# What symbols are used for chemical equations?

All of the symbols used in chemical equations are up on the periodic table. I hope that helps.

Actually there are a number of additional symbols used besides those found on the periodic table. Some of these include:

(s) means the substance is in a solid state

(g) means the substance is in a gaseous state

(l) means the substance is in a liquid state

(aq) means the substance has been dissolved in an aqueus solution (which is to say, water)

→ means "yields" and is used to indicate the result of the reaction.

↔ means that the reaction is reversible

↑ indicates a change of state (into a gas)

↓ indicates a precipitate formed by a reaction

∆ (over the reaction arrow) indicates the application of heat to the reactants

In addition, other factors may be noted above the reaction arrow such as the specific temperature, the catalyst required, the pressure needed, the application if electricity etc.