Calvin tried to avoid what he considered two major errors. First, that the wine and bread were supernaturally turned into the essence of the body and blood of Jesus (Roman Catholic belief) and second that the Supper was a memorial to someone who died a long time ago. Therefore, he emphasized that the Lord's Supper was a remembrance of Christ, held in obedience to Christ's command, and that the risen Christ is fully present with the celebrants and that they do receive spiritual nourishment from Him through this sacrament.
From Wikipedia (see link)
Calvin defined a sacrament as an earthly sign associated with a promise from God. He accepted only two sacraments as valid under the new covenant: baptism and the Lord's Supper (in opposition to the Catholic acceptance of seven sacraments). He completely rejected the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation and the treatment of the Supper as a sacrifice. He also could not accept the Lutheran doctrine of sacramental union in which Christ was "in, with and under" the elements. His own view was close to Zwingli's symbolic view, but it was not identical. Rather than holding a purely symbolic view, Calvin noted that with the participation of the Holy Spirit, faith was nourished and strengthened by the sacrament. In his words, the eucharistic rite was "a secret too sublime for my mind to understand or words to express. I experience it rather than understand it."
martin Luther and Henry the eighth
In the 16th Century
indulgences to rebuild Saint Peter's Basilica
His 95 thesis (problems with the church). And just so you know, the church door was like a bulletin, so he wasn't being disrespectful when he nailed it to the door.
The first part of the to this question is all related to the politics of the court of Henry VIII. Henry was second in line to throne, his father Henry VII had a son Arthur who was older. For political reasons an alliance between Aragon (a country now part of Spain) and England was important and so a marraige between Catherine of Aragon and Arthur, the heir to the English throne was arranged. However before Arthur could succeed to the throne he died. In order to carry through the alliance with Aragon it was decided that Arthur's brother (and heir to throne) Henry should marry Catherine - who incidentally was considerable older than Henry. Henry became king in 1509. The marriage occurred and a daughter (Mary Tudor) was born. However in those times it was desirable for there to be a male heir to the throne.
As Catherine of Aragon grew older the likelihood of her bearing a male hier decreased. At the same time Henry VIII became infatuated with a young courtier called Anne Boelyn. At this stage England was still firmly a part of the Roman Catholic Church. However the events which follow would cause a split from Rome.
On the grounds that it was immoral (according to the bible) for a man to marry his brother's wife, Henry VIII appealed to the church to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. That is to say, declare that it was improper for the marriage to have taken place and thus say that they could never have really been married. This would allow him to marry Anne Boelyn and hopefully produce a male hier. Remember, there really wasn't any divorce back then, and even if you did divorce you were strictly forbidden from re-marrying.
The church in England was split over what to do and because of the importance of such a decision the Pope was asked to decide. A trial was held in England with a representative from the Pope there. However either on moral grounds, or (as was seen by Henry) because of political pressures on the Papacy from Spain (who were opposed to any annulment), Henry's request was denied.
The response was primarily one of frustration. Henry VIII made himself the head of the Church of England, and refused to recognise any earthly authority higher than himself within his realm. At this point theologically the Church was still very much a Roman Catholic Church - just without the connection to Rome.
Henry encountered much opposition from within the Church in England, but forced the clergy to swear obedience to him. Those who refused were deposed. The strongest opposition came from the many monasteries throughout England. So Henry had them dissolved. This also helped boost the royal treasury. The monasteries were very wealthy, and owned vast areas of land.
Anne Boelyn gave Henry an heir, but it was another girl (later Elizabeth I). Rumours of adultery lead Henry to have her executed for treason. This also enabled him to re-marry again. His third wife, Jane Seymour, bore him a son.
This son would later become Edward VI ruling from 1547 until 1553. He is important as he was both first in line to the throne and a Protestant. The now independent Church of England was under Edward VI allowed the clergy to introduce many Protestant ideas and practices. However he died young and without an heir. He hoped to prevent his staunchly Roman Catholic sister Mary Tudor from succession by trying to make the Protestant Lady Jane Grey Queen, but his attempts failed.
Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, was also the wife of Phillip the king of Spain. As queen she attempted to completely reverse all Protestantism from England and return to Papal authority. Because of her persecution of Protestants she became known as "Bloody Mary". Her reign too was relatively short 1553 - 1558.
In 1558 Elizabeth (daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boelyn) came to the throne. She had a lengthy reign which partially enable her to resolve many of the religious difficulties by establishing a tolerant Protestant church in England. Many of the customs and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church were maintained within a Protestant theology. English was spoken rather than Latin and so long as every one attended Church each week, there was limited (but not encouraged) freedom for additional meetings of non-conformists and Roman Catholics.
This is only the first part of the Reformation in England and I hope in part an the first part of the question. I don't know enugh about the Reformation in Europe to compare it to that in England, other than to say that the English Church gained political independence from Rome prior to actual religious reform taking place. As opposed to such reform in Europe generally being the cause for separation from Rome.
