Eastern Orthodoxy

A Christian Faith that believes in Jesus Christ as both Son of God and God, and in the Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Church. God is defined as the Holy Trinity, which is One God in Three Persons (God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit). The statement of the Orthodox Christian faith is the Nicene Creed.

Asked in Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Northern Ireland

How many Catholic cardinals are there in the world?

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The number of cardinals varies as older cardinals pass away or new cardinals are appointed. There are currently about 180 cardinals world wide but only 120 of those are eligible to participate in a papal conclave to elect a new pope. Once a man reaches 80 years of age he remains a cardinal but is unable to vote. The pope usually will appoint new cardinals to fill the positions held when a cardinal retires or dies so as to keep the number of electors about 120.
Asked in Christianity, Ghosts, Eastern Orthodoxy

Do Eastern Orthodox Christians believe in ghosts?

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There is very little that is "dogma", or that which is required to believe or follow, in the Eastern Orthodox Church. While the Church Fathers and the history of the Church does offer personal opinions of certain very holy people on the subject of "ghosts", the Church cannot ex-communicate someone for simply "believing in them" , as an example. The Eastern Orthodox Church is very fluid about what it considers necessary, or absolute in terms of belief. A person is free to "believe" in ghosts, that is to say, to believe that they exist. It is much harder to quantify what the Church actually teaches as necessary practice, regarding them. I am an Orthodox Christian of many, many years. I am also a former occultist, and in my former life, I was trained as an empathic medium. That kind of training doesn't disappear simply because I converted to Eastern Orthodoxy. Nor does my experience with spirits disappear, simply because of my conversion. As an Orthodox Christian I feel it is my duty to say, that although people certainly shouldn't run around seeking out ghosts, or other spiritual experiences, it is also true that "ghosts" that is the spirits of the departed, certainly DO exist and sometimes interact with the living. Denying this, doesn't make it "fantasy" or "demonic". While all the usual caveats do apply (as in the first answer given, which frankly reads like a very Protestant answer), I think it is very important to point out that the Eastern Orthodox church does not believe in "purgatory" (a Roman Catholic belief), and neither does it believe in "soul sleep" (as do many Protestants). Therefore, the souls of the departed must exist somewhere within God's universe, and as an Orthodox Christian, I see no theological reason why they could not conceivably exist within the the boundaries of earthly existence, experiencing the "particular judgment" while awaiting the Final Judgment. With regard to the dead, it is very important that we pray for them, and since the Church teaches that the dead do hear and experience our prayers, it is a bit illogical for the Church to then turn around and say that they are not somehow, "here". That kind of logic is simply not tenable and ghosts either exist, or they don't. As for myself, I believe that they do, and I also believe that we must pray for them, that thier souls may be saved, and that they find peace, wherever it is that God allows them to be.
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy

What is an aristotelian orthodoxy?

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Aristotelian orthodoxy believes that one becomes virtuous or acquires virtue by habituation. It also states that one becomes courageous by doing courageous acts and abstaining from non-courageous acts.
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy, Turkey (Country), Discrimination

How are the Christians treated in Turkey?

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Answer 1 The Christians or people of any other faith are treated no different than the Muslims. Constitutionally, Turkey is a secular country and is a candidate for membership in EU. Turkey is a multicultural and ethnically diversified society and has been for centuries due to the influx of peoples from different race, religion, color, creed, national origin and culture. During Ottoman empire, Jews were not only tolerated but flourished. We have found Turkish people in general to be hospitable and friendly during our extended trips to Turkey. In general, it is highly unlikely, that anybody will be particularly interested in your faith, except perhaps as a curiosity in very friendly conversation. In business settings, the question of religion is completely inappropriate and is never asked. Personal prejudices and biases of individuals cannot be eradicated by enforcing laws except to learn to respect others' points of view and tolerance. Answer 2 There is an important distinction to be made between tourists who happen to be Christians (even overtly like missionaries) and endemic Christians who live in Turkey on a day-to-day basis. The former are well-treated since speaking well of Turkey will promote tourism to that country and increase its wealth. As for the few remaining endemic Christians, especially in Istanbul (which remains one of the most important Patriarchates in Orthodox Church) have been the targets of abuse and bullying. Historically, the area of modern Turkey had a much larger Christian population than it does today and had two major Christian minorities: the Armenian Apostolics and the Greek Orthodox. The Armenians were mass-murdered (1.8 million individuals) from 1915-1917 in what the Turks refuse call a genocide to this day. The towns and cities in which they used to live have been renamed and there are now almost no Armenians left in Turkey. The Greek Orthodox were removed through a population exchange with Greece in which Greece gave up its Muslim population. This would serve to create two relatively homogenous countries, but remove the need of the Turkish government to deal with the Greek Orthodox community within its borders.
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy, Languages and Cultures, Learning a New Language

How do you speak Coptic?

