When the sun heats the oceans which substances evaporate?
Water is the only thing.
The sun heats the land and oceans unevenly, creating areas of upwards and downwards moving air as well as pressure differences. This causes air to flow from one area to another. For hurricanes the sun heats the ocean, causing some water to evaporate. The water vapor powers convection in storms which can then strengthen and organize to form hurricanes.
Comets that seldom visit the sun have water and other volatile substances evaporate from their core. Those substances form a long tail out from the core as the solar wind blows them away from the comet. If a comet makes a number of trips around the sun, all of its volatile substances are blown away and it can no longer have a tail.
In the daytime the Sun heats up the surface of the Oceans slightly faster than the Earth's surfaces: it heats the air above and the Wind runs from the Land to the Sea. In the evening the Sun's warmth is retained in the mass of the Earth's surface longer than in the Oceans' bulk: it heats the air above and the Wind flows from the Sea to the Land.
Ultimately the Sun! The Sun heats water in lakes or over the surface of the oceans. This causes water to evaporate and go into the air and the heat from the sun causes this air to rise carrying the water with it - (it is the potential energy from the lifting of the water upwards that will become the hydroelectric energy). Later the water condenses out of the air as rain and falls to the…
The sun causes water to evaporate from the oceans and lakes and this results in rain. The sun also warms the land and water. This also causes the air above it to heat which expands and therefore becomes lighter. This differential heating of the atmosphere results in differences in air pressure which drives weather systems.