family History File Graphic Environment Document Arts & Letters Graphics File .GEM GEM (a desktop interface) File .GEN Ventura-Generated Text File Chromeleon Generic Driver Configuration .GEO VideoScope File .GFC Patton & Patton Flowcharting 4 File .GFI Genigraphics Graphics Link Presentation .GFX Genigraphics Graphics Link Presentation .GHO Symantec Ghost Disk Image File .GID Windows Help Index File .GIF Graphic Interchange Format [Viewer] .GIM Genigraphics Graphics Link Presentation .GIX Genigraphics Graphics Link Presentation .GKH Ensoniq EPS Family Disk Image .GKS Gravis GripKey Document .GL Animated Picture .GLY MS Word Glossary .GMP GTA2 Game File .GNA Genigraphics Graphics Link Presentation .GNT Micro Focus Generated Code .GNX Genigraphics Graphics Link Presentation .GP3 CCITT Group 3 File (fax) .GP4 CCITT Group 4 File (fax) .GPP Serif GraphicsPlus Object .GR2 Windows 3.0 Screen Driver .GR3 Windows 3.0 Screen Grabber .GRA Flight Simulator File MS Graph Chart .GRB MS-DOS Shell Monitor .GRD Gradebook Power File Map Projection Grid File .GRF Graph Golden Software Graph File Grafix Idea File .GRP Program Manager Group .GRY Picture File .GSM Raw GSM 6.10 Audio Stream US Robotics Modem File .GSP Geometer's Sketchpad Material File .GT2 Graoumftracker Music Module (new) .GTK Graoumftracker Music Module (old) .GTY Gibson Tray File .GWX Genigraphics Graphics Link Presentation .GWZ Genigraphics Graphics Link Presentation .GX1 Show Partner Graphics File .GX2 Show Partner Graphics File .GXT GTA2 Game File .GZ Gzip Compressed Archive Top of Page .H Header (Usually C Compiler) .H! Flambeaux Tutorial Database .H++ C++ Header File .H-- Sphinx C-- Header File .HA Compressed Archive .HAM Image File .HBK Mathcad Handbook .HDF Hierarchical Data Format File .HDL Procomm Plus Alternate Download File Listing .HDR Procomm Plus Message Header PC-File+ Database Header .HDX Help Index (Various) .HED HighEdit Document .HEL MS Hellbender Saved Game .HEX Hex Dump Macintosh BinHex 2.0 File .HFI HP Font Info .HFX HotFax File .HGL HP Graphics Language .HH C++ Header Help Topic Map File .HHC Table of Contents File (HHW Application) TurboTax Contents File .HHH Power C Precompiled Header .HHK Help Workshop Index File .HHP Procomm Plus Help Data .HHP HTML Help Project .HLP Windows Help File .HMM Procomm Plus Alternate Mail Read Option Menu .HOF Hall Of Fame (scores) .HOG Lucas Arts Dark Forces WAD File .HPF PageMaker HP LaserJet Fonts .HPG Hewlett-Packard Graphics (plotter) .HPI Gem Font Information .HPJ Help Project File .HPK Compressed Archive .HPL HP Graphics File .HPP C++ Program Header .HPR RoboHELP Configuration File .HQX Binhex Text Conversion File (Macintosh) .HRL Herolab EasyWin32 .HPM Procomm Plus Alternate Main Menu .HPP Zortech C++ Header .HPR RoboHelp Configuration .HQX Macintosh BinHex 4 Compressed Archive .HRM Procomm Plus Alternate Main Menu .HRX Herolab EasyWin32 .HRZ Image File .HSS Photoshop Hue/Saturation Information .HST History File Host File .HT HyperTerminal .HTA Hypertext Application (run apps from HTML doc) .HTF WebBase File .HTI WebBase File .HTM Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) .HTT Hypertext Template .HTX Extenended Hypertext Template Internet Database Connector File .HWP Hangul Word Processor File .HXM Procomm Plus Alternate Protocol Selection Menu Descent2 HAM File .HXX C++ Header .HYC WordPerfect Hyphenation File .HYD WordPerfect Hyphenation Dictionary .HYP Hypertext File Hyphenation File Compressed Archive .HZ Chinese Top of Page .IBA mde infoHandler Infobase File .IBM Image File .ICA Citrix File IOCA Graphics File .ICB Targa Bitmap .ICC Kodak Printer Image .ICE Archive File .ICL Icon Library File (various) ImageForge/IconForge [Viewer] .ICM Image Color Matching Profile File .ICN Icon Program .ICO Icon [Viewer] .ICS Outlook Calendar File .ID Disk Identification File .IDB MS Developers Intermediate File .IDD MIDI Instrument Definition .IDE Integrated Development Environment Configuration File .IDF MIDI Instruments Drivers File .IDQ Internet Data Query File .IDX Index (multiple programs) .IEF Image File .IFF Graphic, Sound (Interchangeable File Format) [Viewer] .IFS OS/2 System File IconForge Image EXE Library .IGF Inset Systems Metafile .IGS IGES-Format .IIF QuickBooks for Windows Interchange File .III Intel Phone Compatible .IL Icon Library .IM8 Sun Raster Graphic .IMA WinImage File .IMF ImageForge/ImageForge Image EXE Library .IMG Bitmap Graphic (several programs) [Viewer] .IMP Urban Chaos Game File .IN3 Harvard Input Device Driver (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .INC Include File (various) .IND dBase IV or DataPerfect Index .INF Information or Setup File .INI Initialization file (many) .INK Pantone Reference File .INP Oracle Source Code .INS Internet Communication Setting WordPerfect File Ensoniq EPS Family Instrument Sample Cell / II Instrument InstallShield Script X-Internet Sign-up File .INT Borland Interface Units Foxpro Code Page Intermediate Code used for syntax checking (various) .INX Foxbase Index .IO Compressed Archive .IOB Imagine File .IOF Findit Document .ION Text Program/Installation Description .IPL Corel Pantone Spot Reference Palette .IPX Interactive Pictures Corporation AV File .IQY Excel Web Query .IRS WordPerfect Resource File .ISD RapidFile Dictionary .ISH Compressed Archive File .ISO File List for CD-ROM .ISP X-Internet Sign-up File Internet Communication Settings .ISS InstallShield Response File .IST Digitrakker Instrument