this can be your first fraction of distillation. In general crude means that the half fabricate isn't pure enough and more purification steps are required
Seal pots (sometime called condensate pots) are used to allow a liquid seal between the instrument and flowing gases such as steam. Their function is to keep the liquid level constant in the impulse tubes. For example, in boiler liquid level applications the high pressure (HP) side of a differential pressure transmitter is connected to the vapor space on top of the steam drum. Steam condenses in the chamber or seal pot and fills the impulse line with condensate. The seal pot is located to allow the condensate to drain back to the source thus keeping the liquid level constant.
What You Should Know About Flash Tanksby J. E. TROCOLLI • Sarco Co., Inc. • Allentown, PA (Actual Specifying Engineer/71)High-pressure steam systemsrequire flash tanks -here is a guide to determining sizesCondensate temperatures in high-pressure steam systemsgenerally are only slightly less than the saturatedtemperature of the steam. When hot condensates are dischargedinto lower-pressure areas, condensate temperatureimmediately drops to the saturated temperature ofthe low-pressure area. As the result of the drop in temperature,heat released evaporates a portion of the condensate,generating flash steam.To return condensate to the boiler or to discharge it tothe sewer, it is necessary to separate flash steam fromthe condensate. This is accomplished by discharging condensatethrough steam traps into a vented tank, referredto as a flash tank.Flash steam produced in the flash tank may be ventedto the atmosphere or piped to a low-pressure main. Condensateremaining may then be returned to the boiler ordischarged to drain.Tanks must be large enough to ensure dryness of thereleased steam and to avoid carryover by the steam ofwater in droplet form. When using horizontal flash tanks,the required area is found by multiplying the diameter ofthe tank by its length. This measures the tank's capacityto handle condensate. Table 1 illustrates the required areafor each 1,000 lb. of condensate/hour with varying steamand flash pressures.How big a tank?Problem:An absorption machine condenses 12,000lb. of steam/hr. Assuming the flash tank is vented to theatmosphere, determine the size of the flash tank requiredwith a steam pressure of 12 PSIG.Solution:Enter table 1 at 12 PSIG steam pressure,moving horizontally to 0 PSIG. Find .75, which is the numberof square feet required for each 1,000 lb. of condensate.Since 12,000 lb. of steam are generated, it may bedetermined that by multiplying 12 x .75, 9 sq. ft. of surfacewill be required, or that the diameter of the tank infeet times its length in feet must equal 9. Thus, a tank 2ft. by 4.5 ft. may be used.Problem:A dryer operating at 100 PSIG condenses18,000 lb. of steam/hr. The flash tank is to discharge itsflash into a 5-PSIG heating main. Determine the size ofthe flash tank required.Solution:Again, using table 1, enter at 100 PSIGinitial pressure. Move horizontally to the 5-PSIG columnand find 1.92.Then:18 x 1.92 = 34.6 sq. ft.A flash tank 4 ft. by 9 ft. will be satisfactory for theapplication.Sizing vent linesIf flash steam is to be discharged to the atmosphere,a properly sized vent line must be provided. To determinethe proper size, first find the area of the flash tank,using the method described above.Problem:Determine the size of the vent line usingtable 2. If, as in the first problem, tank size is 2 ft. by 4.5ft. (9 sq. ft.), refer again to table 2, where 9 sq. ft. falls on7.4-to-12 line. For this range, a 2-in. vent line would besatisfactory.Problem:Determine the size of the vent line if theflash tank size is 4 ft. by 9 ft. or 36 sq. ft. In table 2, 36 isin the 27-to-36 line, and, in this case, a 31/2 in. vent wouldbe needed.Figure 1 shows a typical flash-tank piping diagramin which the flash is discharged to the atmosphere.If it is desired to utilize the flash steam by dischargingit into a low-pressure main, refer to figure 2. In thisinstance, it