Radio

Who invented the radio?

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2017-03-16 11:13:11
2017-03-16 11:13:11

The inventor of the radio is widely disputed. So who gets the credit? Nikola Tesla? Guglielmo Marconi? Reginald Fessenden? Oliver Lodge? Amos Dolbear? Nathan Stubblefield? Or was it Mahlon Loomis? == == * Gugliegmo Marconi was an Italian inventor, and was (at first) credited with the invention of the radio, but he was later proven to have used 17 of Nikola Tesla's patents. In 1943, the radio patent by a vote by the United States Congress was reversed and given to Nikola Tesla. * A good side-note to add is that Nikola Tesla invented the fundamentals for the radio transmission before Marconi even thought of it. * See the related link, which makes a good case for Mr. Stubblefield, who demonstrated in 1892 a wireless telephonic device that operated electromagnetically at audio frequencies! * Nikola Tesla is now credited with having inventing modern radio; the Supreme Court overturned Marconi's patent in 1943 in favor of Tesla.

Caveat Lector: It's important to note that the U.S. Supreme Court does not always make the correct ruling. Like any other individual or groups, the Supreme Court is fallible. The infamous Dred Scott decision is one example. Their ruling about the invention and patent of the "O-ring" is another. Inventions and patents are not necessarily the same things. * The Invention of Radio Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone; all three technologies are closely related. (Read the history found on the telegraph and telephone pages to better understand the roots of radio.)

* Few radio broadcasts travel through the air exclusively, while many are sent over telephone wires. * In the 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist, predicted the existence of radio waves. * In 1886 Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, a German physicist, demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. * Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, proved the feasibility of radio communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899 he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter "S", telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message in 1902. * Wireless signals proved effective in communication for rescue work when a sea disaster occurred. Effective communication was able to exist between ships and ship to shore points. A number of ocean liners installed wireless equipment. In 1899 the United States Army established wireless communications with a lightship off Fire Island, New York. Two years later the Navy adopted a wireless system. Up to then, the Navy had been using visual signaling and homing pigeons for communication. * In 1901, radiotelegraph service was instituted between five Hawaiian Islands. By 1903, a Marconi station located in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, carried an exchange or greetings between President Theodore Roosevelt and King Edward VII. In 1905 the naval battle of Port Arthur in the Russo-Japanese war was reported by wireless, and in 1906 the U.S. Weather Bureau experimented with radiotelegraphy to speed notice of weather conditions. * In 1909, Robert E. Peary, arctic explorer, radio-telegraphed: "I found the Pole". In 1910 Marconi opened regular American-European radiotelegraph service, which several months later, enabled an escaped British murderer to be apprehended on the high seas. In 1912, the first transpacific radiotelegraph service linked San Francisco with Hawaii. * Overseas radiotelegraph service developed slowly, primarily because the initial radiotelegraph set discharged electricity within the circuit and between the electrodes was unstable causing a high amount of interference. The Alexanderson high-frequency alternator and the De Forest tube resolved many of these early technical problems. The Navy made major use of radio transmitters -- especially Alexanderson alternators, the only reliable long-distance wireless transmitters - for the duration. * During World War I, governments began using radiotelegraph to be alert of events and to instruct the movement of troops and supplies. World War II demonstrated the value of radio and spurred its development and later utilization for peacetime purposes. Radiotelegraph circuits to other countries enabled persons almost anywhere in the United States to communicate with practically any place on earth. * Since 1923, pictures have been transmitted by wire, when a photograph was sent from Washington to Baltimore in a test. The first transatlantic radiophoto relay came in 1924 when the Radio Corporation of America beamed a picture of Charles Evans Hughes from London to New York. RCA inaugurated regular radiophoto service in 1926. * Two radio communication companies once had domestic networks connecting certain large cities, but these were closed in World War II. However, microwave and other developments have made it possible for domestic telegraph communication to be carried largely in part over radio circuits. In 1945 Western Union established the first microwave beam system, connecting New York and Philadelphia. This has since been extended and is being developed into a coast-to-coast system. By 1988 Western Union could transmit about 2,000 telegrams simultaneously in each direction. * The first time the human voice was transmitted by radio is debatable. Claims to that distinction range from the phrase, "Hello Rainey" spoken by Nathan B. Stubblefield to a test partner near Murray, Kentucky, in 1892, to an experimental program of talk and music by Reginald A. Fessenden, of Brant Rock, Massachusetts, in 1906, which was heard by radio-equipped ships within several hundred miles. * In 1915 speech was first transmitted across the continent from New York City to San Francisco and across the Atlantic Ocean from Naval radio station NAA at Arlington, Virginia, to the Eiffel Tower in Paris. There was some experimental military radiotelephony in World War I between ground and aircraft. * The first ship-to-shore two way radio conversation occurred in 1922, between Deal Beach, New Jersey, and the S.S. America, 400 miles at sea. However, it was not until 1929 that high seas public radiotelephone service was inaugurated. At that time telephone contact could be made only with ships within 1,500 miles of shore. Today there is the ability to telephone nearly every large ship wherever it may be on the globe. * Commercial radiotelephony linking North America with Europe was opened in 1927, and with South America three years later. In 1935 the first telephone call was made around the world, using a combination of wire and radio circuits.

* Until 1936, all American transatlantic telephone communication had to be routed through England. In that year, a direct radiotelephone circuit was opened to Paris. Telephone connection by radio and cable is now accessible with 187 foreign points. * Two years before Marconi was born, in 1872, Mahlon Loomis was granted US Patent No.129,971 for an invention "utilizing natural electricity and establishing an electrical current or circuit for telegraphic and other purposes without the aid of wires, artificial batteries, or cables to form such electrical circuit, and yet communicate from one continent of the globe to another."
he credit of inventing the radio goes to a number of researchers. The names of Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Alexander Popov, Sir Oliver Lodge, Reginald Fessenden, Heinrich Hertz, Amos Dolbear, Mahlon Loomis, Nathan Stubblefield and James Clerk Maxwell can be included.Guglielmo Marconi

He was an Italian inventor who demonstrated the practicability of radio communication. His first radio signal was sent and received in 1895. In 1899, the first wireless signal was sent across the English Channel. In 1902, the letter 'S' was telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first triumphant transatlantic radiotelegraph.
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose invented radio first .In November 1894, the Indian physicist, Jagadish Chandra Bose, demonstrated publicly the use of radio waves in Calcutta, but he was not interested in patenting his work. In 1894, Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves, showing independently that communication signals can be sent without using wires.

Bose was not interested in the commercial applications of the experiment's transmitter. He did not try to file patent protection for sending signals. In 1899, Bose announced the development of an "iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector" in a paper presented at the Royal Society, London. Later he received U.S. Patent 755,840, "Detector for electrical disturbances" (1904), for a specific electromagnetic receiver.

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