Where was the computer invented?
"The Father of Computers" Charles Babbage who invented the 1st mechanical Computer.. in 1834 he dreamt of designing mechanical calculating machines. "... I was sitting in the rooms of the Analytical Society, at Cambridge, my head leaning forward on the table in a kind of dreamy mood, with a table of logarithms lying open before me. Another member, coming into the room, and seeing me half asleep, called out, "Well, Babbage, what are you dreaming about?" to which I replied "I am thinking that all these tables" (pointing to the logarithms) "might be calculated by machinery. "
Cambridge, England.. is where the 1st Computer was invented by Charles Babbage. Meanwhile Ada Lovelace is credited as the "first Computer programmer" since she was writing programs -that is, manipulating symbols according to rules-for Babbages machine.
While it was Babbage who invented the first Computer in Cambridge, another Englishman Alan Turing the "Father of modern computer science" provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine in 1936. Of his role in the modern Computer, Time Magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, states.."The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine"
Iowa State University (Ames, Iowa) by John Vincent Atanasoff. There is some dispute as Atanasoff did not patent his digital computer, and eventually other computers came out. There was a lawsuit filed by ISU which they eventually won that establishes their campus as the "Birthplace of the electronic digital computer".
Check out the answer to "Why was the first computer made?" I've answered the question of when and where as well. Specifically, the first machine we classify as a true computer (capable of making decisions) was the ENIAC which was built at the University of Pennsylvania between 1943 and 1946 by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. However, much of the credit for the original design of the electronic computer is given to John Atanasoff who, together with his graduate student Clifford Berry, developed a working digital computer on the Iowa State campus between 1939 and 1942. Because of improper handling of their patent application, it took almost 50 years for them to receive full credit for their invention the ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer).
During World War II, "the father of modern Computer Science" Alan Turing (inventor of the Turing Machine) worked as a cryptographer, decoding codes and ciphers at one of the British government's top-secret establishments located at Bletchley Park. In January 1943, along with a number of colleagues, Turing began to construct an electronic machine to decode the Geheimfernschreiber cipher. This machine, which they dubbed COLOSSUS, comprised 1,800 vacuum tubes and was completed and working by December of the same year! By any standards COLOSSUS was one of the world's earliest working programmable electronic digital computers. But it was a special-purpose machine that was really only suited to a narrow range of tasks (for example, it was not capable of performing decimal multiplications). Having said that, although COLOSSUS was built as a special-purpose computer, it did prove flexible enough to be programmed to execute a variety of different routines.
Computers have been around for a very, very long time. But the definition of what makes something a computer has changed a great deal. And the progress made on developing computers was made by many many people, not just one "inventor". There are many people out there who would say that the first "computer" was the abacus, invented in Asia about 5000 years ago. But somehow I doubt that this is what you're looking for, so let's look a little more recently... As time went on, there were a number of special devices invented to help with things like tax collecting, taking the census, etc. At first, these were purely mechanical, but by the start of the twentieth century, they were run by steam. The first of the "modern" computers was invented during World War II, in 1941 by a German engineer named Konrad Zuse. The computer was called the Z3 and was used to help design German airplanes and missiles. A couple years later, in 1943, the Allied forces developed a computer called Colossus to help decode German messages. But since the Z3 was developed by the side that lost the war and Colossus stayed a military secret for many years, these computers didn't contribute much to the ones that came next. Independent of the Colossus project, the next computer was the Mark I, designed by Howard H. Aiken, an engineer working with Harvard and IBM. The Mark I was positively huge, taking up half of a football field, but it helped to create ballistic charts for the US Navy during the war. Shortly after this, though, came the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly, working with the government and the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC was a lot like the Mark I, except that it ran about 1000 times faster. Moving along, there were other computers like EDVAC (1945), UNIVAC I (1951), etc. But all these computers had something in common with the older computers - they were designed for a specific purpose and couldn't really be used for anything else. They also all worked by using vacuum tubes, which is what made them take up so much space. The invention of the transistor in 1947 by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley at Bell Labs made the big difference from here. Using transistors, computers came around that could store memory and even run programs. Soon they even had computer languages so that people could change the programs run by the computer when they wanted to. After a while, the focus on computer research came to be on making them smaller, giving us the kinds of computers that we have today. For some great resources with a lot more detailed information, check out these links: Computers: History and Development - Lots of information starting all the way back in Asia all the way
Konrad Zuse - German - developed and built the first binary digital computer in the world, the Z1 in 1938 and in 1941 built the Z3 which was first fully functional program-controlled electromechanical digital computer in the world. Both of these machines were destroyed during WWII.
Different variants on the computer were invented nearly simultaneously by different people in the US, England, and Germany between 1938 and 1945.
Then there was Babbage's work in England in the 1940s, but nothing was built.
The digital computer was invented, but not built, in London England.
The electronic digital computer was invented in a bar in Indiana and built in Ames Iowa.
The analog computer was invented and built in Greece.