What type of government does Mexico have?

Mexico is a Federal Representative Republic, officially named Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United Mexican States) which is based on a presidential system set up by the Mexican 1917 Constitution. The system of government establishes three levels of government:

  • The Federal Union.
  • The State Governments.
  • The Municipal Governments.

The Federal Government is constituted by the Powers of the Union, which are the three branches of government: the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. The Legislature is a bicameral Congress of the Union, composed by a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. The Executive is basically the President of the United Mexican States, who is head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Finally, the Judiciary is composed by the Supreme Court of Justice, the Electoral Tribunal and other tribunals and courts. Officials at the legislative and executive levels of government are elected by direct popular vote.

It began to function as a federal republic since 1823, but many events have shaped its current form, the most important being the Mexican Revolution (1910-1921) which established the current Constitution in 1917 and introduced some changes into the way the Mexican government works, such as preventing reelection of the president.