File .ISU InstallShield Uninstall Script Netscape File .IT Impulse Tracker Music Module .ITI Impulse Tracker Instrument .ITS Internet Document Set Impulse Tracker Sample .IV VRML File Open Inventor File .IVF Indeo Video File .IW Iconware Application Idlewild Screensaver .IWA IBM Writing Assistant Text .IWP Wang Text File .IX Framemaker Index File Top of Page .J62 Ricoh Camera File .JAR Java Archive File .JAS Compressed Graphic .JBC Jam Byte-Code Hex File (8051 Microprocessor File) .JBD SigmaScan Data File .JBF Paint Shop Pro Browser File .JBX Project Scheduler File .JFF JPEG Image .JFI Image File .JIF JPEG Image .JIS Japanese .JMP SAS JMPDiscovery Chart-to-statistics File .JMS Voxtron TeleButler Graphical Voice Response Call Flow .JN1 Epic MegaGames Jill of the Jungle Data File .JNB Sigma Plot Workbook File .JNK Junk (temporary file) .JNL Ingres Journal File .JOB Job File Task Scheduler Task Object QuestVision Vector Graphics File (IMG File Conversion) .JOR MS SQL Server Journal File .JPC Picture File (Japanese) .JPE JPEG Image .JPG JPEG Image [Viewer] .JS JavaScript Source Code .JSD eFAX Jet Suite Document .JSL PaintShop Pro File .JSP Java Server Page .JT JT Fax .JTF JPEG Tagged Interchange Format Image .JTK Sun Java ToolKit File .JW Justwrite Text .JWL Justwrite Text File Library .JZZ Jazz Spreadsheet Top of Page .K25 Kurzweil 2500 Sample .KAR Karaoke MIDI File .KB Borland C++ Keyboard Script Knowledge Pro Source Code .KBD Keyboard Script File Layout (various) .KBI Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter Index .KBM Reflection Keyboard Script File Layout .KBP Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter Profile .KBR Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter Data .KCL Kyoto Common LISP Source Code .KDC Kodak Photo-Enhancer [Viewer] .KEX KEDIT Profile File .KEY Keyboard Macros Forecast Pro Datafile Program Security or Registration File (various) DataCAD Icon Toolbar File .KFX KoFax Group 4 Image .KIZ Kodak Digital Postcard File .KKW RoboHELP Keyword Help project Index File .KMP Korg Trinity KeyMaP File .KNO Personal Knowbase File .KPP SmartPad Toolpad .KQP Konica Camera File .KR1 Kurzweil 2000 Sample (multi-floppy) .KRZ Kurzweil 2000 Sample .KSC Korg Trinity Script .KSE Keepsake Studio Export File .KSF Korg Trinity Sample .KSH Prodigy Internet Registration File .KTT KeyText Data File .KYB Keyboard Layout .KYE Kye Game Data Top of Page .L LEX Program File Link Instructions LISP Program File .LAB Mailing Labels .LAT Crossword Express Lattice File .LAY Applause Word Chart Layout .LBG dBase IV Label Generator .LBL Labels (various) .LBM Deluxe Paint Bitmap Graphic [Viewer] .LBO dBase IV Ordered Labels .LBR Compressed Archive File Lotus Screen Driver Omnis7 Application File .LBS Omnis Studio Application File .LBT Foxpro Label Memo .LBX Foxpro Label .LCF Linker Control File .LCK MS Frontpage-related File Adobe Pagemaker Database File .LCN WordPerfect Dictionary File .LD Telix Long Distance Codes .LD1 dBase Overlay File .LDB MS Access Lock File TrueVector Log Database .LDF LuraDocument File [Viewer] .LDL Corel Paradox Delivered Library .LEG Legacy Graphic Format .LES Learn Lesson File Logitech Entertainment Game Profile .LET Letter .LEX Lexicon (dictionary file) .LFT Chiwriter Laser Printer Font 3D Studio Loft File .LGC Program Use Log File (for Windows Program Use Optimization) .LGO MS Windows Logo Driver .LGT Urban Chaos Game File .LHA Compressed Archive File (LZH) .LHS Literate Haskell Source File .LHW Compressed Amiga Archive File .LHZ LHA Compressed Archive File .LIB Program Library (diverse programmers' languages) .LIC License File (various Shareware) .LIF Compressed Archive File HP Logical Interchange Format File .LIN AutoCAD Line Art .LIS Program Listing Structured Query Reporting (SQR) Output .LIT MS Reader EBook File .LJ Text File for HP LJ II Printer .LLC LapLink Saved Connection File .LLX Laplink Exchange Agent .LM8 Picture File .LMD Tune Smithy List of Modes for a Musical Scale .LND 3D Landscape Data .LNK Linker File Windows Shortcut File .LOG Log File (many different programs) .LOK FileWrangler/ZipWrangler/SecurDesk! Encrypted Archive .LP LP88 Linear Programming for the IBM-PC File .LPB LP88 Linear Programming for the IBM-PC File .LPD Helix Nuts and Bolts File (Helix Software now part of McAfee) .LRC Intel Video Phone File .LRF Linker Response File .LRS WordPerfect Language Resource File .LSC Tune Smithy List of Muscial Scales .LSF Streaming Audio/Video File .LSL Corel Paradox Saved Library .LSP LISP Program File .LST Listing or List (e.g., packing list) PowerPoint File Ingres Dump List File .LSX Streaming Audio/Video Shortcut .LTR Letter .LU ThoughtWing Library Unit File .LVL Parallax Miner Descent/D2 Level Extension .LWF LuraWave-compressed Graphic File [Viewer] .LWP Lotus Wordpro 96/97 File .LWV MS Linguistically Enhanced Sound File .LYR DataCAD Layer File .LYT TurboTax Log File .LZH Compressed Archive File .LZS Compressed Archive File Skyroads Data File .LZW Compressed Amiga Archive File .LZX Compressed File Top of Page .M Matlab Function Macro Source Mathematica File .M?? Ingres Modify Table/Index File (?? = Hex 00 to FF) .M18 Accolade Golf Course File .M1V MPEG File .M3 ModuleA 3 Program File .M3A MPEG Archive Enhanced .M3U Playlist File .M3D 3D Animations Macro Corel Motion 3D Animation .M3U MPEG URL .MA3 Harvard Macro (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .MAC MacPaint Bitmap Graphic Macro (various) .MAD MS Access Module