Elements and Compounds

Which analytical method for uranium yellowcake?


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2011-08-01 17:23:06
2011-08-01 17:23:06

Determination of uranium in yellowcake (ammonium diuranate) - some methods:

- gravimetry by calcination to U3O8 (only for pure ADU)

- volumetry with potassium dichromate

- potentiometric titration with potassium dichromate

- X-ray spectrometry

- gravimetry as oxinate

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The yellowcake is the ammonim diuranate with the formula (NH4)2U2O7 !

Actually the Yellowcake formula involved in Nuclear energy is U3O8

Yellowcake (a Uranium bearing rock).

Either yellow uranium oxide (yellowcake) or metallic uranium in most reactors. In moderated thermal neutron reactors the uranium is usually enriched to 3% to 5% uranium-235 isotope, in unmoderated fast neutron reactors the uranium is enriched to 20% to 95% uranium-235 isotope. This uranium comes from mines (similar to coal or iron ore mines). What is mined is usually black uranium oxide ore. This ore is processed to make unenriched yellowcake (0.7% uranium-235) and shipped to the enrichment plant. Most enrichment plants process the yellowcake to make uranium hexafloride then run that through their system, producing both enriched uranium (product) and depleted uranium (waste). The enriched uranium hexafloride is then processed back to yellowcake and shipped to a finishing plant that uses it to make the required fuel assemblies.

Conventional transport, usually in the form of yellowcake, in sealed drums.

in reactors: yellowcake, a uranium oxide; after that probably metallic uraniumin stars: ordinary hydrogen; after that helium

Applying a method of analytical chemistry to this solution; also testing with a gamma rays radiometer.

Any rock or mineral containing economically recoverable quantities of Uranium compounds is a Uranium ore. These compounds are most commonly various oxides, silicates, titanates, phosphates, vanadates, arsenates, etc. of Uranium.To get pure Uranium metal from the ore various processes can be used, but a basic outline of the steps goes something like:Crush the ore to particles roughly the size of dust.Mix with chemicals to dissolve the crushed ore and change the oxidation state of the Uranium separating it chemically from the ore molecules.Mix with chemicals that cause the separated Uranium atoms to react with them, forming a precipitate (a Uranium oxide called yellowcake).Filter the solution, the Uranium precipitate will stay in the filter while the rest passes through as waste. Wash in the filter to make sure none of the waste remains to contaminate the Uranium precipitate.Dry the yellowcake powder.Mix yellowcake with magnesium metal granules and heat red hot in a crucible. The mixture will ignite leaving Uranium metal in the bottom of the crucible and magnesium oxide slag on top.Uranium is usually enriched first for reactors and bombs instead of just being converted to metal, also most power reactors use enriched yellowcake not the pure metal. To enrich Uranium the basic outline goes something like this:Mix yellowcake with nitric acid, then ammonia, then hydrogen gas, then hydrofluoric acid, then fluorine gas to produce Uranium hexafluoride.The Uranium hexafluoride it heated to become a gas in an enrichment plant (e.g. gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge). The products are enriched Uranium hexafluoride (e.g. more Uranium-235) and depleted Uranium hexafluoride (e.g. less Uranium-235) from opposite ends of the plant.The Uranium hexafluoride (of either or both types is converted back to yellowcake.

Uranium is extracted as U3O8, an oxide known as yellowcake.Uranium may also be present in water as the UO22+ uranyl cation.Most uranium is U-238, which has a half-life of 4.5 billion years.---------Uranium has about 200 minerals. See for some examples: http://www.webmineral.com/chem/Chem-U.shtmlThe yellowcake is the ammonium diuranate (NH4)2 U2O7 (yellow colour); U3O8 (triuraniumoctaoxyde) is black.Uranium is a chemical element, natural, radioactive, solid, metal.

Yellow cake is ammonium diuranate - (NH4)2U2O7.Yellow cake is an intermediate in the preparation of uranium metal, uranium tetrafluoride and uranium dioxide. It was known from the XIXth century but become important during WWII and Manhattan Project.

Uranium ore (usually black oxide) is mined.Uranium ore is shipped to Mill.Mill separates Uranium from ore and converts black oxide to yellow oxide (yellowcake).Yellowcake is shipped to Enrichment plant.Preprocessing plant converts yellowcake to Uranium Hexafluoride (the only Uranium compound that is a gas near room temperature, but also corrosive to almost every metal except nickel and explosive in contact with either water or oil!!!)Enrichment plant enriches the Uranium in the Uranium Hexafluoride gas from 0.72% Uranium-235 (natural level) to 3% Uranium-235 (power reactor fuel level)Postprocessing plant converts enriched Uranium Hexafluoride to enriched yellowcake.Yellowcake is shipped to fuel pellet Canning plant.Canning plant cans yellowcake in Zirconium alloy fuel pellet cans.Fuel pellets are shipped to fuel rod Assembly plant.Assembly plant inserts fuel pellets into steel fuel rod tubes.Fuel rods are shipped to Reactor.Fuel rods are inserted in Reactor as needed.This is the basic outline from mine to a water moderated & cooled reactor. There are many additional minor steps along the way. For other reactor designs (e.g. metal cooled fast breeder reactor, gas cooled high temperature graphite moderated pebble bed reactor, liquid metal fueled reactor) several of the basic steps themselves will have to change.

There is an element called Yttrium, atomic number 39. Refined uranium ore is called yellowcake.

June H. Taylor has written: 'Yellowcake' -- subject(s): Cartels, Uranium industry

the uranium-lead method is a method to determanie the age of Earth's oldest rocks

Most water moderated reactors use yellowcake powder: a uranium oxide enriched to 3% uranium-235. A few reactors use metallic uranium, sometimes enriched past 20%. Some experimental reactors use plutonium or mixed uranium & plutonium.

Analytical method development, in simple terms, is the process of proving that an analytical method is suitable for use to measure concentration of an active pharmaceutical ingredient in a dosage and will allow more simple methods to verify that it is a reliable measurement.

It could if you snorted yellowcake or uranium machining dust. Another way it might is if you had been in an area where depleted uranium antitank shells had been fired. But lung cancer is probably more likely for any of these cases than nasal cancer.

There is an element called Yttrium, atomic number 39. Refined uranium ore is called yellowcake.

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The same,if you have accurate reading of measurement in graphical method you can precisely measure so there will be no error, in using analytical method you must have an exact & perfect calculation to have an perfect product. .

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Chemistry of conventional explosives used.Uranium chemistry for making yellowcake, hex, etc.Plutonium chemistry for separating it from chopped up fuel pellets.Electroplating chemistry for coating Uranium and Plutonium with Nickel.etc.

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