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There used to be 5 main dialects of Coptic by currently one one is used which is bohairic. There are two ways of pronouncing bohairic: 1- the authentic traditional one that was being used throughout Egypt up until 1858 when the church decided to adopt the Greek pronunciation of the common letters between the Coptic and the Greek languages. 2- the modified pronunciation or Greco-Bohairic which primarily used in liturgical church services.
Asked in History of Europe, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy

When did the Great Schism take place?

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Catholic Answer The Great Schism was the Schism that took place in the West when the Pope moved from Rome and there were two or three claimants to the Papal throne at once. If you are referring to the Eastern Schism (the Schism of the Orthodox) that is a different matter. I believe that the Great Schism had the worst effect as the resulting weakening of the papacy was one of the contributing factors to the protestant upheaval a century later. from A Catholic Dictionary, edited by Donald Attwater, Second edition, revised 1957 The Great Schism, otherwise know as the Schism of the West was not strictly a schism at all but a conflict between the two parties within the Church each claiming to support the true pope. Three months after the election of Urban VI, in 1378, the fifteen electing cardinals declared that they had appointed him only as a temporary vicar and that in any case the election was invalid as made under fear of violence from the Roman mob. Urban retorted by naming twenty-eight new cardinals, and the others at once proceeded to elect Cardinal Robert of Geneva as Pope Clement VII, who went to reside at Avignon. The quarrel was in its origin not a theological or religious one, but was caused by the ambition and jealousy of French influence, which was supported to some extent for political reasons by Spain, Naples, Provence, and Scotland; England, Germany, Scandinavia, Wales, Ireland, Portugal, Flanders and Hungary stood by what they believe to be the true pope at Rome. The Church was torn from top to bottom by the schism, both sides in good faith (it was impossible to know to whom allegiance was due), which lasted with its two lines of popes (and at one time three) till the election of Martin V in 1417. It is now regarded as practically certain that the Urbanist popes were the true ones and their names are included in semi-official lists; moreover, the ordinal numbers of the Clementine claimants (who, however, are not called anti-popes,) were adopted by subsequent popes of the same name. Catholic Answer The Great Schism, today, most commonly refers to the division of the Church between Byzantine East and Latin West, symbolically dated in 1054, but actually crystallized in 1204 when the Latins sacked Constantinople. In older history texts, the term Great Schism was used to refer to the multiple papacies in the decades following the Avignon papacy. There is no question, however, that the schism of East and West is much "greater" - having a more profound impact, even to this day - than the political posturing of papal claimants in the 14th century
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy, Christianity, Saints, New Testament

What did St. Andrew do after Jesus died?

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Assuming you mean Peter's brother, Andrew, as Greek historians have noted, worked in the same general area as his brother Peter, primarily in Scythia and the neighboring countries in this province. These cities where situated along the Euxine Sea (Black Sea) coastal area. He stayed in Nice for two years preaching and working miracles. He then traveled to Sinope where he met his brother Peter and stayed a considerable time there. He worked in the Bosporus or modern Crimea and sailed to Paphlagonia… (Antiquities Apostolicae, Cave's pp 137-8). The peoples of Scythia eventually became the ancestors of the Scots and Anglo-Saxons via the region between the Black and Caspian Seas in the lower Ukraine valley. Today, the modern Scottish tradition states that Andrew preached to their ancestors. Significant?
Asked in Ancient Religions, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy

What did monks do in the monstaries?

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Generally speaking monks would pray, chant the canonical hours (Prime, terce, sext, none, vespers, compline, matins, lauds), and they would work. Depending on where the monks were living and what order they belonged to they would have gardens, dairys, or they would teach, or provide medical services.
Asked in Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy

In which location did Constantine convene the first Ecumenical Council?

