The photosphere is commonly mistaken as the name for the surface of the sun, however it is actually the thin layer of gas surrounding the sun. The name of the visible surface of the sun is the chromosphere.
The Sun emits all frequencies of radiation, often called "black body radiation" (Google that to find more info.
Nothing yet has PROVED the existence of the Kuiper Belt, the theoretical "shell" of primordial material left over from the formation of the solar system. However, the recent discoveries of several near-planetary objects such as Sedna and Eris beyond the orbits of Neptune and Pluto have given greater evidence to support this theory. "Proof" will need to wait for more powerful telescopes or for robotic probes to go out and see what's there.
Infrared radiation is long wavelength radiation given out by stars.
The Event Horizon.
Theoretical probability:Theoretical probability is when you decide what is the probability of something using the information that is given to you!
Theoretical value is a result in stoichiometry. It is the limited reaction in the smaller reaction when given to knowns.
Effective capacity is the maximum theoretical output of a stemming a given period under ideal conditions.
There appears to be a word left out of the question. Assuming this word is "water" ("What is the name given to a body of land with water surrounding it?"), the answer is "island".
This is the theoretical yield.
Name were given by their surrounding at the time