Shortcut .MAF MS Access Form Shortcut .MAG Picture File MS Access Diagram Shortcut .MAI Mail .MAK Make File (compiler project file) .MAM MS Access Macro Shortcut .MAN Manual .MAP Image Color Palette Duke Nukem WAD File Ingres Termcap Mapping File Linker Map Micrografx Format Data .MAQ MS Access Query Shortcut .MAR MS Access Report Shortcut .MAS Focus Master Data Definition MS Access Stored Procedures Lotus Freelance Graphics Smartmaster File .MAT Sound File Matlab Variables Binary File MS Access Table Shortcut .MAV MS Access View Shortcut .MAW MS Access Data Access Page .MAX Kinetix's 3D Studio MAX Scene Paperport File OrCAD Layout File .MAZ Hover Maze Data Division's dVS/dVISE File .MB Paradox Memo Holder .MB1 Apogee Monster Bash Data File .MBF MS Money Backup File .MBK dBase IV Multiple Index Backup .MBX Mailbox Message File (Outlook v1-4 or Eudora) .MCC Mathcad Configuration Dialer10 Calling Card Monu-Cad Pro CAD File .MCD Mathcad Document Monu-Cad Pro CAD File .MCF Mathcad Font .MCI Media Control Interface Command Set .MCL Multimedia Manager Collection File .MCP Mathcad Printer Driver .MCR DataCAD Keyboard Macro File .MCS MathCAD Format File .MCW Word for Macintosh Text File .MCX Graphic File .MD Compressed Archive File .MDA MS Access Add-in MS Access 2 Workgroup .MDB MS Access Database MS Access Application .MDE MS Access Database File .MDF Menu Definition File .MDL Digitrakker Music Module Quake Model File .MDM Telix Modem Definition .MDN MS Access Blank Database Template .MDP MS Developer Studio Project .MDT MS Access Add-in Data .MDW MS Access Workgroup Information .MDX dBase IV Multiple Index .MDZ MS Access Wizard Template .ME Information (e.g., READ.ME) .MEB WordPerfect Macro Editor Bottom Overflow File .MED WordPerfect Macro Editor Delete Save OctaMED Tracker Module .MEM WordPerfect Macro Editor Macro Memory File of Variables .MEN Menu .MEQ WordPerfect Macro Editor Print Queue .MER WordPerfect Macro Editor Resident Area Data Interchange Format .MES Message File WordPerfect Macro Editor Work Space .MET WordPerfect Macro Editor Top Overflow File Presentation Manager Meta File OmniPage Document .MEU DOS Shell Menus .MEX Matlab Executable Command WordPerfect Macro Editor Expound File .MF MetaFont Text File .MFF MIDI File Format .MGC MGCSoft Equation Editor File .MGF Image File Micrografx Font Materials and Geometry Format File .MGM MGCSoft Equation Editor Macro File .MH Graphic File .MHG Multimedia File .MHT MS MHTML Document (Archived Web Page) .MI Miscellaneous .MIC MS Image Composer File .MID MIDI File [Viewer] .MIF MIDI Instrument Adobe FrameMaker Interchange Format .MIL Group 4 Fax File .MIM Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) File [MIME] .MIX Power C Object File Multilayer Picture File (MS PhotoDraw 2000 & MS Picture It!) Command & Conquer Movie/Sound File .MK Make File .MKE Make File .MKI Picture File .MLB Macro Library .MLI Encyclopedia Media List 3D Studio's Material-Library File .MLS Miles Sound Tools Compressed DLS .MM Macro Mania Macro .MMC Media Catalog .MME Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) File [MIME] .MMF Meal Master Format MS Mail File .MMM Animation MS Multimedia Movie .MMP MindManager Player Play List File .MMS Miles Sound Tools (Midi+DLS/MLS) .MMZ MusicMatch Theme File .MN2 Descent2 Mission File .MND AutoCAD Menu Program File MNI Mandelbrot for Windows .MNG Animation Shop Animation Multi-image Network Graphics .MNT Foxpro Menu Memo .MNU Menu File (various) .MNW Menu File (various) .MNX AutoCAD Compiled Menu File Foxpro Menu .MNY MS Money File .MOB Device Definitions .MOD Music File ModuleA-2 Program File Windows Kernel Module Amiga and PC Tracker Module MS Multiplan Spreadsheet .MOV QuickTime Video Clip [Viewer] Apple QuickTime Audio .MOZ Netscape Temp File .MP Multiplan File .MP1 MPEG Audio Stream, Layer I .MP2 MPEG Audio Stream, Layer II .MP3 MPEG Audio Stream, Layer III [Viewer] .MPA MPEG Audio Stream, Layer I, II or III .MPC MS Project Calender .MPD Mini Port Driver .MPE MPEG Movie Clip .MPG MPEG Animation [Viewer] MPEG 1 System Stream .MPJ RoboHTML Project .MPM WordPerfect MathPlan Macro .MPP MS Project File CAD Drawing File .MPQ Blizzard Game Data File .MPR Foxpro Program .MPS Multimedia File .MPT MS Project Template File .MPV MS Project View .MPX Foxpro Compiler Menu MS Project Export File .MRB Multiple Resolution Bitmap Graphic .MRI MRI Scan .MRK Informative Graphics Markup File .MRS WordPerfect Macro Resource File .MS Checksum File for Anti-Virus .MSA Magic Shadow Archive .MSC Microsoft Common Console Document .MSG Program Message OzWin Message/Mail File MS Mail Message .MSH MASH (The Microsoft Agent Scripting Helper) .MSI Windows Installer File .MSK Autodesk Mask File PaintShop Pro Mask File .MSN MS Network Document Descent Mission File .MSP MS Paint Graphic File Windows Installer Patch .MST Minispecification Windows SDK Setup Script .MSW Word Text File .MTH Derive Math File .MTM Sound File MultiTracker Music Module .MTV Picture File .MTW Minitab Data File .MU Quattro Menu .MUL Ultima Online Game .MUP Music Publisher File .MUS Audio File .MVB Database MS Multimedia Viewer File .MVF Movie Stop Frame File .MWP Lotus Wordpro 97 Smartmaster File .MXT MS C .MYS Myst Saved Game .MZ MOZART Music Document .MZT MOZART Template File Top of Page .NAN Nanoscope File .NAP NAP Metafile Vector Image .NAV MSN Application Extension .NB Nota Bene Text File .NCB MS Developer Studio File .NCD Norton Change Directory .NCF Netware Command File