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Roman Catholic Answer The first Ecumenical Council of the Church was the First Council of Nicaea, which, unsurprisingly was held at Nicaea as Councils are named after the town or location where they are held.
Asked in Wedding Planning, Weddings, Eastern Orthodoxy, Manners and Etiquette

Do the parents give a gift to the godparents?

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The tradition is that the Godparents of the kid are the same persons who were the witnesses at the wedding. So, depending on the local Church tradition, you may give a gift to the Godparents. The usual within Bulgarian Orthodox Christians is that the Godparent will make a gift to the Godchild.
Asked in Christianity, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglican

What forms of ministry ordained or other do the Catholic Anglican Orthodox and Uniting churches have?

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The question: What forms of ministry, ordained or otherwise do the Catholic/Anglican/Orthodox and Uniting Churches have? Answer: (1) Ordained The Catholic, Orthodox + Anglican churches have the following ordained ministries: Episcopacy (overseeing a diocese i.e. group of parishes) Presbyterate/Priesthood (overseeing a parish or some other ministry e.g. hospital) Diaconate (concerned primarily with teaching and outreach to the poor) The Uniting Churches have the ordained ministry of pastor, one who is responsible for overseeing a parish. (2) Non-ordained All of the above churches have a variety of ministries carried out by the those who are not ordained (whether laity or monks/nuns): Proclaiming the Scriptures during worship, teaching religious education to children, preparing people for the sacraments, ministering to the poor, preparing people to join the Church, visiting the homebound, ministering to those in hospital, youth groups, evangelisation, soup kitchens, ministry to those who have suffered a divorce or bereavement, adult education classes and missions (to name but some).
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy, Easter

How is the Orthodox date for Easter determined?

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The Easter or Pascha date is determined by four main factors. The first two have been established by Apostolic canon, making them binding, and the last two have been established by church tradition. The history of determining Easter dates has been complex and sometimes controversial, but the following pre-conditions provide a general summary. The Easter date is set according to the Julian or Old Calendar and this date must be: 1) after the Vernal (Spring) Equinox, and 2) after the Jewish Passover, and 3) with the first full moon in Spring, and 4) on a Sunday after 21 March.
Asked in Easter, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy

What is the difference between Greek Orthodox Easter and Roman Catholic Easter?

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The Orthodox Church uses the old Julian calendar to calculate Easter, whereas the Roman Catholics and Protestants use the new Gregorian calendar. Previously, they all used the same Julian calendar, until Pope Gregory XIII changed it (and named the new calendar after himself) in 1582. This means that Easter for Roman Catholics and Protestants can often take place before the Jewish passover, which is chronologically inaccurate, whereas Orthodox Easter is always after the Jewish passover, which is the historically accurate sequence of events.
Asked in Christianity, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy

What are the 3 original sects of Christianity?

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The 3 main denominations are Catholic, Protestant, & Orthodox.
Asked in Christianity, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglican

What is the Catholic Anglican Orthodox and Uniting Church's main form of worship?

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Answer: The main form of worship for Catholics and Orthodox is the Mass which is NOT a commemoration of the Last Supper. It is the Passover, the Dying of Our Blessed Lord on the Cross for our salvation. Think of it this way, to attend Mass is to actually witness the One and Only Event of Our Blessed Lord dying on Calvary. At the Mass or the Eucharist you are witnessing Our Blessed Lord offering Himself to the Father, on the cross, and its graces are available to you as if you were on Calvary Hill in 33 A.D. because you are. Remember that with God there is no time, and He is making that one time event present right now for you. Catholics witness the Crucifixion of Our Blessed Lord every time they attend Mass - it is NOT repeated but we are able through God's miracle of the Mass to witness it. Answer The main form of worship for Anglicans is a commemoration of the Last Supper; it is celebrated every Sunday. It is called by different names: Catholics and High Anglicans use the term "Mass"; Catholics and mainline Anglicans use the term "Eucharist"; Eastern Rite Catholics, Copts and Orthodox use the term "Divine Liturgy"; Evangelical (Low Church) Anglicans use the term "Lord's Supper" and, unlike the others, do not normally have the celebration every week. Answer The Holy Eucharist is the main part of worship just like Roman Catholics. Answer The Catholics and Anglicans have Mass, the Orthodox have Divine Liturgy, the Uniting Church have Services
Asked in Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Comparative Religions and Denominations

What are the differences between the Eastern Orthodox church and Roman Catholic church?

