Asked by Andy Blackwell Uncategorized
Who is Iaccoca?
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Asked in Cars & Vehicles, Eagle and AMC, Repossession
What is an AMC car?
Answer Here's a very short history from AllPar: "Failing automakers Hudson and Nash merged their fortunes to become American Motors Corporation, hoping that they could reap some economies of scale. Eventually, due to slow sales for their overweight cars, they were bought by Renault, partly to increase Renault's sales in the US. Renault's attempt failed, and Chrysler, under 'buy and sell' Iaccoca, bought AMC. Iaccoca, for unknown reasons, dropped the AMC name, replacing it with Eagle."
Asked in Ford Mustang, Used Car Buying, Classic 1964-1978 Ford Mustangs, Late Model 1979-New Ford Mustangs
The history of the Ford Mustang who designed it when was it invented where was it first built how many different forms of the Mustang are there?
Mr. Phil (Phillip) Clark came up with the idea for the Mustang two seater car while he was in Nashville, Tennessee on his way to California for the Art School of Design. He saw the running horses (wild Mustangs) and wanted to have that as his icon on the car he would create. First he gave the idea to GM (see Witzenberg Doc, 1971 about the GM Mustang) but that didn't work out..then in Advanced Design and Research, a place funded by Grants ETC, the car was completed in Clay--the Team that completed the Car included Jim Quinlan, Jerry Malinowski and others. The Car was liked by the Lincoln Mercury division Head, Eugene (Gene) Bordinat. Phil Clark had also designed several running horses for the car. The 1962 Two seater has one running horse on it, and then in 1964 it had been sent back to CLARK and Malinowski to "Streamline" into a one piece emblem to replace the original Cast two piece emblem. This emblem was put onto the production cars--after it went through a couple of others, see www.ponysite.de for more Mustang history. The Two seater was the forerunner of the Re-designed Falcon. Phil Clark's Mustang Coupe design can be found in the 1963 Fall edition of Motorcade Magazine, signed by him. Joe Oros and Donald Frey and others worked on the production car, and some of Clark's ideas transferred onto the car--scoop ideas, horse and some other minor adjustments. The Car was begun in 1962 to get ready for the 1964 Worlds Fair. The Prototype MUSTANG was a great marketing Scheme By Lee Iaccoca to launch the re-skinned Falcon sells..as they had many Falcon bodies left over. Along with the Advertising (J.Walter) group, Ford took the prototype to colleges in a time when T.V's were scarce and word of mouth would get around that Ford had a Race Car equal to the Corvette that was affordable..and everyone wanted one..so when it came out with just the scoop idea added and of course the Running Mustang Emblem, everyone wanted it..because Ford spent two years carrying the two-seater around to Market the re-skinned Falcon. You can thank motivational management techiques for the original Mustang design, abetted by a shrewd chief designer, Joe Oros. Oros first worked for GM in the 1930s and early 1940s, then joined the independent George Walker group that shaped the vital all-new 1949 Ford and the cars and trucks that built on its timely success. When Walker became Ford's in-house design vice president in 1955, he made Oros an assistant, then named him to head the Ford Studio in 1956. Though Oros would supervise the design of almost every U.S. Ford-brand vehicle over the next dozen years, the Mustang was undoubtedly his biggest success as studio chief. Ironic, then, that his team's winning design was something of a rush job, just like that '49 Ford. Here, in his own words, is how Oros remembers the birth of the 1965 Ford Mustang prototype. Lee Iacocca wanted a car that was more of a personalized, sporty four-seater rather than a tight, European 2+2 package. Gene Bordinat requested proposals for it from our Ford studio, Lincoln-Mercury [and Corporate Advanced]. Oros remembered Clark fondly as one of the most talented designers of that time, and said so as Clark's original designs were revealed at the 40th Anniversary of the Mustang in Nashville, Tennessee....Clark had been almost forgotten until that day his daughter revealed the family treasure kept quiet for so many years. Clark started in Advanced Research and Design (a new named department in that day), freelancing. Was recognized by Eugene Bordinat, who took two seater design from the Advanced design Studio and worked on in in the L-M Studio. Clark then worked closely on the project UNDER Bordinat, and many others were brought in. In the Meantime, Frey's group was working on the 4 seater design. At some point the two came together--Mustang Prototype and Mustang 4 Seater redesigned Falcon. Ford's Benson Research tells the story of the 4 seaters guys fighting the Mustang Name that had been marketed for years to the appropriate age group and women--and those wanting FORD to produce a Race Car Program; so at the last possible minute the Cougars on the 4-seater were replaced SECRETLY and the 4 seater Falcon was then presented to the Public as MUSTANG...it would seem the name grew on both groups after a time---and stuck...along with CLARK's Original (streamlined version) of his Running Horse.