will be necessary to properly size the lineconnecting the flash tank to the low-pressure main.Using table 3, determine the percent of flash. Multiplythis percentage by the condensate load in lb./hr. todetermine the number of pounds of steam that are flashed.Determine what steam velocity will be acceptable in theline. If a low noise level is desired, a relatively low velocitymust be selected - 4,000 to 6,000 FPM.Where noise is not a factor, a velocity of 12,000 FPMor higher may be used. After velocity has been determined,the required pipe size can be found in table 4.Problem:10,000 lb./hr. of condensate is dischargedinto a flash tank from a 125-PSI steam system. Flashsteam is to be piped into a 10-PSIG low-pressure heatingmain. Determine the size pipe required for connectingthe flash tank to the steam main.Enter table 3 at 125-PSI initial pressure. Move horizontallyto the 10-PSIG column and find 12.2 percentflash. Then the amount of flash steam/hr. is found thisway:10,000 x 12.2 percent = 1,220 lb./hr.SECTION ENG - PAGE 0100FLASH TANKSTABLE 1 FLASH TANK IN SQ. FT. = DIAMETER x LENGTH OF HORIZONTALTANK FOR 1,000 LB. CONDENSATE PER HOUR BEING DISCHARGEDTABLE 2 VENT LINE SIZE TABLE 3 PERCENT FLASHFOR HORIZONTALFLASH TANKS½"FLASH TANKSTABLE 4 STEAM VELOCITY CHARTFORM FLASH TANKSRevised 4/04 SHIPCO® IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF SHIPPENSBURG PUMP CO., INC.SHIPPENSBURG PUMP COMPANY, INC.,P.O. BOX 279, SHIPPENSBURG, PA 17257 • PHONE 717-532-7321 • FAX 717-532-7704 • WWW.SHIPCOPUMPS.COMPRINTED IN THE U.S.A. • BEIDEL PRINTING HOUSE, INC., 717-532-5063 PERMISSION TO REPRINT BY SPIRAX SARCO INC.Since low noise level is important, a velocity in the4,000 to 6,000 FPM range must be selected. Enter table4 at 1,220 lb./hr., moving horizontally to a flash-steampressure of 10 PSIG. Then move up to 4,000 to 6,000FPM velocity. Here, the chart shows that a 3-in. pipe willhandle about 6,000 FPM, or a 4-in. line would handleabout 3,500 FPM.When vent lines cannot be extended to dischargeoutside the buildings, it is important that the condensatebe cooled below the dewpoint to prevent the exhaustfrom condensing and wetting walls, machinery, floors andso on.Estimating temperatureSince the dewpoint depends on several factors, includingrelative humidity and temperature (which are variable),the temperature to which the condensate must becooled should be estimated for individual cases.The following is the recommended procedure:Calculate the size of the flash tank in the methoddescribed above:Estimate the dewpoint, assuming unfavorable conditions,and, when making the estimate, take ventilation intoaccount - it is a factor in determining relative humidity:Once the dewpoint is known, estimate the quantityof cooling water that will be required and finally:Determine the pipe size and size of temperatureregulator valve required. A self-contained regulator witha normally closed valve to open when the temperaturerises is recommended. All such controls have an amplerange over and under the calibration point so that settingmay be adjusted after installation.Problem:Calculate the quantity of cooling water requiredto cool condensate in a flash tank vented to anenclosed space, assuming the following data:Steam pressure is 100 PSIG;Condensate is entering the flash tank at 1,550 lb./hr.at 335°F;Ambient temperature of the space into which ventdischarges is 75°F; andCold water temperature is 50°F.Assuming that ventilation at the above temperaturewill be sufficient to have not more than 70 percent relativehumidity, the dewpoint will be 64.5°F (determinedfrom psychrometric chart).To allow 1°F for safety, condensate should be cooledfrom 338°F to 63.5°F. When the installation is completed,further adjustment can be made by resetting the regulator.The heat to be extracted from the condensate is equalto:1,500 lb./hr. x (338-63.5)°F = 410,000 BTUHThe quantity of cooling water required:410,000 BTUH(63.5 -50)°F= 30,500 lb./hr.or 3,670 GPH = 61 GPMA 1.5-in. pipe to supply the water and a 1.25-in. temperatureregulator are recommended