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Catholic Answer Liturgically there are really no differences in that the Catholic Church is composed of all the same Rites as the Orthodox. When the Orthodox split from Rome in the eleventh century, each Eastern Rite Church split in two, to this day there is a Greek Orthodox Church, which is in schism, and a Greek Uniate Rite - which looks and acts the same way with the same language - that is in Catholic and in union with the Pope. Similarily with every other Rite except the Latin and the Maronite Rites - which never split or left the Church. Bottom line? The Orthodox Churches are national churches responsible to their governments (Russian, Greek, etc.), the Catholic Church is the Church founded by Our Blessed Lord, Jesus Christ. from A Catholic Dictionary, edited by Donald Attwater, Second edition, revised 1957 The Schism of the East: the estrangement and severance from the Holy See of what is now called the Orthodox Eastern Church was a gradual process extending over centuries. After a number of minor schisms the first serious, though short, break was that of Photius; from then on tension between East and West increased, and the schism of Cerularius occurred in 1054. From then on the breach gradually widened and has been definitive since 1472. There was a formal union from the 2nd Council of Lyons in 1274 until 1282, and a more promising one after the Council of Florence from 1439 to 1472. After the capture of Constantinople it was in the Turkish interest to reopen and widen the breach with the powerful Roman church; the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem were dragged into this policy, Russia and the Slav churches stood out the longest of any: none of these churches, except Constantinople itself in 1472, formally and definitely broke away from the unity of the Church. But in the course of centuries the schism has set and crystallized into a definite separation from the Holy See of many million people with a true priesthood and valid sacraments. The origins, causes and development of the schism are matters of much complication, still not fully unraveled. from Modern Catholic Dictionary by John A. Hardon, S.J. Doubleday & Co., Inc. Garden City, NY 1980 Separation of the Christian Churches of the East from unity with Rome. The schism was centuries in the making and finally became fixed in 1054, when the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularisu (died 1059), was excommunicated by the papal legates for opposing the use of leavened bread by the Latin Church and removing the Pope's name from the diptychs or list of persons to be prayed for in the Eucharistic liturgy. A temporary reunion with Rome was effected by the Second Council of Lyons (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439) but never stabilized.
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy

Why is the iconostasis important in Orthodox church buildings?

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The icon screen (iconostasis) is important because it separates the main body of the church, the Nave (which represents the people on earth) from the holy of holies, the Altar (which represents heaven). The icon screen also has a curtain which represents the curtain that was in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy

Who was the patriarchate regarded as the first among equals?

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The Patriarch of Rome was regarded as "the first among equals".
Asked in Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Greek Orthodoxy

Why did the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church split in 1054 AD?

