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In physics and chemistry, entropy is defined as the 'unavailability' of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, or the conversion of energy into this unavailable state. Excess entropy means that there's much more energy being wasted in this manner.

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โˆ™ 2014-10-07 01:01:13
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Q: What is a good basic definition for excess entropy?
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Why does the production of heat increase entropy?

The third law of thermodynamics states that as you tend towards absolute 0, entropy tends towards 0. This works both ways. As you tend towards higher temperatures, you tend towards a higher entropy. This is only a brief understanding. To learn more about it in depth there is a good source of info at the related link at the foot of the page.

Why is entropy described as an extensive property?

Entropy says that any closed system will become more disordered over time. If there are only a small number of parts in the system (say 3), then there is 1 correct order (123), and 5 incorrect orders (132, 213, 231, 312, 321). If the system randomly changes order, there's still a good chance of it changing from a disordered state to an ordered state. That would make entropy wrong. However, in a system with billions of variables, the chance of returning to an ordered state is negligible. In a system like this, you can count on the rule of entropy. That's why entropy depends on the amount of parts in a system.

What is the escape of gas molecules from the surface of a liquid?

That's a good definition of 'evaporation'.

Examples of entropy?

There are macroscopic and microscopic examples of increasing entropy, all of which are also examples of increasing disorder and randomness. Macroscopic: Watch yourself get old. Break something. Watch your tea get cold. In the study of thermodynamics and quantitative science, the examples usually involve the rearrangements of atoms and molecules inside matter and the change in entropy is given by dS=dQ/T. A good example is the melting of an ice cube. dQ is the energy (heat) it takes to melt the ice cube. (dQ=3334 Jules per gram or about 80 calories per gram). T is the absolute temperature of melting ice, usually 273 K. Now, this is not the whole story since the volume of the water and ice are different in normal daily life, and there are complexities of thermodynamics that are being skipped. Even so, ice melts, randomness of water molecules increases and entropy of the water increases. Another microscopic example can be given when you create magnetism in a metal like iron and the internal organization is made more organized and entropy of the iron decreases. (Or course, total entropy always increases, so entropy of the magnetization creating process must increase or it must give off heat.)

What makes a good chemistry teacher?

1- basic knowledge of subject, 2- grip on the topic and 3- way of expression.

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