What are the types of cars?
4-Door Sedans - Sedans are a good choice for most automobile shoppers. The enclosed trunk offers security, while the rear doors allow easy entry for rear-seat passengers. Most luxury vehicles are four-door sedans because they're more comfortable than most other body styles. The smallest available in the US are sub-compact sedans like the Hyundai Accent and Chevrolet Metro. Slightly larger are compact models like the Honda Civic and Ford Focus. Mid-size sedans include the Honda Accord, Toyota Camry, Ford Taurus, and Chevrolet Lumina, while the Ford Crown Victoria and Buick LeSabre are considered large sedans. Automotive marketers have created a new "near-luxury" sedan category, meaning any new sedan priced between $30,000 and $40,000, while the traditional luxury sedan costs over $40,000 when new. Near-luxury sedans are usually mid-sized; luxury sedans are usually large, though there are a few exceptions to the size and price limitations. 2-Door Coupes - Coupes are usually driven by single adults or childless couples. Many of them have a hatchback instead of a trunk, to allow large items to be carried for short distances. The rear seats are difficult to access, as the front doors must be used. Station Wagons - An active family will want to look at minivans, sport utility vehicles, or station wagons. In the rest of the world, station wagons remain the first choice for active families. In North America, first minivans and now SUVs have grabbed most of the station wagon's customer base. I have to admit that many minivans now drive and handle much like the wagons they've replaced, but I don't understand the increasing popularity of large SUV's. They're twice as big as they need to be, but seat fewer people than a minivan; they get horrible gas mileage, and their truck-like ride and handling are rough. You'll pay substantially more to insure an SUV than a comparable automobile as a direct result of their poor handling. Many inexperienced drivers find out the hard way that SUVs don't corner like automobiles. I strongly suggest SUV shoppers reconsider and take another look at the station wagon. Station wagons offer more stability, better gas mileage, lower insurance rates, and SUV-sized interiors. You won't lose your all-wheel drive either, as Subaru, Volkswagen, Audi, Volvo, and Mercedes-Benz offer all-wheel drive on all of their wagons. For more information on SUVs read my review of Keith Bradsher's controversial new book, High and Mighty SUV's: the World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way (Public Affairs, $28). Convertibles - Most convertibles are sports cars, meaning two seats, high-performance engines and superior handling. However, GM, Ford, Mitsubishi, and Chrysler offer a few "normal" convertibles, i.e. regular production coupes with four seats and convertible tops, such as the Chevrolet Cavalier, Pontiac Sunfire, Ford Mustang, Dodge Avenger, Chrysler Conquest and Mitsubishi Eclipse Spyder. Luxury convertibles are available from BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Saab, and Volvo. Convertibles are great when the weather's perfect, but their drawbacks are obvious. Sports Cars - Sports cars were originally European two-seat roadsters designed for both daily travel and week-end racing hobbyists. A few 1950's manufacturers (notably Jaguar and Alfa-Romeo) put permanent tops on their roadsters, resulting in the sports coupe. The term sports-sedan is a more recent term to describe a four-door vehicle that handles like a sports coupe or roadster. Recently we've seen luxury cars advertised as luxury sports sedans. Porsche, selling traditional sports cars in this country since the 1950's, until recently had as its only competition the Chevrolet Corvette. 