Lotus Notes Internal Clipboard .NDL Lotus Notes .NDO 3D Low-polygon Modeler .NDX Index (usually dBase compatible) .NED MSN Application Extension .NET Network Configuration .NEW New Information (e.g., WHATS.NEW) .NFF Image File Neutral File Format .NFO Folio Infobase .NG Norton Guide Online Documentation .NIL Norton Icon Library File .NLB Oracle 7 Data .NLM Netware Loadable Module .NLS Code Page National Language Support .NLU Norton Live Update E-Mail Trigger File .NOL Nokia Operator Logo .NOT Notes .NOW Text File (e.g., README.NOW) .NPM Nokia Picture Message .NRG Norton Registration Entries .NRT Nokia RingTone .NS2 Lotus Notes 2 Database .NS3 Lotus Notes .NSF Lotus Notes Database .NSG Lotus Notes .NSH Lotus Notes .NST Audio File Noise Tracker Music Module .NTF Lotus Notes Database Template .NTS Norton Tutorial .NTX Clipper Index .NW NoteWorthy 2 File .NWC Noteworthy Composer Song File .NWS MS Outlook Express News File .NXA ndxCards data files (added 2004-08-13) .NXB ndxCards data files .NXD ndxCards card decks .NXP ndxCards project file Top of Page .O Object File (various) .O$$ Output File (temporary usually) .O01 Typhoon Voice File .OAB MS Outlook Address Book .OAZ OAZ Fax File .OBD MS Office Binder .OBJ Relocatable Object Code (various) Lightwave Object .OBZ MS Office Binder Wizard .OCA Control Typelib Cache .OCX Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Control Extension .OD1 Omnis5 Database File (also .OD2, .OD3, etc.) .ODF Open Document Interchange BattleZone Cartographers Guild File .ODS MS Outlook Express Mailbox .OFC Open Financial Connectivity File .OFF Vector Graphic (Object File Format) 3D Mesh Object File Format .OFM Adobe Font .OFN MS Office FileNew File .OFT MS Outlook Item Template .OFX Open Financial Exchange File .OKT Oktalyzer Tracker Module .OLB Object Library .OLD Old Version (sometimes used as a backup indicator) .OLE Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Object .OLI Olivetti Text File .OMF Image File .OND Lotus Notes-related File (unverified) .ONX Onyx Graphics Postershop File .OPC Beta 44 Job File .OPL Psion Organiser Programming Language Source File .OPO OPL Output Executable File .OPT QEMM Optimize Options MS Developer Studio File .OPX MS Orgchart Organization Diagram OPL Extension DLL .OQY MS Excel OLAP Query File .OR2 Lotus Organiser 2 File .OR3 Lotus Organiser 97 File .ORA Oracle 7 Configuration .ORC MIDI File Oracle 7 Script .ORG Lotus Organiser File .ORI Original .OSS MS Office Search .OST MS Exchange/Outlook Offline File .OTL Super NoteTab Template File .OUT Outlines or Output File (various) .OUT Primavera Systems, Inc. project management software - Schedule report text files (can be read in Textpad) .OV1 Program File - Overlay .OV2 Program File - Overlay .OV3 Program File - Overlay .OVL Program File - Overlay .OVR Program File - Overlay .OZM Sharp Organizer Memo Bank .OZP Sharp Organizer Telephone Bank Top of Page .P PASCAL Program File Applause Picture .P10 Tektronix Plot 10 Drawing Certificate Request .P3 Primavera Systems, Inc. project management software - Primavera Project data files (of various types) .P65 Pagemaker 6.5 File .P7C Digital ID File .P7M PKCS #7 MIME Message (see Section 3.2 in RFC 2311 [MIME] .P7R Certificate Request Response .P7S PKCS #7 Signature .PAB MS Personal Address Book .PAC SB Studio II Package .PAD Telemate Keypad Definition .PAG Property Page File .PAK Compressed Archive File Quake WAD File .PAL Color Palette Adobe Pagemaker Library Palette Compressed File .PAN Chromeleon Control Panel .PAR Fractint Parameter File .PAS Pascal Source Code .PAT AutoCAD Hatch Pattern Patch Corel Vector Pattern Advanced Gravis Ultrasound Forte Tech. Patch .PBD PowerBuilder Dynamic Library .PBF Turtle Beach Pinnacle Bank File .PBK MS Phonebook .PBL PowerBuilder Library .PBM UNIX Portable Bitmap .PBR PowerBuilder Resource .PBI Profiler Binary Input .PBM PBM Portable Bit Map Graphic [Viewer] .PBO Profiler Binary Output .PBT Profiler Binary Table .PC PC-specific Text File .PC3 Harvard Custom Palette (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .PC5 Rockwell Software Logix 5 File .PC8 ASCII Text IBM-8 .PCA PCAnywhere Registry Backup .PCB Protel Technology Advanced PCB Design .PCC Image File .PCD Photo-CD Image [Viewer] P-Code Compiled Test Scripts .PCE Eudora Mailbox Name Map .PCF Profiler Command File .PCH Patch File MS C PreCompiled Header .PCK Turbo Pascal Pick File .PCL HP-PCL Graphic Data File (HP Printer Control Language) .PCM Sound File OKI MSM6376 Synth Chip PCM Format .PCP Symantec Live Update Pro .PCS PICS Animation .PCT Bitmap Graphic (Apple PICT Format Usually) .PCW PC Write Text File .PCX PC Paintbrush Bitmap Graphic [Viewer] .PDB Palmpilot Database File Pegasus DataBase Tact File QuickPOS Database File .PDD Adobe PhotoDeluxe Image .PDF Printer Description Adobe Acrobat File Netware Printer Definition File MS Package Definition File (Inventory-related) .PDG PrintShop Deluxe File .PDI MS Powerpoint File .PDQ Patton & Patton Flowcharting PDQ Lite File .PDR Port or Printer Driver .PDS PDS Graphic Telsis HiCall Program File .PDT ProCite Primary Database .PDV Paintbrush Printer Driver .PDX Paradox Files ProCite Database Keys Acrobat Catalog Index .PEB WordPerfect Program Editor Bottom Overflow File .PED WordPerfect Program Editor Delete Save .PEM WordPerfect Program Editor Macro .PEQ WordPerfect Program Editor Print Queue File .PER WordPerfect Program Editor Resident Area .PES WordPerfect Program Editor Work Space