Only thing I can add is that in England - the King (or Queen) is head of the Protestant Anglican church it's unique in Europe. The reason being was that when Henry VIII split from the Catholic Church he used the title "defender of the faith" which ironically had been given to him by the Pope. This was used to give him overlordship over the English Protestant Church - this title still exists today. Anglicanism also covers an umbrella of different types of Protestant streams from High Anglicanism which in many cases is indistinguishable from Catholicism (only difference is the Pope is not the head) to regular strands which would have more in common with Lutheranism in Europe the only difference is that the Monarch is the head of the Church.
Protestants were the people who during the European Reformation protested against the Roman Catholic Church.
Too much power within the Catholic Church.
The reforms came at a terrible price. Therefore, one's opinion on whether the split was good or bad depends on whether one thinks the reforms were worth the price. Given that there were inquisitions and wars even before the split, I see the price of reform, though terrible, as no worse than the price of inaction. Therefore, I aver that the split was and still is a net positive both theologically and politically.
So, when Martin Luther split from the Catholic Church in 1517, followed by John Calvin (Calvinism) in 1536, that started the Protestant Reform. Unfortunately, I don't think that Jesus needed his Church to be "reformed". Some Protestants, which most agree the Catholic Church was the first, will argue that it may have been the first, but it has changed and is no longer the Church Jesus meant for it to be. When Jesus began His Church, He stated to Simon, "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of Hell will not prevail against it." So, if you agree with the Protestants, then either Jesus lied, or we are all doomed and nothing matters anyway.
- has a better infrastructure of public hospitals, orphanages, doctors, teachers, schools, and social-workers,
-Literacy and education for the masses
-Greater civil liberty and free-press.
-Puritan work ethic
-A stronger middle-class (not just the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer.)
-Bible-reading encouraged, not just permitted.
-More community-driven-and-controlled welfare programs
-Higher standards of justice
-Government for all the people
-Personal accountability and responsibility
-greater social cohesion
-Allegiance to their own country, not to a foreigner ( ie Pope)
-Do not have to worry about a "5th column" in society in time of war. (Dictators usually kill Roman Catholic priests, clergy, and often laity because they are seen as a threat to their own power.)
His 95 thesis statements
King Henry VIII was having problems finding a wife who would provide him with a male child to whom he could leave his kingdom when he died. He asked the pope for a divorce so he could marry another woman. When the pope refused, Henry became angry and named himself the head of the Church in England and said he would no longer follow the pope and the Catholic Church. Of course, one of the first things he did after declaring himself the head of the English church was to grant himself a divorce. He then confiscated all property owned by the Catholic Church, ordered the killing of approximately 5,000 priests and outlawed the practice of the Catholic faith in England, under the threat of death for doing so. As you might imagine, the number of Catholics in England fell dramatically. Many citizens continued practicing their faith "underground", or in complete secrecy. It was made a law that none of the Royalty could be Catholic or marry a Catholic, without forfeiting their crown. This law was finaly reversed in 2010.
Reformers were most upset by three main issues: The village priests married and had families, which was against Church rulings. Also, bishops sold positions in the Church, and this was called simony. Finally, kings appointed church bishops, and the Church reformers thought that the Church alone should appoint bishops. These all were part of the reformers' hope to get back to the basic principles of the Christian religion.
most of the countries in Europe fought in the thirty year war.
They protected reformers.
They wanted to eat a burger but it wasn't invented yet :'(....sad
Luther hung his 95 thesis on the door of the castle church, on October 31st 1517
The main conflict was between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire (mostly present-day Germany). The French Protestants involved were known as Huguenots.
it criticized the selling of indulgence
The downfall of the stranglehold that the church gad over what was considered the truth and what was from then on open to be referred to as the truth. It was not so much that the competition in theological doctrine was any more truthful it is just that now people out side of the church were free at last to speak out on philosophy science and any number of subjects that were considered taboo.
Lutheran is a protestant sect and basically follows its beliefs, like the disbelief on the Virgin Mary, the saints, the statues of saints, praying directly to God, confession to priest, etc. More ever Luther dismisses the validity of indulgences and claim it to have corrupted the church.
The reformation in England came as a result of King Henry VIII of England. He wished to divorce his first wife because she did not produce a male heir for him. However, in order to receive a divorce under Catholicism at the time the Pope had to grant a dispensation, or a pardon for breaking a rule of Catholicism. The Pope refused to grant the dispensation and for that reason the king sought to break off the church in England from the Catholic Church. Therefore, he pressured Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made king of England the head of the church in England. Because of this, the branch of protestantism Anglicanism was created.
Just like in the early Church (eg the Church in Corinth which Paul chastised because of arguments between Christians there) Christians still argue over who is 'right' and who is 'wrong', and yet any real differences in doctrine (with the exception of fringe sects like the Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses) tend to be peripheral rather than findamental.
Yet these Christians still emphasise the minor differences between our Catholic brother and sisters in Christ and themselves instead of celebrating our common love of the Lord and of, presumbly, each other.
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