1990 marked the return of the affordable sports car in this country, when Mazda offered its MX-5 (Miata) for under $20,000 dollars, and the incredible demand for it prompted other companies to follow suit. BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Mitsubishi, and Porsche all introduced roadsters for under $40,000 in the latter part of the 1990's. At the same time, Dodge dealers begged Chrysler to produce a 1993 concept car to give the Corvette a run for the money. The Dodge Viper and Plymouth Prowler remain a success story for Chrysler, with this year's production already sold out. Sports cars are cool and fun to drive, though impractical for daily transportation. You'll need a garage to store them in, and a second mortgage to pay for their insurance. But if you've got money to burn, go for it!. Mini-Vans - If you're constantly carting kids or cargo, a minivan may be your best choice. Most newer models offer an additional 4th door on the driver's side and offer comfortable seating for seven. Be aware of the different engines available. I highly recommend you elect to get the largest ( 3.5 & 3.8 liter) engine available in whatever minivan you decide upon. Positively avoid buying a 4-cylinder Dodge or Chrysler minivan, they're grossly underpowered and incapable of hauling heavy payloads for any distances. Most minivans are only available with front wheel drive, although Chrysler offers an optional all-wheel-drive system on certain models. According to Crashtest.com, the Ford Windstar, Toyota Sienna, and '99 - '02 Honda Odyssey are three of the safest vehicles on the road today. In addition, minivans drive and handle just like a car, with the bonus of better visibility due to a higher center of gravity and an upright driving position. Don't look for minivans to handle your boat or trailer towing duties, as front wheel drive vehicles have a very limited towing capacity. Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) - I mentioned in the Station Wagon category how I regard SUVs. For more information read my review of Keith Bradsher's controversial new book, High and Mighty SUV's: the World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way (Public Affairs, $28). Although they're designed for off-road usage, 98% of them never leave the road, fortunately for our wildernesses. If a wagon isn't for you, the car-like SUV's ride and handle significantly better than the rest. They include the Acura MDX, BMW X-5, Lexus RX 300, and Mercedes-Benz ML320, ML430, and AMG-tuned ML55. SUVs come in three sizes: Small: Toyota RAV4, Kia Sportage, Honda CRV, Chevrolet Tracker, and Suzuki Grand Vitara. Medium: Acura MDX, Dodge Durango, BMW X5, Mercedes-Benz M-Class, Lexus RX300, Nissan Pathfinder, Nissan Xterra, Infiniti QX4, Ford Explorer, Ford Escape, Mercury Mountaineer, Hyundai Sante Fe, Jeep Cherokee, Jeep Grand Cherokee, Jeep Liberty, Chevrolet Blazer, Chevrolet Trailblazer, GMC Envoy, Oldsmobile Bravada, Honda Passport, Isuzu Rodeo, Isuzu Trooper, Isuzu Amigo, Toyota 4Runner, Land Rover Discovery, Land Rover Defender, Mitsubishi Montero, Mitsubishi Montero Sport, Mazda Tribute, and Toyota Highlander. Large: Toyota Land Cruiser, Lexus LX470, Toyota Sequoia, Lincoln Navigator, Lincoln Blackwood, Ford Expedition, Ford Excursion, Land Rover Range Rover, Chevrolet Suburban, Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, GMC Yukon XL, GMC Denali, and Cadillac Escalade. Pickup Trucks - More new pickup trucks are sold in this country than any other type of vehicle. The smaller models now offer quad or crew-cab four-door versions, with seating for 5 adults. Full-size models offer extended cabs with smaller third and fourth doors giving access to the rear seats. Standard rear-wheel drive versions don't handle well on snow or ice without a substantial amount of weight in the rear of the truck. When equipped with towing packages with 8- or 10-cylinder engines, these rear-wheel drive vehicles can tow large boats and trailers. Full-size 2-wheel and 4-wheel drive pickups get about 15 miles per gallon. Vans - If you transport large amounts of cargo or need room for more than seven adults, a full-size van is your only option. They're available with and without windows and in payload capacities of over one ton. Extended vans can seat up to 15 adult passengers. Towing packages with 8- or 10-cylinder engines will allow these rear-wheel-drive vehicles to tow large boats and trailers.Hybrid-Power - Hybrid-powered vehicles are the future of the industry, combining the benefits of an electric vehicle with the convenience of a gasoline-powered model. An electric motor handles normal stop-and-go travel and initial highway acceleration. A gasoline- or diesel-powered internal combustion engine kicks in when the vehicle gets to higher speeds. A sophisticated computer control system decides when to switch from one power plant to the other. At highway speeds the gasoline engine recharges