File .PET WordPerfect Program Editor Top Overflow File .PF Monitor or Printer Profile File Aladdin Systems Private Files Encrypted File .PFA Outline Font (ASCII) .PFB Outline Font (Binary) .PFC PF Component .PFE Programmers File Editor .PFK XTree Programmable Function Keys .PFM Printer Font Metrics .PFP Panorama Factory Project File .PFR PaintShop Pro File .PFT Chiwriter Printer Font .PGL Graphics (Plotter) .PGM Portable Graymap Graphic [Viewer] Chromeleon Batch Program .PGP Program Parameter Pretty Good Privacy .PGX Binary Property Page File .PH PERL Header MS Help Compiler Phrase Table .PHD PC Help Desk File .PHO Phone List .PHP PHP Script MS Picture It! Publishing Project File .PHR NoExcuse Phrase Checker .PIC PC Paint Bitmap Graphic Lotus Picture Macintosh PICT Drawing .PIF Windows Program Information File IBM PIF Drawing .PIG Lucas Arts Dark Forces WAD File .PIM PixMaker Project File .PIN Pushpin Set Epic Pinball Data File .PIT Macintosh Compressed Archive File .PIX PrintMaster Graphic File Inset Systems Bitmap .PJ MKS Source Integrity File .PJL ProCite Term Lists and Journal Title Lists .PJT Foxpro Project Memo .PJX Foxpro Project .PKA Compressed Archive File .PKB QuickPOS (Point-Of-Sale) Keyboard Layout File .PKG MS Developer Studio Application Extension AppleLink Package Compression Format File .PKO PublicKey Security Object .PKR PGP Public Keyring .PL Harvard Palette (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) PERL Program File .PL3 Harvard Chart Palette (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .PLB Foxpro Library .PLB LogoShow Screensaver .PLC Lotus Add-in .PLD PLD2 Source File (program due out 1Q2001) .PLG REND386/AVRIL File .PLI Oracle 7 Data Description .PLL Prelinked Library .PLM DisorderTracker2 Module .PLN WordPerfect Spreadsheet File .PLS DisorderTracker2 Sample WinAmp MPEG PlayList File Shoutcast File MYOB Data File .PLT AutoCAD HPGL Vector Graphic Plotter File Gerber Sign-making Software File .PLY Autodesk Polygon .PM PM Graphic or Perl Module .PM3 PageMaker 3 Document .PM4 PageMaker 4 Document .PM5 PageMaker 5 Document .PM6 PageMaker 6 Document .PML NT4 Performance Monitor Log File PADGen Program Information .PN3 Harvard Printer Driver (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .PNG Public (Portable) Network Graphic (proposed GIF replacement) [Viewer] PaintShop Pro Browser .PNM PBM Portable Any Map Graphic .PNT MacPaint File .POG Descent2 File .POL Music File AscToHTM Policy File .POP dBase Popup Menu .POS ProCite Output Styles QuickPOS IIF File (see IIF above) .POT PowerPoint Template .POV Persistence of Vision Ray-tracer .PP Compressed Archive File .PP4 Picture Publisher .PP5 Picture Publisher .PPA PowerPoint Add-in .PPB WordPerfect Print Preview Button Bar .PPD PostScript Printer Description .PPF Turtle Beach Pinnacle Program File .PPL Harvard Polaroid Palette Plus ColorKey Driver (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .PPM PBM Portable Pixelmap Graphic [Viewer] .PPO Clipper Preprocessor Output .PPP Serif PagePlus Publication Parson Power Publisher .PPS PowerPoint Slideshow .PPT PowerPoint Presentation .PPX Serif PagePlus Publication .PQ Adobe Pagemaker Default Printer Style .PQI Power Quest Drive Imaging Software .PR2 Persuasion Presentation .PR2 dBase IV Printer Driver .PR3 dBase IV PostScript Printer Driver .PRC Palmpilot Resource File .PRD Printer Driver .PRE Freelance Presentation .PRF Preferences File (various) dBase IV Printer Driver Profiler Output PICS Rules File .PRG Program File (various) OzWin Purged Messages File WAVmaker Program .PRJ Project File 3D Studio File HitPlayer Advanced Playlist File .PRM Parameter File .PRN Printer Text File DataCAD Windows Printer File XYWrite Printer Driver PostScript File .PRO Profile PROLOG Program File .PRS Printer Resource File WordPerfect Printer Resource Font File dBase Procedure Harvard File (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .PRT Printer Configuration Printer-formatted File Unigraphics Part File (CAD modeling data) .PRV PsiMail Internet Provider Template Previous Version (used for files that change) .PRX Foxpro Compiler Program .PRX Primavera Systems, Inc. project management software - Archive file of all packaged project datafiles compressed for transfer to another user or for archival purposes. .PRZ Freelance Graphics 97 File .PS PostScript .PSB Pinnacle Sound Bank .PSD Photoshop Format [Viewer] Apple Viewer File .PSF Chiwriter PostScript Printer Font .PSI PSION A-law Audio .PSM Turbo Pascal Symbol Table Protracker Studio Module Format Epic Games Sound Data .PSP PaintShop Pro Image [Viewer] .PST Outlook Personal Folder File .PSY PLD2 System File (program due out 1Q2001) .PT3 Harvard Device Driver (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .PT3 PageMaker Template .PT4 PageMaker Template .PT5 PageMaker Template .PTM PolyTracker Music Module .PUB PGP Public Key Ring Ventura Publication MS Publisher Document .PUF Puffer Encrypted File .PW Professional Write Text File .PWA Password Agent File .PWD Pocket Word Document .PWF ProCite Workforms .PWL Password List .PWP Photoworks Image File .PWZ PowerPoint Wizard .PX Primary Index .PX Paradox Primer Database Index .PXL Pocket Excel Spreadsheet .PY PYTHON Script Yahoo Saved Messages .PYC Compiler PYTHON Script .PZD Pizazz Plus File .PZO Pizazz Plus File Top of Page .Q9Q BladePro Graphic Plugin File .QAD PF QuickArt Document .QAG Norton Desktop Quick Access Group .QBB QuickBooks for Windows Backup