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When the outermost energy level is filled, the atom is stable. Nature always tries to achieve stability.

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12y ago
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11y ago

it completes its outer orbitals in order to be stable . everything tends to be in stable state and so the atom.

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The purpose is to have the last level with 8 electrons.

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Q: What do atoms want to have for their outer energy level?
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Why would an atom want to form bonds with other atoms?

Bonds are formed between two atoms because that results in a more stable state for the atoms. This is a result of electron configuration where most atoms want to have 8 electrons in their outer-most orbital (there are exceptions to this rule, however).

Why do atoms want to gain or lose electrons in the first place?

The theory is that some electrons are only weakly held to their atoms (they are in an outer electron shell). Some other atoms have an outer electron shell that is not fully complete and is able to attract electrons away from atoms that have loosely-held ones. Both these atoms then become ions, one charged positvely (having lost an electron) and some negatively (having gained one).

What happens to valence electrons when non-metal atoms bond?

When non-metals bond together, they share electrons. This is called a covalent bond. By sharing pairs of electrons, two or more different atoms can claim they have 8 electrons in their outer energy level, which gives them noble gas configuration, which they all want. If they share one pair of electrons, it's a single covalent bond. Two pairs is a double, and three pairs is a triple. Whatever it takes to get to 8.

Why are group 8 nobel gases the most stable?

Noble gases have complete octet / duptet (in case of Helium) which makes them inert to bond making. They have a full outer shell, so thus do not have to give or take an electron, and are the most stable because all atoms want a full outer shell, and these atoms in group 8 all have a full outer shell.

Can you combine a tin ion and lead ion to make an ionic compound?

Metals form ionic compounds with non-metals. All atoms want to achieve their lowest possible energy, and the easiest way to do so for most metal atoms is to donate their outer electrons in a reaction. The opposite is true of non-metals. The easiest way for them to achieve a stable energy level is by accepting electrons. So, when a metal atom and a non-metal atom share the same space and are given energy to react, the metal atom will donate electrons and the non-metal atom will accept. You can see their is a conflict when you want to metal atoms to do the same thing with each other. Both atoms want to give electrons to the other, so what ends up happening is the two atoms end up sharing their electrons with each other and any nearby metal atom. This is called a metallic bond. So when you mix lead and tin, there are actually no ions formed. They just form a mixture of the two kinds of metals, and depending on the temperature and ratio of lead to tin, form a homogeneous solution.

Related questions

What are atoms valence electrons?

the electrons on their outer shell, all atoms want to gain a full valence shell.

Why do atoms want to form chemical bonds?

So they can have a full outer shell.

How many electrons does an oxygen atom want to have in its outer sell?

"Want" is a word you should try to avoid when talking about atoms. Oxygen reacts to get a full outer shell of 8.

Why is eight the maximum number of electrons any atom can have?

It isn't. Electrons surrounding atoms are arranged in energy levels. Each energy level can carry a certain number of electrons. The innermost energy level can hold up to two electrons, the second and third levels have up to eight each, the fourth has a capacity of 16... If ever an atom (such as a noble gas) or an ion has a full outer shell, it is considered stable unreactive and, for want of a better word, "happy".

How many electrons do atoms want in their outermost energy level?

The answer is Valence Electrons. Atoms want a full number of electrons in their outer shell, which is why atoms with only one electron missing from their outer shell are most reactive, because they are close to completing that shell. Electrons as such are half-spin particles or fermions. A single particle electron orbital (intended as a solution of a 1-D Schrödinger equation) with occupancies 0 and 1 can have 2 allowed quantum states. Electrons are seen as indistinguishable particles in quantum mechanics. In other words electron 1 is the same as electron 2. We can then state that any electron of appropriate energy will be able to occupy the outermost shell of an element.

Why do atoms share electrons?

They share electrons when they try and corm covalent or ionic bonds. This is because the atoms want to gain a full outer shell. So when they share electrons they can have full shells.

Why would an atom want to form bonds with other atoms?

Bonds are formed between two atoms because that results in a more stable state for the atoms. This is a result of electron configuration where most atoms want to have 8 electrons in their outer-most orbital (there are exceptions to this rule, however).

Why does carbon want to bond with other atoms?

Since a carbon atom has 4 electrons in its outer shell, it does not have the stable arrangement of 8, which it can gain by sharing electrons with other atoms.

Which of the semi-metals that have their valence electrons in the fouirth energy level has the largest ionizatiuon energy?

Arsenic (As)The semi-metals are Boron, Silicon, Germanium, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium, and Polonium. The fourth energy level is simply four down the rows. This means the semi-metals that have their fourth energy level are Germanium and Arsenic. Since Arsenic has more electrons in it's outer shell, it will not want to give away electrons as much as Germanium.

Which best explains why the noble gases are chemically unreactive?

because the most an atom can have in its outer energy level for electrons is 8 and noble gases have 8 the do not want to react because they want to keep the "octet". reacting means gaining or losing electrons

How the electrons are arranged around nucleus an how they affect its reactivity?

Electrons are arranged in electron clouds around the nucleus. The reactivity is determined by the number of valence electrons, or electrons in the outermost energy levels. All atoms (except for hydrogen who wants 2 electrons and boron who wants 6) want 8 valence electrons, or a full outer energy level. This makes them stable (like the noble gases). If an atom has 1 valence electron it will desperately want to lose that electron while an atom with 7 electrons will want to gain one electron. All atoms have the goal of 8 valence electrons. Also, the 1st energy level only has 2 electrons. After that there is 8 electrons (approximately, because you can never truly determine where an electron is inside of an atom at any given time).

Why do atoms form compounds?

Why do certain atoms combine to form a compound