the electric motor's batteries, so there's no need for external electric power. Both the Honda Civic and the Toyota Prius get 50+ mpg and are available now for a little over $20,000. Mid-sized hybrids such as the Honda Accord and Toyota Camry are becoming popular as are hybrid SUV's such as the Lexus RX400 and Ford Escape. Hybrid Vehicles - This is a marketing term for vehicles that cross the boundaries implied by terms like truck, car, or van. The first hybrid was the Willys Jeepster, a 4-wheel-drive Jeep touring car with a convertible top and the carrying capacity of a station wagon. Although sport utility vehicles (SUVs) are now considered a separate class of vehicle, they are actually a hybrid cross between a truck and a station wagon car. The Mercedes-Benz ML 320 and ML430 are the only true SUVs, as they don't share a platform with any other car or truck. (See "Shared Platforms," below.) Most SUV's are built on automobile platforms or chassis. The Corolla is the basis for Toyota's RAV4, while the Camry provides the platform for the Lexus RX300. At Honda, the Civic chassis underlies the CRV; at Subaru, the Forester is based on the Impreza. The incredibly successful Chrysler Mini Ram Van (aka Dodge Caravan, Plymouth Voyager) was another hybrid vehicle that eventually carved out its own category. When people speak of a van today, they're usually talking about the minivan, not the traditional truck-based carry-all van popular in the 60's and 70's. Although the idea originated at Ford, Chrysler brought the concept to fruition. The minivan started off as a cross between a light truck and a Chrysler K-car. The 1984 Dodge Caravan brought Chrysler Corporation back from the brink of financial ruin and made Lee Iaccoca a household name. Audi, Volvo and Subaru marketing wizards have created hybrids of their own with the All Road, V70 Cross Country and Legacy Outback models. While retaining a car-like appearance, the Audi All Road (wagon), Volvo V70 Cross Country (wagon), and Subaru Outback (sedan & wagon) feature SUV-like body cladding, off-road driving lights, full time all-wheel-drive, and an increased riding height (distance from ground to chassis). Ford, General Motors, and Daimler-Chrysler have all shown concept vehicles in the same mold, and are seriously considering their manufacture. Four-door pickups have been a staple in the third world for many years. Many consider them to be the next big thing, so at this year's auto shows the manufacturers showed off some new hybrids based on the concept. Subaru is going to produce an Outback Wagon with a pickup bed in place of the rear cargo area (think of a four-door El Camino) and their GM relative, Pontiac, has recently introduced their own hybrid SUV/wagon aimed at GenXers called the Aztek (one of the ugliest vehicles that's ever made it into production). Shared Platforms - "Platform" means a vehicle's suspension, drive train, and structural components. Large manufacturers with multiple divisions produce similar models under different nameplates. For example, although they look different, the new Chevrolet Monte Carlo shares its platform with the Chevrolet Impala and Pontiac Bonneville. The Pontiac Grand Prix, Oldsmobile Intrigue, and Buick Regal share another GM platform. Most minivans don't even try to hide their lineage. The Chrysler Town & Country, Dodge Caravan, and Plymouth Voyager not only share the same platform, they look virtually identical as well. The same holds true for the Chevrolet Venture, Pontiac Montana, and Oldsmobile Silhouette, the minivan siblings from General Motors. Ford has its Expedition and Lincoln Navigator twins. GM, Ford and Chrysler realize that brand loyalty remains an important factor in North American marketing, so look for the domestic siblings and twins to continue for the immediate future. There are numerous examples of shared platforms and look-alike siblings in all vehicle areas. The Lexus ES330 is really a Toyota Camry, while Ford's Lincoln LS and Jaguar S-Type luxury sedans share the same platform. The Nissan Pathfinder and Infiniti QX4 are virtually identical, as are Nissan's Maxima and Infiniti I30. Volkswagen is the leader in successful shared platform marketing. With only four platforms to choose from, they manufacture over 30 different vehicles around the world. Believe it or not, the Volkswagen Beetle