When the moon is nearer the horizon it is being observed through more atmosphere. The air acts as a magnifying glass and makes the moon appear much larger. As it rises higher in the sky, there is less air distortion and it appears a normal size. See the related question linked below. The atmosphere explanation is not generally held to play a major role in this illusion. Here's a link that explains it:
As the sun rises shadows become smaller until it is directly overhead. As it falls shadows become larger until it sets.
Unless you live in the tropics, the Moon is _NEVER_ directly overhead. If that's you, then the 3rd quarter Moon, which rises about midnight and sets around noon, would be directly overhead at sunrise, perhaps once per decade.
Yes. As the sun rises and passes overhead during the day, becoming almost directly overhead at midday, your shadow will shorten.
When a full moon rises, you are looking through polution, dirt, dust, and the rest of the atmosphere. This makes the moon yellowish or orange. When it is directly overhead, you do not need to look through as much polution, dust and dirt.
When the sun rises in the east, the shadows point west, at mid-day when the sun is directly overhead there is no shadow, when the sun passes the mid-point in the sky, the shadows then point to the east.
That's going to depend on where you are on Earth (your latitude), and on what date you decide to look, and on what time of day or night. You may not have noticed that everything in the sky rotates, and every star rises, crosses the sky, and sets, just like the sun and the moon do, and each star rises about 4 minutes earlier every night than it did the night before. Whatever is directly overhead now, won't be in a half hour from now.
Tropic of Cancer - northern most latitude the sun can be directly overhead. Tropic of Capricorn - southern most latitude the sun can be directly overhead. Arctic Circle - southernmost latitude in the northern hemisphere where the sun never sets or rises on one day during the year. Antarctic Circle - northernmost latitude in the southern hemisphere where the sun never sets or rises on one day during the year.
The solar day is 24 hours long; from the Sun overhead to the Sun overhead the next day takes 24 hours. However, the sidereal day - from a star overhead to the star overhead the next night - is only 23 hours 56 minutes. The stars appear to rise 4 minutes earlier each night. So if Sirius rises at 10PM one night, it will rise at 9:56 PM the next night.
Larger (the air pressure is dropping as it rises).
When magma slowly rises up the inside the crater of a larger volcano, it forms a Lava Dome.
No. Mars did make an exceptionally close approach to Earth in August 2003, and every year since, spammers change the date and resend the message. However, Mars will NEVER appear "as big as the full Moon". Right now, on August 9, 2009, Mars rises a little before sunrise and is visible low in the eastern sky at dawn. By January, 2010, Mars will be overhead at midnight, but this will be one of the more distant conjunctions.
Deathstroke will probably not appear in The Dark Knight Rises, but he would be a great character in upcoming movies.
That would only happen at the equator
Heat rises so in my experience it is always overhead that has the most heat input.
the sun rises in the east and sets in the west
The moon rises in the East and sets in the West.
The waning crescent moon rises between 2 to 5 hours before the Sun does, and so it will be as close as it ever is to "overhead" in mid-morning; call it between 9AM to 11AM.
Air pressure and temperature are not directly connected.
it becomes larger as it rises
If it rises at all, it will be generally towards the east.
It rises in the East and sets in the West, every day.
solubility increase as the temperature rises rises thus its directly proportional under normal circumstances
Two days a year does the sun rise directly in the east over the equator.
The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.