Who is the founder of eastern orthodoxy?
Eastern Orthodoxy was founded 2000 years ago by Jesus Christ and His Apostles.
You mean Cyril and Methodius, the two byzantine missionaries? if so the two brothers brought the eastern orthodoxy religion to much of eastern Europe which summarily spread to places they themselves didn't go. I can't tell you specific countries but the Cyrillic alphabet, eastern orthodoxy, and much of their knowledge spread rapidly through eastern Europe among Slavic peoples
Yes; Jesus Christ. As Eastern (including Greek) Orthodoxy, along with Catholism to a large degree, is a continuation of the Early Church which is continued to the present day through Apostolic Succession (where the Apostles, who were chosen by Christ to lay the groundwork for the Christian Church, continued to choose others to follow them in their ministry. These people were and are bishops, popes, and patriarchs in the church, and they in turn ordain…
Ukraine is the initiator of Orthodoxy of Christianity. But when Russia took over Orthodoxy of Ukraine and set their own leader as the leader of all Orthodoxy, Ukraine changed over it's religious leader to Catholic leader, and that's why they are Greek Catholics, Rome Catholics, etc. They are just Orthodox Christians, who support Catholic leader. Some Eastern parts of Ukraine support Orthodoxy.
What church believes that the Holy Spirit comes from a combination of God and Jesus instead of just God?
This is a question which has divided Eastern Orthodoxy from Roman Catholicism and what might be called Western Christianity (the protestant churches plus Roman Catholicism). Eastern Orthodoxy holds that the Spirit proceeds from the Father alone, not from the Father and the Son - which is the belief of Western Christianity.
The majority of Europeans are Roman Catholics. The second largest religion practiced in Europe is Eastern Orthodoxy. Oriental Orthodoxy and Islam come in third and fourth. Even if all forms of protestantism are combined they would still come in below the number of Muslims. This is because Turkey and the Eastern Bloc are still considered to be part of Europe.
In the first years of the Church Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist were all celebrated in the same ceremony; this is how it is still done in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism. As the Church grew, and presbyters rather than bishops were local leaders, the Church in the West began to separate Confirmation from Baptism. Confirmation was celebrated in each parish by the bishop as a sign of unity.
At this point in history, it is extremely unlikely that the Catholic Church will reunite with the Eastern Orthodox faith for a number of reasons: Filioque: "and the Son" an addition by Western Christianity to the Nicene Creed in 589 without agreement with Eastern Christianity Papal Supremacy: Eastern Christianity did not acknowledge the Pope as the supreme and infallable leader of the Church Language: Latin was primarily spoken by Western Christianity, but Greek was spoken…