DNA base pairs.
50 base pairs
1.To map and sequence all of the DNA base pairs in the human chromosomes. 2.To identify all of the genes within the seqeunce.
A human chromosome contains between 454 (Y) and 4,220 (1) genes, totalling between 46,944,323 (21) and 247,199,719 base pairs, for a total of 32,185 genes and 3,079,843,747 base pairs. In other organisms, the number of nucleotides in a chromosome can vary from 100,000 to over 3,750,000,000.
Both genes and genomes come in a variety of sizes. About 1,000 base pairs would be enough DNA to encode most proteins. But introns-"extra" or "nonsense" sequences inside genes-make many genes longer than that. Human genes are commonly around 27,000 base pairs long, and some are up to 2 million base pairs. Very simple organisms tend to have relatively small genomes. The smallest genomes, belonging to primitive, single-celled organisms, contain just over half a million base pairs of DNA. But among multicellular species, the size of the genome does not correlate well with the complexity of the organism. The human genome contains 3 billion base pairs of DNA, about the same amount as frogs and sharks. But other genomes are much larger. A newt genome has about 15 billion base pairs of DNA, and a lily genome has almost 100 billion.
Daphnia, the water flea, was recently discovered to have the most genes of any animal. Although it's genome is only about 200 million base pairs in length, 31,000 genes are contained within it. Compare this to the human genome, which is over 3 billion base pairs long, but contains about 23,000 genes.
A-T base pairs have 2 hydrogen bonds and G-C base pairs have 3 hydrogen bonds. Therefore, A-T base pairs are weaker than G-C base pairs.
DNA is a mixture of 4 nitrogenous base pairs A-T and C-G held together by a polypeptide backbone. The human DNA sequence is millions of base pairs long. This sequence of base pairs has coding, and non-coding regions (regions which are like recipes for the bodies materials). These coding sections are called genes. The human genome contains 32000 genes. These genes are then copied into a strand (mRNA) which is then translated into a chain of amino acids (each three base pairs is an amino acid eg AAG = asparagine). DNA is contained in chromosmes, which half and rearrange, then meet up with the other parents rearranged chromosomes to give a genetically varied offspring with a pair of chromosomes.
DNA base pairs.
You receive 23 base pairs from your father and 23 base pairs from your mother, for a total of 46. This means you receive characteristics from both of your parents.
There are several different strains of E. coli, each having about five million (5,000,000) base pairs. For example, uropathogenic E. coli (the one commonly associated with urinary tract infections) has about 5,231,428 base pairs, while E. coli K-12 has 4,639,221. The number of base pairs an organism has in its genes is commonly referred to as genome size. A web search for "genome size E. coli" is how I found these numbers.
If DNA were a book, Genes would be a page in that book. DNA is a huge double stranded helix containing 4 different kinds of base pairs (AGCT). Portions of the DNA code for certain genes. This coding area (this is a very simplistic explanation) is divided into sections of three base pairs called codons. If a gene is a page in the book, a codon is a word on the page. These codons call for a certain amino acid to be placed into a protein. These codons tell other machinery in the cell how to build proteins. The human DNA is about 3 x 108 base pairs in length. It codes for about 25-30K genes. Only about 1.5% of the DNA actually codes for genes. The rest of it consists of introns (non-coding parts of genes) and a bunch of evolutionary useless junk along with parts that code for non-protein genes such as tRNA, etc.
50 base pairs
The base pairs are ordered such that they spell out the order in which amino acids will be placed to build a protein. When they are in the wrong order, either the wrong amino acid is made, or sometime it will create a shortened protein which may or may not perform its intended function.