for this application.Flash tanks separate flash steam from the condensateby venting the flash steam to the atmosphere orpiping it to a low-pressure main, while returning the remainingcondensate to the boiler or discharging it to thedrain. If flash steam is discharged to the atmosphere, aflash tank and a properly sized vent line must be determined;if discharged to low-pressure mains it is necessaryto calculate the correctly sized line connecting theflash tank to the low-pressure main. Also, the proper temperaturefor cooling the condensate must be determinedfor projects in which vent lines cannot be extended todischarge outside the buildings.Different situations require individual solutions to determinethe correctly sized flash tank, connecting pipeand cooling temperature needed, but the calculation examplesoffered here provide the means to determine thenecessary installations and accessories required.Figure 1A typical flash tank pipingdiagram discharging to atmosphere.NOTE: Omit trap if condensate isdischarged into vented pump receiver.Figure 2A typical flash tank pipingdiagram with flash discharging to lowpressuresteam system.Figure 3This diagram depicts acombination flash tank installation withsubcooling condensate.VENTPRESSURERELIEF VALVEVENT IFDESIREDTO LOWPRESSURE MAINHIGH PRESSUREFROMCONDENSATEHIGH PRESSURESYSTEMFLASH TANKSTRAINERFLOAT ANDTHERMOSTATICTRAPFIN TUBECOOLING LEGREQUIREDTO LOW PRESSURERETURN LINE ORDRAINVENT TOATMOSPHEREHIGH PRESSUREFROMCONDENSATEHIGH PRESSURESYSTEMFLASH TANKSTRAINERFLOAT ANDTHERMOSTATICTRAPFIN TUBECOOLING LEGREQUIREDTO DRAINCONDENSATEFROM HIGHPRESSURESTEAM SYSTEMTEMPERATUREREGULATORSTRAINERCOLD WATERSUPPLYVENT TOT ATMOSPHEREWATER LEVELCOILDRAINTO SEWERFLASH TANKS
Kettle Type Reboilers:Kettle reboilers are very simple and reliable. They may require pumping of the column bottoms liquid into the kettle, or there may be sufficient liquid head to deliver the liquid into the reboiler. In this reboiler type, steam flows through the tube bundle and exits as condensate. The liquid from the bottom of the tower, commonly called the bottoms, flows through the shell side. There is a retaining wall or overflow weir separating the tube bundle from the reboiler section where the residual reboiled liquid (called the bottoms product) is withdrawn, so that the tube bundle is kept covered with liquid.Image 1: Typical steam-heated kettle reboiler for distillation towers
So that it can maintain a vacuum on the condenser; and the U-drains, which drain back to the condenser, don't get sucked dry by the ejector set. The length of each leg of U-drain is specifically designed to maintain a certain vacuum at each position. The U-drains drain the condensate from the inter and after condensers and the gland seal condenser back to the main condenser. Water under a perfect vacuum will stand in a column 34 feet high (10.33 meters), which means a vacuum of 30 inches of mercury (762 mm) would draw everything out of a column that is not at least that high. It's to maintain the water seal on the U-drains to prevent air induction into the condenser.
Naphtha is a petroleum condensate, therefore it is a condensate, therefore they are both condensate.
Condensate is a noun.
The gas condensate is acidic. The acidity in the gas corrodes, therefore, forming sulphurised condensate droplets. Heating desulphurised the gas condensate.
Yes. Dew is a condensate.
A steam trap is meant to remove condensate if it is working properly. If not, condensate will get backed up.
The answer will depend on what the condensate is of.
What type of condensate are you asking about? air conditioning
condensate,bleed line of all condensate
Veq = 133000*(Condensate specific gr/Mol wt of condensate) in SCF/STB Where, Mol wt of condensate = 6084/(API-5.9)
There are a number of places where a condensate pump can be purchased. Sites such as Saniflo, Creative Pumps and Little Giant Pump all stock condensate pumps.
The one who discovered fermionic condensate was Deborah S. Jin and her team.
bose einstein condensate 5th fermionic condensate 6th