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The Roman Republic fell under the weight of imperial expansion. The central government had become dysfunctional, and lost control over the provinces (conquered territories). The governors of the provinces became unruly and treated their provinces as if they were their personal fiefs. Tax collection in the provinces was carried out by private collectors who 'farmed' the taxes to line their pockets through extortion, which created discontent in the provinces, Corruption was rampant. A reform of military recruitment made the soldiers loyal to the commanders of their legions who could use them to obtain what they wanted through the threat of or the use of military violence. In 71 BC Crassus and Pompey camped their troops outside Rome to have themselves elected as consuls (the two annually elected heads of the Republic). Pompey was not even eligible on the grounds of being below the required age and of not having served some public offices which were required before the consulship. In the last 64 years of the Republic there were 12 civil wars. In 88 BC Sulla entered the city of Rome with his troops during his first civil war against forces of Marius, even though Roman religion forbade the bearing of arms within the city walls.

Another problem in the Late Republic was the increase in the number of dispossessed peasants who lost their land to the expanding large landed estates which used slaves, who were war captives. These people flocked to Rome to try to eke out a living, swelling the masses of the poor in the city. The problem of poverty became a political hot potato which led to the conflict between the populares and the optimates. The former was a political faction which championed the cause of the poor and tried to introduce reforms to help them. The latter was a conservative political faction which favoured the aristocracy and opposed reforms. The senators were seen as being concerned with the interests of the aristocracy, rather than those of the poor and were unpopular among the middle and lower classes. They were also seen as being corrupt. Many of the civil wars were related to clashes between strong military leaders and the conflict between populares and optimates spilling into violence.

Julius Caesar waged a civil war against the forces of the senate and assumed sole power in Rome (the Republic was normally headed by two annually elected consuls) for five years and tried to tackle Rome's problems. However, he was assassinated. More civil wars followed his death. Augustus won the final civil war of the Republic, which was a fight with Marc Antony over who would become the sole ruler of Rome and her territories. He gained control over the army and amassed great wealth through the spoil of war. He used both to establish his own absolute rule and became the first Roman emperor. His tight control over the state restored a strong central government and political stability. Rule by emperors continued for 503 years

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Anais Greenfelder

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Darlene Tromp

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13y ago

You could say the

  • Gracchi brothers' attempt at reform
  • Marius' introduction of a standing army
  • and the First Triumvirate mainly Julius Caesar and Pompey

Gracchi brothers:

Tiberius Gracchi wanted land reform to redistribute state land illegally owned by the rich to the poor

Gaius Gracchi wanted to give power to the Equestrian Class (like modern day Business men) by giving them tax collection and jury rights

Both of them were executed and although their intents were good, they intensified the division between class and politics and set up an environment where Roman killed Roman.

Marius:

Marius created an army where the recruits included the poor and landless who served a 20 year term as a soldier (16 years ranks, 4 years veteran). After they served the term they were rewarded with money, land, and were able to marry. This produced personal loyalty to the generals commanding. The Senate was losing loyalty from the army. A successful general who could provide the rewards the army was looking for could overcome the Senate. The army started to have more influence in politics.

First Triumvirate (Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar):

Pompey was well known after defeating the pirates and King Mithridates in Pontus.

Crassus was a successful business man who suppressed the slave revolt led by Spartacus. Crassus and Pompey used the growing influence of the army to get elected to Consul. Later, Crassus introduced Caesar to the group to form the first Triumvirate. Crassus was killed in battle with the Parthians leaving Pompey and Caesar to fight for the top. Pompey ordered Caesar to disband his army, but Caesar instead illegally crossed the Rubicon and scared Pompey. Pompey flees first to Greece, then Egypt where he is decapitated. Caesar appoints himself dictator for 10 years in 46 BC, then dictator for life in 45 BC. This shows that although he was working for the people, he also wanted absolute control of Rome. In 44 BC Caesar is stabbed by a group of Senates.

You could also talk about the second Triumvirate (Marc Antony, Lepidus, Octavian)

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12y ago

they spend too many mony in the artitecture they diden`t have enogh money

they elevate taxes sow they campesin were unhapy and have to move to the city to try to work

they get to many territor sow they dident have enogh enperor for all the Roma

then the poor people get poorest and the rich people get riches

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8y ago

The Roman Republic fell under the weight of imperial expansion. The central government had become dysfunctional, and lost control over the provinces (conquered territories). The governors of the provinces became unruly and treated their provinces as if they were their personal fiefs. Tax collection in the provinces was carried out by private collectors who 'farmed' the taxes to line their pockets through extortion, which created discontent in the provinces, Corruption was rampant. A reform of military recruitment made the soldiers loyal to the commanders of their legions who could use them to obtain what they wanted through the threat of or the use of military violence. In 71 BC Crassus and Pompey camped their troops outside Rome to have themselves elected as consuls (the two annually elected heads of the Republic). Pompey was not even eligible on the grounds of being below the required age and of not having served some public offices which were required before the consulship. In the last 64 years of the Republic there were 12 civil wars. In 88 BC Sulla entered the city of Rome with his troops during his first civil war against forces of Marius, even though Roman religion forbade the bearing of arms within the city walls.

Another problem in the Late Republic was the increase in the number of dispossessed peasants who lost their land to the expanding large landed estates which used slaves, who were war captives. These people flocked to Rome to try to eke out a living, swelling the masses of the poor in the city. The problem of poverty became a political hot potato which led to the conflict between the populares and the optimates. The former was a political faction which championed the cause of the poor and tried to introduce reforms to help them. The latter was a conservative political faction which favoured the aristocracy and opposed reforms. The senators were seen as being concerned with the interests of the aristocracy, rather than those of the poor and were unpopular among the middle and lower classes. They were also seen as being corrupt. Many of the civil wars were related to clashes between strong military leaders and the conflict between populares and optimates spilling into violence.

Julius Caesar waged a civil war against the forces of the senate and assumed sole power in Rome (the Republic was normally headed by two annually elected consuls) for five years and tried to tackle Rome's problems. However, he was assassinated. More civil wars followed his death. Augustus won the final civil war of the Republic, which was a fight with Marc Antony over who would become the sole ruler of Rome and her territories. He gained control over the army and amassed great wealth through the spoil of war. He used both to establish his own absolute rule and became the first Roman emperor. His tight control over the state restored a strong central government and political stability. Rule by emperors continued for 503 years

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12y ago

Several factors led to the decline of the republic, corruption being top most. Political office was given to the man who had the best "connections". There was also the split in the senate between the conservatives and the populists, with neither side willing to compromise and the leaders of the factions were able in most cases to appoint their backers to important positions. Caesar, Octavian and Mark Antony used this tactic, ignoring the concept of free voting by the people.

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Anonymous

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4y ago

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Destry Miller

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nope

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Q: What are the Four main factors that weakened the Roman Republic?
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