and Audi TT sit on the same chassis as the Volkswagen Jetta, Volkswagen Golf, Audi A3 (not sold in the US), and various Skoda and SEAT offerings in Europe. The world's automotive industry increasingly depends on shared platforms. They enable manufacturers to market essentially identical vehicles to different market segments, to help recoup research and development costs. Manufacturers sometimes share development costs and facilities, resulting in model twins and even triplets. For example, the Nissan Quest is identical to the Mercury Villager, while the Isuzu Rodeo, Honda Passport, and Chevrolet Frontera (European model) are all built on the same Isuzu assembly line. Safety - Safety should be your most important consideration when looking for a new or used motor vehicle. I strongly recommend that you visit Crashtest.com early in the car-buying process, to get the safety rating for the cars you are considering. Every year they publish crash-test results from the Federal Government's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In addition to the most current information, they feature safety data on older cars, which lets you assess used cars. Safety Considerations - Safety should be your most important consideration when looking for a new or used motor vehicle. I strongly recommend that you visit Crashtest.com early in the car-buying process, to get the safety rating for the cars you are considering. Every year they publish crash-test results from the Federal Government's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In addition to the most current information, they feature safety data on older cars, which lets you assess used cars. I divide safety into three categories: the weight of a vehicle, passive safety features that help people stay alive and uninjured in a crash, and active safety features that help drivers avoid accidents. Larger, heavier cars with poor ratings may easily produce better results than smaller cars with good ratings. (See the next section, Weight Matters.) In addition to a car that crashes well (Passive Safety), you should look for a car that can avoid a crash altogether (Active Safety). Keep in mind that all of this testing was done with test dummies wearing seat belts and shoulder harnesses. Without them, a 15 mile per hour crash could prove fatal. Four-wheel-drive pick-up trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) are designed to be driven for work, hauling, and off-road purposes. They were not designed to be people movers, and don't handle nearly as well as passenger cars or mini vans. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reports that SUVs are four times more likely to roll over than passenger cars in high-speed maneuvers. In addition, SUV-to-car collisions are six times more likely to kill the occupants of the smaller vehicle when compared to a normal car-to-car collision. You may be safer inside an SUV, but you're at greater risk of killing others in the event of an accident. Weight Matters - All cars must meet US Department Of Transportation standards for crash-worthiness. Larger and heavier cars, however, are usually safer in a collision than smaller ones. If a heavier vehicle collides head-on with a lighter one, the lighter will suffer substantially more damage. Drivers under 20 experience a much higher percentage of traffic fatalities when compared to other drivers, so consider the safety of a large or mid-sized sedan for inexperienced drivers. Large cars offer increased levels of comfort and roominess when compared to their smaller siblings, and today's fuel injected engines allow mid-sized, 6-cylinder automobiles to enjoy remarkably good gas mileage. Passive Safety Features - Passive safety features help drivers and passengers stay alive and uninjured in a crash. Size is a safety feature: bigger is safer. In relation to their numbers on the road, small cars account for more than twice as many deaths as large cars. Restraint systems are also crucial. Safety belts are the best safety device ever developed for the automobile. First installed in the 1950s, they have been mandatory equipment since 1967. Initial use was low (20% in 1970), but education and legislation increased their usage to over 70% by 1987. Modern restraints have automatic seat-belt pre-tensioners to pick up the slack and stretch that occurs in an