File .QBD Keyboard Layout .QBE Example Query (Query By Example) .QBO dBase IV Ordered Query .QBW QuickBooks for Windows File .QCP Qualcomm PureVoice File .QDI Dictionary .QDK Quarterdeck QEMM File .QDT Quicken Data .QEF Excel Query .QEP IRMA Wordstation for Windows .QFL Family Lawyer Document .QFX Quick Link Fax .QIC Backup Set .QIF Quicken Interchange Format QuickTime Image .QLB MS C Quick Library .QLC PostScript Help File .QM Quality Motion File .QMT Quicken Memorized List .QNT Chromeleon Quantification Method .QNX Quicken Indexes .QPR OS/2 Printer Queue Driver Foxpro Relational Query .QPX Foxpro Ordered Query .QRP Centura Report Builder File .QRS WordPerfect Equation Editor .QRT QRT Ray Tracing Graphic .QRY dBase IV Query MS Query .QSC Pxyl Visuals Chart .QST Quake Spy Tab File .QT Quicktime Video .QTI QuickTime Image .QTM QuickTime Movie .QTP QuickTime Preferences .QTS Macintosh PICT Image QuickTime Image .QTX QuickTime Image .QUE Task Scheduler Queue Object CuteFTP Queue File .QW Q&A Write File .QWB Quotes WriteBack Import File (MS Money) .QXD QuarkExpress File Top of Page .R Pegasus Mail Resource File .R?? RAR Compressed File (?? can be 01 to 99) .R8 RAW Graphic File .R8L LaserJet Landscape Font .R8P LaserJet Portrait Font .RA RealMedia File [Viewer] .RAM RealMedia Metafile .RAR RAR Compressed Archive .RAS Sun Raster Graphic [Viewer] .RAT Rating System File .RAW RAW RGB 24-bit Graphic Raw Signed PCM Data .RAX Image File .RB RocketEdition File .RBF R:Base Data File .RBH RoboHelp Configuration .RC Borland C++ Resource Compiler Script File .RD3 Ray Dream Designer Graphics CorelDream 3D .RD4 Ray Dream Designer Graphics .RD5 Ray Dream Designer Graphics .RDB TrueVector Rules Database .RDF Resource Description Framework File Chromeleon Report Definition .RDL Descent Registered Level .RDX Reflex Data File .REC Sprint Record File Windows Recorder Macro RapidComm Voice File .REF Cross Reference .REG Registration Data .REM Annotation (remark) .REP Text Document .REQ Request .RES Resource File (various programs) .REX REXX Program File .REZ Resources .RF Sun Raster Graphic RealFlash Clip .RFD RecogniFORM Form Definition .RFG RFG Research System Database .RFH RFG Household Database .RFT Revisable Format Text .RGB Picture File .RI Lotus File .RIA Alpharel Group IV Raster Graphics File .RIC Ricoh Graphic File .RIF Fractal Painter Bitmap .RIP Remote Imaging Protocol .RIX Colorix File RIX Virtual Screen .RL2 Descent2 Registered Level .RLA Advanced Visualizer File Wavefront Raster Image .RLB Harvard Graphic File (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .RLC Image Systems CAD Overlay .RLE Graphic (Run Length Encoded) [Viewer] .RM RealMedia File .RMD RegMaid Document .RMF Rich Map Format (3D Games) .RMI MIDI File [Viewer] .RMK RMake Make File .RMM RealPlayer File .RND AutoCAD Rendering Slide AutoShade Format .RNL GTX Runlength Raster Graphics .RNX RealPlayer File .ROL Adlib Music .ROV Rescue Rover Data .RP RealPix Clip .RPD Rapidfile Database .RPM RedHat Package Manager (Linux) RealMedia Player File .RPT Report (various) .RQY MS Excel OLE DB Query File .RR Railroad Tycoon .RRS Road Rash Save File .RSB Rogue Spear Bitmap .RSL PC Tools Resources Library Borderland's Paradox 7 Report Adobe Pagemaker File .RSP Responce Text File Rockwell Software Logix 5 File .RT RealText Clip .RTA RoboHelp Configuration .RTF Rich Text Format .RTK RoboHelp Configuration .RTL Text File .RTM Real Tracker Music Module .RTP TurboTax Update File .RTS RoboHelp Configuration RealAudio RTSL Document .RUL InstallShield .RUN PC Tools Script Tools Program .RV RealVideo Clip .RVP Microsoft Scan Configuration File .RX Reflex Database Driver .RXD Reflex Database .RXH Reflex Database Help File .RXR Reflex Database Report .RXS Reflex Database Screen Driver Top of Page .S Assembler Source Code .S$$ Temporary Sort File .S01 WordPerfect Distribution File .S02 WordPerfect Distribution File .S03 WordPerfect Distribution File .S3I ScreamTracker v3 Instrument .S3M ScreamTracker v3 Module ScreamTracker v3 Sound File .SAH SETI@Home Data File .SAM AMI Pro Text File Signed 8-bit Sample Data .SAN The Curse of Monkey Island Movie File .SAV Backup Saved File .SB Audio File Raw Signed Byte (8-bit) Data .SBK Emu SoundFont v1.x Bank Files Creative Labs SB AWE 32 .SBL Shockwave Flash Object .SBP Superbase DML Program .SC Framework Screen Driver Paradox Source Code Ingres Embedded SQL/C Source File .SC2 Sample Cell II PC Instrument Schedule+ File SAS Catalog .SC3 Harvard Screen Driver (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .SCC Text File Stamp Collector's Girl Friday Catalog File Source Safe File .SCD Graphic (SCODL Scan Conversion Object Description Language) Schedule+ File TurboTax Schedule File .SCE SoftCuisine Data Exchange File .SCF Windows Explorer Command .SCH Schedule+ File EAGLE Schematic File .SCI ScanVec Inspire File .SCL SCALA Scale .SCM SchematicMaker (Topanga Software) File ScreenCam Movie .SCN Compressed Screen format TrueSpace2 Scene .SCO High Score (various) .SCP Script (various) .SCR Faxview Fax Screen Saver Script .SCT Foxpro Screen PC Tools Script Tools Scitex Continuous Tone Bitmap SAS Catalog Windows Script Component Lotus Screen Capture Text .SCV ScanVec CASmate File .SCX Foxpro Screen Image File .SD Sound Designer I Audio .SD2 Sound Designer II Flattened File Sound Designer II Data Fork SAS Database .SDA StarOffice Drawing SoftCuisine Data Archive .SDC StarOffice Spreadsheet .SDD StarOffice Presentation .SDF