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On September 4, 1781, El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles was founded by 44 pobladores from New Spain, now called Mexico. The heads of the eleven founding families were Antonio Clemente Villavicencio, a Spaniard, Antonio Mesa, a Negro; Jose Fernando Lara, a Spainard; Jose Vanegas, an Indian; Pablo Rodriquez, an Indian; Manuel Camero, a Mulatto (mixed negro); Jose Antonio Navarro, a Mestizo; Jose Moreno, a Mulatto (mixed negro); Basillio Rosas, an Indian; Alejandro Rosas, an Indian; and Luis Quintero, a Negro. The two Spaniards and three Indians had Indian wives; the remaining six had Mulatto (mixed negro) wives. Despite their varied racial background, they shared a common language, culture, and religion since all were Spanish subjects and Catholics. The first Spanish civillian settlement in Southern California, the pueblo helped provide food for the soldiers in the presidios and secure Spain's hold on California, When an election was held in Los Angeles in 1788, Jose Vanegas, an Indian, became its first mayor. Manuel Camero, a Mulatto (mixed negro), and Felipe Garcia were elected to the first city council a year later. An early Mulatto settler, Juan Francisco Reyes, served as mayor from 1793-1795. Original owner of the San Fernando Valley Rancho, he traded it to the Franciscans in 1797 so they could establish a mission there. Tiburcio Tapla, the grandson of a Negro, Felipe Tapia, became a powerful figure in Los Angeles after 1833 serving three times as mayor and later as a judge. Catarina Morengo, granddaughter of the Mulatto (mixed negro) founder Jose Moreno, married General Andres Pico (negro/spanish)of the famous Pico family. Her brother-in-law, Pio Pico was the last Governor of California under the Mexican regime. The Pico brothers had some Indian & African ancestors. Several descendants of the Negro founder Luis Quintero are living in Los Angeles today. A grandson served as Major of Santa Barbara,; Eugene Biscailuz, a great grandson, as |sheriff of|Los Angeles. Maria |Valdez, a granddaughter, once owned the Rancho which is now known as Beverly |Hills. |These are only a few of the many individuals of varied backgrounds who made important contributions to the development of Los Angeles, a great cosmopolitan city

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Q: Who were the founding fathers of California?
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