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The Great Schism of 1054 AD had three main causes, which were: 1) Papal claims of supremacy, 2) the change to the Creed (adding the 'filioque'), and 3) Papal teachings about purgatory and indulgences. In addition to these, there were a few other lesser reasons, such as the use of unleavened bread, the laity receiving communion as bread only, rather than bread and wine together, the separation of baptism and confirmation, and the compulsory celibacy of Catholic clergy, the use of statues, and not allowing divorced people to re-marry. However, most other beliefs about the Christian faith remain the same. The reasons for the East/West schism are complicated and developed over a period of many centuries; even the date of 1054 is largely symbolic of a process that started much earlier and ended much later. There were cultural, linguistic, and liturgical differences from rather early, and although these were never seen as church-dividing, they probably contributed to mutual misunderstandings. The two biggest issues were the addition of the word filioque (and the Son) to the Western text of the Creed, and the growth of papal power. In addition were a host of smaller conflicts, over matters such as the use of leavened bread vs. unleavened bread for the Eucharist, fasting on Saturday, etc. The schism was probably inevitable by the ninth century, but a case can be made that it was not "final" until the East repudiated the reunion Council of Florence in 1453. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- : Historical background During the period of persecution, the Early Christian Church developed differently according to the part of the Roman Empire; the Church in the East developed differently from the West and the Church in Africa (Copts) differed again. After the legalisation of Christianity, the Church came to accept that there were 3 main leaders (Patriarchs): the bishops of Alexandria, Antioch and Rome. To these were added the bishop of Constantinople (by the Council of Constantinople in 381) and the bishop of Jerusalem (by the Council of Chalcedon in 451). With Constantine's transfer of the capital of the Empire to Constantinople, the Empire was effectively split into two sections: East and West. (Diocletian formally divided the Empire into 2 sections in early part of the 4th century) The Church When the western part of the Empire fell into decay, and was eventually overrun by invaders, the political, judicial and social responsibilities of its officials were assumed by the leaders of the Church in the West, centred on Rome. Inevitably, this dual responsibility led to a centralisation and codification of the manner in which things were done in the Western part of the Church. The Church in the East, largely unaffected by the collapse of the Western Empire, continued to be less centralised. As time progressed, the Bishop of Rome (acknowledged by the others as being First Among Equals) began to claim greater authority due to the apostles Peter and Paul being martyred in that city. This claim was refuted by the other patriarchs. However, Rome's position became strengthened when the spread of Islam effectively isolated and diminished the influence the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, leaving Rome and Constantinople in something of a state of rivalry. A further cause of tension arose when the Western Church inserted the "filioque" into Nicene Creed. Traditionally, the Holy Spirit was seen to proceed from God the Father; the insertion of the "filioque" clause meant that, in the West, the Holy Spirit was believed to proceed from God the Father and God the Son. For the Church in the East, Rome had overstepped its authority by altering a Creed which had been approved by an ecumenical council. In 867 the Patriarch of Constantinople (Photius I)declared the insertion to be heretical, thereby accusing the Patriarch of the West (the Bishop of Rome) of heresy. Other factors also caused the East and West to drift apart: language, different manners of liturgical celebration, different approaches to solving ecclesiastical conflict, different ways of explaining doctrine and the gradual imposition of clerical celibacy in the West. The consummation of the schism is generally dated to 16 July 1054 due to a disagreement between the Patriarch of Constantinople and the papal legate who had been sent to solve a disagreement several matters: the type of bread to be used in the Eucharist, the claim to greater power by the Bishop of Rome and the Patriarch's use of the title "Ecumenical". However, in reality little changed in the lives of ordinary Christians or the clergy. The two churches continued to drift apart with the rise of nation states in the West (the Byzantine Empire continued) and the disaster of the Fourth Crusade when the crusaders attacked and looted Constantinople. In brief, as was already mentioned in the first , the schism between East and West developed over centuries and the reasons are several: linguistic, societal, judicial, ecclesiastical, political and theological. See related links Catholic There is no one simple for this tragic split of the Church into two halves, it went on for centuries, and if it had been a simple , would have been healed by now. But there are many things that went into it, sadly many of them were political not religious. It is to be hoped that the split will be healed soon, and we should all keep this in our daily prayers. . from The Modern Catholic Dictionary, edited by Donald Attwater, Second edition, revised 1957 The Schism of the East the estrangement and severance from the Holy See of what is now called the Orthodox Eastern Church was a gradual process extending over centuries. After a number of minor schisms the first serious, though short, break was that of Photius; from then on tension between East and West increased, and the schism of Cerularius occurred in 1054. From then on the breach gradually widened and has been definitive since 1472. There was a formal union from the 2nd Council of Lyons in 1274 until 1282, and a more promising one after the Council of Florence from 1439 to 1472. After the capture of Constantinople it was in the Turkish interest to reopen and widen the breach with the powerful Roman church; the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem were dragged into this policy, Russia and the Slav churches stood out the longest of any: none of these churches, except Constantinople itself in 1472, formally and definitely broke away from the unity of the Church. But in the course of centuries the schism has set and crystallized into a definite separation from the Holy See of many million people with a true priesthood and valid sacraments. The origins, causes and development of the schism are matters of much complication, still not fully unraveled.
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy

Do women need to have head covered in Serbian Orthodox Monasteries?