Standard Data Format Schedule Data File System File Format Autodesk MapGuide Spatial Data Files .SDK Roland S-series Floppy Disk Image Autosketch Drawing .SDL SmartDraw Library .SDN Shell Archive .SDR SmartDraw Drawing .SDS StarOffice Chart Raw Midi Sample Dump Standard File .SDT SmartDraw Template .SDV Semicolon Divided Values File .SDW StarOffice Text Raw Signed DWord (32-bit) Data Lotus WordPro Graphic .SDX Midi Sample Dump Standard Files Compacted by SDX .SEA Macintosh Compressed Archive File .SEC Compressed Archive File PGP Secret Key Ring .SEG Compressed File Segment .SEL PaintShop Pro Selection File .SEP TIFF Bitmap Separation .SEQ Animation File Chromeleon Sequence List .SES Digital Audio Editor File .SET Driver Set Image Settings Backup File Set Configuration (various) .SEX Urban Chaos Game File .SF Sound File OS/2 WPS Attribute Storage IRCAM SoundFile .SF2 Emu SoundFont v2.0 File Creative Labs Soundfont 2.0 Bank File .SFD SoundStage Sound File Data .SFI Ventura Printer Font SoundStage Sound File Info .SFL Ventura Printer Font LaserJet Landscape Font .SFP Ventura Printer Font LaserJet Portrait Font .SFR Sonic Foundry Sample Resource .SFS StarOffice Frame PCL 5 Scalable Font .SFT Chiwriter Screen Font .SFW Graphic File (Seattle Film Works) [Viewer] .SFX Self-extracting Archive .SGF Smart Game Format .SGI Graphic File [Viewer] .SGL StarOffice Master Document .SH Archive File .SH3 Harvard Presentation (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .SHB Corel Background File Document Shortcut File .SHG Hotspot Editor Hypergraphic .SHK Macintosh Compressed Archive File .SHM WordPerfect Shell Macro .SHP 3D Studio Shapes File 3D Modeling File (various) .SHR Archive File .SHS Shell Scrap Object File .SHW Corel Presentation WordPerfect Slide Show Show File .SI SoftImage Image File .SIG Signature File .SIK Backup File .SIM Simulation .SIT Macintosh Compressed Archive File .SIZ Oracle 7 Configuration .SKA PGP Secret Keyring .SKB QuickPOS (Point-Of-Sale) Standard Keyboard Layout File .SKL Authorware Resource .SKN FileWrangler/SecurDesk!/ImageForge Graphic Skin eRocket eBook Skin .SL S-Lang Program File PACT's Save Layout .SLB AutoCAD Slide Library .SLC Telix Compiler SALT Script .SLD AutoCAD Slide .SLG Chromeleon Audit Trail .SLK Data Exchange File (Symbolic Link) .SLT Telix SALT Script Application .SM Smalltalk Program File .SM Samna Word Text File .SM3 DataCAD Symbol File .SMD StarOffice Mail .SMF StarOffice Formula .SMI RealPlay SMIL File .SMK Smacker Compressed File .SMM Ami Pro Macro .SMP Sample or Samplevision Format Ad Lib Gold Sample .SND Sound Clip [Viewer] Raw Unsigned PCM Data AKAI MPC-series Sample NeXT Sound Macintosh Sound Resource .SNG MIDI Song .SNM Netscape Mail .SNO SNOBOL Program File .SNP Shapshot file (Snapview) .SOU SB Studio II Sound .SP Compressed Archive File .SPC Multiplan Program WordPerfect Temp File SNES Audio file .SPD Harvard Bitstream Typefaces (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) PostScript Printer Mini-driver Speech Data File Speedo Scalable Font .SPG Sprint Glossary .SPL Compressed Archive File Printer Spool File Sprint Printer Driver Sample File Spell Checker Digitrakker Sample Shockwave Flash Object .SPM WordPerfect File .SPN WordPerfect Distribution File .SPP Sprint Printer File .SPR Sprint Document Letter Foxpro Generated Screen Program .SPS Sprint Screen Driver .SPT SPITBOL Program File .SPX Foxpro Compiler Screen Program Screen Peace Extension .SQB SyQuest Backup .SQC Structured Query Language Common Code File [SQL] .SQL Structured Query Language Data [SQL] .SQR Structured Query Language Program File [SQL] .SQZ Compressed Archive File .SRC Sourcecode (various) .SRF Sun Raster Graphic File .SSD SAS Database .SSF Enable Spreadsheet File .SSI Installer/GD Software Setup Information .SSM RealPlay Standard Streming Metafile .SST Certificate Store .ST SMALLTALK Program File Atari ST Disk Image .STA Eudora File .STD State Transition Diagram Graphic SureThing CD Labeler Document .STF Compressed Archive File Setup Information Structured File .STG PageKeeper Storage File .STK Personal Stock Monitor File .STL Certificate Trust List CAD Software Solid Modeling/Prototyping File .STM Sound File State Transition Diagram Model Scream Tracker v2 Module SHTML File .STP PageKeeper Packed Storage File .STR dBase Structure List DataPerfect Structure File Sceensaver Stream File (Playstation Discs) .STS MS C Project Status Info .STY Style Sheet MS Interactive Music Control LaTeX2e Style .SUD Super Project Analyzer Data .SUN Sun Raster Graphic File .SUP WordPerfect Supplemental Dictionary Super Porject Analyzer Project .SVD Word Backup File .SVG Word Backup File Scalable Vector Graphics File .SVS Word Backup File .SVX Interchange File Format, 8SVX/16SV Amiga 8SVX Sound .SW Audio File Raw Signed Word (16-bit) Data .SWA Shockwave Audio File .SWD Storybook File (educational) .SWF Macromedia Flash Format [Alternate] [Viewer] .SWI Swish Data File .SWL Macromedia Flash Format [Alternate] .SWP Sprint Backup File Swap File .SWT VB Setup Wizard Template File Space Watch Pro Data File .SY3 Harvard Symbol File (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .SYD Sysedit Backup File .SYL SYLK Spreadsheet Format .SYM Symbol Table (various) .SYN Synonym File .SYS System Configuration System Device Driver .SYW Harvard Symbol Graphic (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) Yamaha SY-series Wave Files Top of Page .T?? Ingres Table/Index File (?? = Hex 