Why is it called sharp principle diffuse and fundamental?

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These designations have to do with the appearance of spectral emission lines, which were said to be "sharp, principal, diffuse and fundamental", before the nature of the electron transition that gave rise to them was properly understood.

The choice of letters s, p, d, f originates from a now-obsolete system of categorizing spectral lines as "sharp", "principal", "diffuse" and "fundamental" (or "fine").

[Cf. 'Related link' at left of this answer: Naming of s, p, d, f -orbitals].
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