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Well, it might be like this in theory, however, in practice, it is not necessary for a women to cover her head when entering Serbian Orthodox Monastery. Of course, it is necessary to be decently dressed in the same way like entering any other Christian church which mean no mini skirts, shorts or naked bally and sholders. Answer If they use the KJV or present Bible version, then yes they have to wear head-covering inside the church. I can't find any exemption to this, so I guess all Christian women MUST have her head covered whenever they enter church. If a woman refuses to cover her head in church, then her her head must be shaved. 1 Cor 11:5-6 Women are REQUIRED to have their heads covered while in an Orthodox Church. It is customary and a sign of respect. May have a correlation to images we see of St.Mary/Mother Mary with her head covered in a shawl. Although some may think it is "not required for a woman to cover her head" while in a Serbian Orthodox Monastery, I would not want to be the woman who walked in without a head covering-she would be told quickly, and in no uncertain terms that she needed a head covering. Are the monks and nuns "mean" for beng rather short, and to the point abot this? No, not at all. I would say the person woman going in without head covering is showing a complete disrespect for the monastics and the House of God-especially if she already knew she should have her head covered. Ignorance od the law, however, is no excuse. Anyone going to any Eastern Orthodox Monastery who would not check on the customs and requirements is going there frivolously and does not need to go. Monastics dedicate their lives to God; people coming in and, who, in the eyes of the monastics, and according to Orthodox Tradition, are showing disrespect for God and the Holy Icons, etc., are not "suffered gladly." Again-if someone is not serious enough about their visit to find out what is required, they should not go in the first place. A monastery is not a museum, a cinema, or an amusement park. It is not a place to go to satisfy idle curiousity. It is the House of God, amnd a place of repentance and prayer. Period.
Asked in Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Russian Orthodoxy

What does 'orthodox' in the name Eastern Orthodox Church stand for?

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Orthodox (ορθοδόξος) in Greek means correct both in worship and belief. It is derived from the combination of όρθος/orthos (correct, straight, without deviation) and δόξα/doxa (glory or worship) or δοκείν/dokein (to teach). In fact, the names of the Orthodox Church in Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, etc. reflects and reinforces more the 'doxa' etymology. Thus orthodox in this context should be understood more as 'correct in worship' and the claim 'correct in belief' should be regarded as implicit.
Asked in Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Greek Orthodoxy

What is an Orthodox Mass?

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In the Orthodox Church, this rite is usually called the Divine Liturgy, rather than the Mass. It is the most important sacrament (or mystery) of the Church, celebrated every Sunday and on feast days throughout the year (in some communities, particularly in monasteries, it is celebrated every day, except on the weekdays of Great Lent). The Divine Liturgy, which is always sung throughout, consists of two parts: the Liturgy of the Catechumens, and the Liturgy of the Faithful. The first conists of psalms, hymns, and an Epistle and Gospel reading. The second is focused on the rite of Holy Communion. Orthodox believe, as do Roman Catholics, that the bread and wine offered are changed truly and substantially into Christ's Body and Blood, although the Orthodox have not developed a technical explanation of this along the lines of the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. Orthodox also believe that the Eucharist is a sacrifice, albeit an unbloody one; it is the selfsame Sacrifice offered by Christ on the Cross. The Holy Gifts are distributed in both kinds. The faithful receive a portion of the Body of Christ, together with a portion of the Precious Blood, from a spoon.
Asked in Christianity, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy

In what year did the two branches of Christianity - Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox - formally split when the pope and patriarch excommunicated each other?

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Roman Catholic Answer The estrangement and severance from the Holy See of what is now called the Eastern Orthodox Church was a gradual process extending over centuries. After a number of minor schisms, the first serious, thought short, break was that of Photius [857 A.D.]; from then on tension between East and West increased, and the schism of Cerularius occurred in 1054 A.D.. From then on the breach gradually widened and has been definitive since 1472. There was a formal union from the 2nd council of Lyons in 1274 until 1282 A.D., and a more promising one after the council of Florence from 1439 to 1472 A.D.. After the capture of Constantinople it was in the Turkish interest to reopen and widen the breach with the powerful Roman church; the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem were dragged into this policy, Russia and the Slav churches stood out the longest of any: none of these churches, except Constantinople itself in 1472 A.D., formally and definitely broke away from the unity of the Church. But in the course of centuries the schism has set and crystallized into a definite separation from the Holy See of many millions of people with a true priesthood and valid sacraments. The origins, causes and development of the schism are matters of much complication, still not fully unravelled. from A Catholic Dictionary, Edited by Donald Attwater, Second Edition, revised.
Asked in Eastern Orthodoxy, Greek Orthodoxy, Russian Orthodoxy

What is the head of an Eastern Orthodox monastery called?

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He is an abbot or protos. You can also have an Archimandrite, who usually leads a group of monks or monasteries. An Abbot is the head of one monastery, as is also sometimes called by the Greek name of "Hegumen" or "Hegumenos." The other Greek title of "protos" means the first.