accident, providing better occupant protection and additional space for the airbag deployment. It's important to remember that even though airbags help reduce serious injuries, safety belts are still needed for full protection. Seat belts and airbags work together in a collision. Driver and passenger-side airbags are now standard equipment on every new motor vehicle sold in the US. Most used cars made after 1996 have them as well. Side-impact airbags greatly increase protection. Most European automakers offer them as standard equipment, and most Asian and domestic manufacturers offer them on their more expensive models. Despite some bad press, airbags save thousands of lives every year. Manufacturers have reintroduced the two-stage airbag (designed at GM in 1970) to avoid potential injuries to children and small adults from cheaper one-stage designs. It's still vital, however, that children ride in the back seat of any motor vehicle. (A word about disconnecting airbags. Babies or children under 4' 7" should NEVER ride in the front seat of a vehicle because rapidly inflating airbags can severly injure or kill small front seat occupants. If there's a child in your future and you have a two-seater, ask your dealer to install a disconnect switch for the passenger-side airbag. You don't want it permanently disconnected; airbags DO save adult lives.) Most automobile headrests provide little protection in rear-end accidents. European automobiles rate far better than domestic or Asian models in this area (see Crashtest.com for head restraint ratings for most new and used vehicles). The federal government required their installation in 1967, but haven't provided standards for their successful implementation. An effective headrest is one that's directly behind the centerline of the head and positioned no more than a couple of inches away. Be aware that some seating options change the size and style of head restraint. Structural integrity is another important component of passive safety. The US Department of Transportation requires that the doors and passenger compartments of automobiles made after 1996 meet minimal side impact standards. The legislation doesn't apply to light trucks (minivans, pickups, SUVs), but most manufacturers of even these vehicles have complied with the law. Active Safety Features - Active safety features help drivers avoid accidents. A vehicle's tires, brakes, handling, acceleration, and visibility all make important contributions to active crash avoidance. The most important safety items on a car are the tires. Think about it: they're all that connects your vehicle to the road. A good set of tires can make a huge difference to the way a car responds to emergency maneuvers. Tire quality also noticeably affects the way a car handles. Sport touring tires have much more grip than regular tires, although their softer compounds don't last as long. Anti-lock brakes (ABS) are an often-misunderstood active safety feature. ABS helps you stop shorter and maintain steering control while braking, especially on slippery surfaces. Take time to understand how it works because in an abrupt stop, ABS feels noticeably different. With regular brakes, sudden stops tend to lock up the brakes, causing a skid. Anti-lock brakes sense when a wheel is locked and electronically pump the brakes ten times faster than you could do it, making a ratcheting noise and a vibration in the brake pedal. Old braking techniques must be unlearned in order to use ABS effectively. In a panic stop, depress the brake pedal once, and hold it down firmly. Do not pump the pedal as you normally would, because that defeats the system. To reiterate: antilock brakes eliminate the need for pedal pumping during panic stops or while braking during wet or icy conditions. Traction Control is a worthwhile option that improves traction and directional stability on slippery roads, using a combination of electronics, drive train control, and ABS. Some systems adjust engine power output while gently applying the brakes to particular wheels during acceleration and cornering. BMW, Cadillac, and Mercedes-Benz offer new electronic stability-control systems on their higher-priced models. These systems help stabilize a vehicle's handling when it's pushed to the limits. Look for these systems to appear on less expensive models in the near future.