00 to FF) .T2T Sonata CAD Modelling File .TAB Guitar Tablature File .TAG Dataflex Query Tag Name .TAH Turbo Assembler Help File .TAL Adobe TypeAlign Text Illustration File .TAR Compressed Archive File .TAX Turbotax File .TAZ TAR.Z Compressed File .TB1 Turbo C Font .TB2 Turbo C Font .TBK Memo Backup (database programs) Asymetrix Toolbook .TBL Adobe Pagemaker Import Mapping Table .TC Borland Configurations File .TCH Borland Help File .TCL TCL/TK Language Script .TD Turbo Debugger Configurations File .TDB Thumbs Plus Database .TDF Trace Definition File Typeface Definition File (for fonts) .TDH Turbo Debugger Help File .TDK Turbo Debugger Keyboard Record .TDO Compressed File .TDP Serif DrawPlus Thumbnail .TDS Turbo Debugger Symbol Table .TEM Icon Author Template Turbo Editor Macro Language .TEX TeX LaTeX File Texture File .TF Turbo Profiler Configuration File .TFA Turbo Profiler Area File .TFH Turbo Profiler Help File .TFM Tagged Font Metric .TFS Turbo Profiler Statistic .TG4 CCITT Group 4 Fax .TGA Truevision Targa Graphic [Viewer] .TGZ UNIX Tar File Zipped .THB Bitmap Graphic .THD Thread .THM MS Clipart Gallery Database Serif DrawPlus Theme .THN Graphics Workshop for Windows Thumbnail .THP TurboTax-related File .THS WordPerfect Thesaurus .TIF Tagged Image Format File [Viewer] .TIG Tiger Government Map File .TLB Remote Automation Truelib Files OLE Type Library .TLD Trellix File .TLE NASA Two-Line Element Set .TLT Trellix Web Design File .TLX Telex Trellix Data File .TMF WordPerfect Tagged Font Metric File .TMO Zortech C++ Global Optimizer Output File .TMP Temporary File .TMS Telemate Script .TOC Eudora Table Of Contents .TOL Kodak Photoenhancer .TP Turbo Pascal Configuration File .TP3 Harvard Template (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) .TPH Turbo Pascal Help File .TPL Turbo Pascal Resident Units Harvard Template (Harvard Graphics taken over by Serif) fKey Template Designer Template File CakeWalk Audio Template File DataCAD Template File .TPP Turbo Pascal Protected Mode Units Teleport Pro Project TypePlus File .TPU Turbo Pascal Unit .TPW Turbo Pascal Unit .TRE PC Tools Directory Tree .TRK Kermit Script File .TRM Terminal Settings (various) .TRN Quattro Translation Adobe Pagemaker File MKS Source Integrity Project Log .TRP Tripmaker File .TS Tune Smithy File .TSP Windows Telephony Service Provider .TST WordPerfect Printer Test File Test File .TTC TrueType Compressed Font .TTF TrueType Font .TTK Corel Catalyst Translation Tool Kit .TTL Tera Term Macro File .TUB PaintShop Pro Tube File .TUT Tutorial .TWF TabWorks File .TWW Tagwrite Template .TX8 DOS Text File .TXB Descent/D2 Encoded Briefing File .TXC Urban Chaos Game File .TXT Text File .TXW Yamaha TX16W Wave Files .TXX DataPerfect Text Storage .TYM PageMaker Time Stamp .TZ Compressed File Ingres Time Zone File Top of Page .U96 EasyZip Temporary File .UAP User Agent Wireless Telephony Profile .UB Audio File Raw Unsigned Byte (8-bit) Data .UC2 Compressed File .UCM Urban Chaos Game File .UCN Compressed Archive .UDF WindowsNT Uniqueness Database File Photostyler Image Filter .UDL MS Data Link .UDW Raw Unsigned DoubleWord (32-bit) Data .UE2 Encrypted Archive .UFO Ulead Object File .UG Drawing File (various) .UHS Universal Hint System File .UI User Interface Geoworks UI Compiler Espire Source .UIF WordPerfect Long Prompts .UIH Geoworks UI Compiler Espire Header .UL uLAW Audio File .ULD Procomm Uploaded Files .ULS Internet Location Service .ULT UltraTracker Music Module .UMB MemMaker Backup Archive .UNI MikMod (UniMod) Format Forcast Pro Data File .UNX Text File (usually UNIX) .UPD dBase Update File Universal Print Driver (cross-platform) Updated Program Data (various) .UPI ULead Photo Impact Program File .UPO dBase Compiled Update File .UPX ULead Photo Express Saved Image File .URF Radar ViewPoint Universal Radar Format .URL Internet Location .USE MKS Source Integrity File .USL LaserJet Landscape Font .USP PageMaker Printer Font LaserJet Portrait Font .USR User Database (various) .UTL Sound File .UTP BinPatch Patch Data File .UU Compressed Archive File (UUENCODE) .UUD Uudecoded .UUE Uuencoded .UW Audio File Raw Unsigned Word (16-bit) Data Unitype GlobalWriter File .UWF UltraTracker Wave File Top of Page .V8 Covox 8-bit Audio .VAL Validity Checks dBase Values .VAP Annotated Speech .VAR Icon Author Variable .VBA VBase File .VBG Visual Basic Group Project .VBL User Control Licensing File .VBP Visual Basic Project .VBR Remote Automation Registration Files .VBS VBScript Script File .VBW Visual Basic Project Workplace .VBX Visual Basic Extension .VBZ Wizard Launch File .VC VisiCalc Spreadsheet File .VCE Natural MicroSystems Voice File .VCF vCard File Vevi Configuration File .VCS vCalendar File (Outlook) .VCT FoxPro Class Library .VCX FoxPro Class Library Spreadsheet File .VDA Targa Bitmap .VDO VDOScript File .VEW Clipper Viewfile .VGA VGA Screen Driver Targa Bitmap .VGR Ventura Graphic .VI Virtual Instrument LabView File .VIB Chemsoft® Export/Import MSDS Data .VIC Vicar Picture File .VID Monitor Control File Screen Driver .VIK Viking Picture File .VIR Virus Infected File (renamed by Symantec Anti-Virus) .VIS Picture File .VIV VivoActive Player Video File .VIZ Division dVS/dVISE File .VLB Corel Ventura Library .VMF Ventura Font Characteristics FaxWorks Audio File .VOB DVD Video Movie File .VOC Quartet Audio File Creative Labs Sound .VOX Vox Audio Dialogic ADPCM Talking Technology Inc. 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